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American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease

Rohan V Shah, Kinjan P Patel, Christopher Manion, Ashok Runkana, Ali Hama Amin, Abnash Jain
Baroreflex failure is a rare cause of syncope and labile blood pressures. Here, we present a case of baroreflex failure in a patient with history of nasopharyngeal cancer, status-post neck radiation. A 76-year-old male presented from an outside facility for possible pacemaker placement as he was found to have symptomatic third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. The AV block resolved following discontinuation of the patient's his verapamil. The patient then developed labile blood pressures. A work-up for secondary causes of hypertension was negative, but due to the patient's neck radiation history, it was suggested that the labile blood pressures were due to baroreflex failure...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Lindsey E Miller
The development of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are associated with chronic inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, leading to increased inflammatory cytokine expression, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Interventions to reduce each of these factors have been demonstrated to reduce the development of CVD. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring compound that demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects in humans and various animal and cell culture models...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Quan Wang, Zhi-Gang He, Shun-Yuan Li, Mao-Hui Feng, Hong-Bing Xiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a warm-up period of imaging research, several modalities of positron emission tomography (PET) are under development for evaluating ischemic heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several types of well-documented stem/progenitor PET imaging have been utilized for changes in myocardial blood flow and carbohydrate metabolism. Some recent experimental and human studies reported that these data may have beneficial effects on cardiac research. SUMMARY: Although the role of PET in the pathology of ischemic heart disease has not been sufficiently elucidated, many studies attempting imaging research of myocardial metabolism and neural regulation have been reported...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Rafael Ob de Morais, Ândrea V Chaves-Markman, Anna Pp Miranda, Ingrid G Amorim, Maria da Ga de M Cavalcanti, Manuel Markman, Brivaldo Markman-Filho
BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by an insufficient activity of the acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme. The incidence varies from 1:40000 to 1:200000 live births and cardiac involvement in adults is rare. Chagas disease is an infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, in which one-third of the cases progress to the chronic form, and may lead to cardiac involvement, usually from the fifth decade of life onwards...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Chris Morgan, Andreas Kyvernitakis, Roy Cho, Orestis Pappas, Karthikeyan Ranganathan, Michael R Fischer, Venkatraman Srinivasan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low serum 25-OH D levels are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have linked 25-OH D deficiency with the presence of CAD. Women, especially post-menopausal, tend to suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis, along with vitamin D deficiency. In the present study we sought to investigate whether there is a direct association of coronary artery luminal stenosis with 25-OH D deficiency in women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled women aged >40 who were scheduled to undergo elective coronary angiography between 3/2011 and 10/2016 in a prospective observational study...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Tiago Pereira-da-Silva, Madalena Coutinho Cruz, Catarina Carrusca, Rui Cruz Ferreira, Patrícia Napoleão, Miguel Mota Carmo
AIMS: Atherosclerosis is associated with altered circulating microRNA profiles. It is yet unclear whether the expression of these potential biomarkers differs according to the location of atherosclerosis. We assessed whether atherosclerosis of different arterial territories, except the coronary, is associated with specific circulating microRNA profiles. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was carried out using a retrieval strategy including MESH and non-MSH terms...
