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American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease

Casey A Reihe, Nickolas Pekas, Penglong Wu, Xuejun Wang
Beyond helping the cell survive from energy starvation via self-eating a portion of cytoplasm, macroautophagy is also capable of targeted removal of defective organelles or cytoplasmic aberrant protein aggregates, thereby playing an important role in quality control in the cell. Impaired or suppressed macroautophagy activity is associated with the progression from a large subset of heart diseases to heart failure and with the development of the vast majority of, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases, the leading causes of death and disability in humans...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Anwar Santoso, Rido Maulana, Fatimah Alzahra, Irma Maghfirah, Agnes Dinar Putrinarita, Teuku Heriansyah
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that some types of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G7 genes, encoding Lp-PLA2 have been reported to yield an antiatherogenic effect, but other studies mentioned otherwise. Thus, a comprehensive study to explore the effect of SNPs in PLA2G7 genes (V279F, A379V, R92H, I198T) toward clinical atherosclerosis is needed. METHODS: We searched eligible studies from PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Springer, and Cochrane databases for case-control studies to assess the between four types of SNPs in PLA2G7 gene with risk of clinical atherosclerosis (CVD = cardiovascular disease, CAD = coronary artery disease, PAD = peripheral artery disease, ischemic stroke)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Aaron R Folsom, Abayomi Oyenuga, Christie M Ballantyne, Pamela L Lutsey, Weihong Tang
Galectin-3, a β-galactosidase binding lectin, known to be involved in inflammatory processes may be associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) incidence. We examined the prospective association between plasma galectin-3 and incident AAA in 9,704 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort. We followed participants from 1996-1998 through 2011 (124,260 person-years) for incident AAA (n=325) defined by ICD codes from hospital records and death certificates. At baseline, participants had a mean (SD) age of 62...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Aws Almufleh, Jeffrey Marbach, Sharon Chih, Ellamae Stadnick, Ross Davies, Peter Liu, Lisa Mielniczuk
BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/Valsartan has been shown to improve mortality and reduce hospitalizations in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on ejection fraction (EF) and reverse remodeling parameters have not been previously described. METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of HFrEF patients (n=48) who were treated with Sacubitril/Valsartan for a median duration of 3 months (Interquartile range 2-6 months)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Andre R Duraes, Yasmin Sl Bitar, Ana Carolina T Freitas, Ivan Mp Filho, Beatriz C Freitas, Andre Ms Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Delays in attending to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are indicators or markers of quality of health services. Several records suggest gender disparity in cardiac care as a contributor to the increased mortality among women. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled all consecutive STEMI patients who were transferred to our hospital from January through December 2015. The following variables were analyzed: Symptom-to-Door Time (SDT); Time to First ECG (TECG); Transfer Time to Referring Center (TTRC); and Door-to-Cath lab time (DCT)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
George Degheim, Abeer Berry, Marcel Zughaib
A 57 year old gentleman with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with worsening lower extremity edema and dyspnea on exertion. He had been compliant with his medications including rivaroxaban (Xarelto) for atrial fibrillation that he takes with the evening meal daily. His echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction of 10-15% and a new left ventricle (LV) apical thrombus. During his hospital stay, he developed right sided weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a subacute infarct involving the left parietal lobe...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Qiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
[This corrects the article on p. 33 in vol. 7, PMID: 28533928.].