2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Casey A Reihe, Nickolas Pekas, Penglong Wu, Xuejun Wang
Beyond helping the cell survive from energy starvation via self-eating a portion of cytoplasm, macroautophagy is also capable of targeted removal of defective organelles or cytoplasmic aberrant protein aggregates, thereby playing an important role in quality control in the cell. Impaired or suppressed macroautophagy activity is associated with the progression from a large subset of heart diseases to heart failure and with the development of the vast majority of, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases, the leading causes of death and disability in humans...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Anwar Santoso, Rido Maulana, Fatimah Alzahra, Irma Maghfirah, Agnes Dinar Putrinarita, Teuku Heriansyah
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that some types of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G7 genes, encoding Lp-PLA2 have been reported to yield an antiatherogenic effect, but other studies mentioned otherwise. Thus, a comprehensive study to explore the effect of SNPs in PLA2G7 genes (V279F, A379V, R92H, I198T) toward clinical atherosclerosis is needed. METHODS: We searched eligible studies from PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Springer, and Cochrane databases for case-control studies to assess the between four types of SNPs in PLA2G7 gene with risk of clinical atherosclerosis (CVD = cardiovascular disease, CAD = coronary artery disease, PAD = peripheral artery disease, ischemic stroke)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Aaron R Folsom, Abayomi Oyenuga, Christie M Ballantyne, Pamela L Lutsey, Weihong Tang
Galectin-3, a β-galactosidase binding lectin, known to be involved in inflammatory processes may be associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) incidence. We examined the prospective association between plasma galectin-3 and incident AAA in 9,704 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort. We followed participants from 1996-1998 through 2011 (124,260 person-years) for incident AAA (n=325) defined by ICD codes from hospital records and death certificates. At baseline, participants had a mean (SD) age of 62...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Aws Almufleh, Jeffrey Marbach, Sharon Chih, Ellamae Stadnick, Ross Davies, Peter Liu, Lisa Mielniczuk
BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/Valsartan has been shown to improve mortality and reduce hospitalizations in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on ejection fraction (EF) and reverse remodeling parameters have not been previously described. METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of HFrEF patients (n=48) who were treated with Sacubitril/Valsartan for a median duration of 3 months (Interquartile range 2-6 months)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Andre R Duraes, Yasmin Sl Bitar, Ana Carolina T Freitas, Ivan Mp Filho, Beatriz C Freitas, Andre Ms Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Delays in attending to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are indicators or markers of quality of health services. Several records suggest gender disparity in cardiac care as a contributor to the increased mortality among women. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled all consecutive STEMI patients who were transferred to our hospital from January through December 2015. The following variables were analyzed: Symptom-to-Door Time (SDT); Time to First ECG (TECG); Transfer Time to Referring Center (TTRC); and Door-to-Cath lab time (DCT)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
George Degheim, Abeer Berry, Marcel Zughaib
A 57 year old gentleman with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with worsening lower extremity edema and dyspnea on exertion. He had been compliant with his medications including rivaroxaban (Xarelto) for atrial fibrillation that he takes with the evening meal daily. His echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 10-15% and a new left ventricle (LV) apical thrombus. During his hospital stay, he developed right sided weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a subacute infarct involving the left parietal lobe...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Qiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
[This corrects the article on p. 33 in vol. 7, PMID: 28533928.].
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Yan-Bo Wang, Xiang-Hua Fu, Xin-Shun Gu, Wei-Ze Fan, Yun-Fa Jiang, Guo-Zhen Hao, Qing Miao, Jie Cao, Bing Fu, Yi Li
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of intensive pitavastatin therapy on glucose control in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Patients who had ACS with significant stenosis on initial coronary angiography and received successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China from August 2015 to January 2016 were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized to receive pitavastatin (4 mg daily) or atorvastatin (20 mg daily)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Nádia F Garcia, Amanda Cs Sponton, Maria A Delbin, Juliana M Parente, Michele M Castro, Angelina Zanesco, Camila de Moraes
Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL-/- mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shuo Li, Kang Guo, Junfang Wu, Zhikun Guo, Airong Li
A small number of cardiac stem cells that express the c-Kit and Nanog biomarkers can be differentiated into myocardial cells, which suggests that these stem cells may be able to repair damage and provide an internal reserve for tissue regeneration. It is unknown, however, whether the levels of myocardial stem cells are altered after heart failure (HF), and whether HF affects the myocardial regenerative ability. In this study, to address this question, we developed a rat model of chronic HF induced by Adriamycin, and examined the morphological changes in c-Kit and Nanog-expressing stem cells in heart tissue of normal and HF rats...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Kinjan P Patel, Peter D Farjo, Joy J Juskowich, Ali Hama Amin, James D Mills
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shey Mukundan, Mark I Travin, Jeffrey M Levsky, Matthew P Liakos, Daniel M Spevack
BACKGROUND: Ischemic burden observed during stress testing has been postulated to predict prognosis irrespective of anatomic atherosclerotic burden observed on angiography. However, it is not known if the stress test result influences the long-term prognosis of subjects with diffuse coronary artery disease. We sought to determine the prognostic importance of stress test false negativity amongst patients with severe multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing stress testing in the previous decade...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD+ , the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Peter Adegbola, Ifewumi Aderibigbe, Wasiu Hammed, Tolulope Omotayo
Cardiovascular disease is a compound name for clusters of disorders afflicting the heart and blood vessels; it is assuming an increasing role as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy practices such as smoking, high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity are predisposing factors. The risk factors cause alteration in vascular integrity, compromised membrane integrity, increase free radical generation and reduced endogenous antioxidant system resulting in oxidative stress...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
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