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Yan-Bo Wang, Xiang-Hua Fu, Xin-Shun Gu, Wei-Ze Fan, Yun-Fa Jiang, Guo-Zhen Hao, Qing Miao, Jie Cao, Bing Fu, Yi Li
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of intensive pitavastatin therapy on glucose control in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Patients who had ACS with significant stenosis on initial coronary angiography and received successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China from August 2015 to January 2016 were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized to receive pitavastatin (4 mg daily) or atorvastatin (20 mg daily)...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Nádia F Garcia, Amanda Cs Sponton, Maria A Delbin, Juliana M Parente, Michele M Castro, Angelina Zanesco, Camila de Moraes
Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL-/- mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shuo Li, Kang Guo, Junfang Wu, Zhikun Guo, Airong Li
A small number of cardiac stem cells that express the c-Kit and Nanog biomarkers can be differentiated into myocardial cells, which suggests that these stem cells may be able to repair damage and provide an internal reserve for tissue regeneration. It is unknown, however, whether the levels of myocardial stem cells are altered after heart failure (HF), and whether HF affects the myocardial regenerative ability. In this study, to address this question, we developed a rat model of chronic HF induced by Adriamycin, and examined the morphological changes in c-Kit and Nanog-expressing stem cells in heart tissue of normal and HF rats...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Kinjan P Patel, Peter D Farjo, Joy J Juskowich, Ali Hama Amin, James D Mills
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shey Mukundan, Mark I Travin, Jeffrey M Levsky, Matthew P Liakos, Daniel M Spevack
BACKGROUND: Ischemic burden observed during stress testing has been postulated to predict prognosis irrespective of anatomic atherosclerotic burden observed on angiography. However, it is not known if the stress test result influences the long-term prognosis of subjects with diffuse coronary artery disease. We sought to determine the prognostic importance of stress test false negativity amongst patients with severe multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing stress testing in the previous decade...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Peter Adegbola, Ifewumi Aderibigbe, Wasiu Hammed, Tolulope Omotayo
Cardiovascular disease is a compound name for clusters of disorders afflicting the heart and blood vessels; it is assuming an increasing role as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy practices such as smoking, high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity are predisposing factors. The risk factors cause alteration in vascular integrity, compromised membrane integrity, increase free radical generation and reduced endogenous antioxidant system resulting in oxidative stress...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Marco Spartera, Cosmo Godino, Elena Baldissera, Corrado Campochiaro, Ketty La Spina, Patrizia Aiello, Anna Salerno, Michela Cera, Valeria Magni, Richard J Jabbour, Lorenzo Dagna, Moreno Tresoldi, Alberto Cappelletti, Ottavio Alfieri, Antonio Colombo, Maria Grazia Sabbadini, Alberto Margonato
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with high morbidity and mortality predominately due to increased cardiovascular risk. Few reports are available regarding the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in RA patients and the long-term clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive patients with RA were identified by retrospective review at a rheumatology tertiary center in Milan, Italy between 2001 and 2013...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Xinshun Gu, Xianghua Fu, Yanbo Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Weize Fan, Yunfa Jiang, Guozhen Hao, Qing Miao, Yi Li, Wei Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel on the platelet functions in patients with inadequate response to clopidogrel. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized and controlled study, patients who had been diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with inadequate response to clopidogrel in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from July 2015 to June 2016 were enrolled. Inadequate response to clopidogrel was defined as absolute reduction of platelet aggregation rate (PAR) <30% or PAR >70%...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shujie Yu, Xianguan Yu, Bin Zhou, Dinghui Liu, Min Wang, Hui Zhang, Xiaoxian Qian
Tsutsugamushi disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi in which humans are accidental hosts. Infective endocarditis associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamushi disease presenting with aortic valve endocarditis. The clinical data of a 67-year-old female with O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Treatment of O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis with chloramphenicol is recommended...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Li Ma, Yanhong Li, Zhisheng Wu, Yuming Mu
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography. A total of 277 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected CAD were recruited in this study. For all subjects, the R-R interval was quantified using simultaneous ECG, and the times to peak systolic longitudinal strain (Tssl) on 17 LV segments were quantified using four-dimensional (4D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and manually measured...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shunsuke Takagi, Taku Inohara, Dai Kusumoto, Takashi Matsubara
A 74-year-old man underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thirteen years later, he presented with complaints of exertional anterior chest oppression again. Computed tomography coronary angiography revealed the significant stenosis at the mid right coronary artery (RCA). In addition, a giant proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) was found. We did not observe this aneurysm on his previous coronary angiogram, performed 12 years previously (i.e., 1 year after his surgery)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Caroline F Zhao, David M Herrington
Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes typically located within the lysosomes of macrophages. Once released, they can enhance the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis. Cathepsin X aids in the migration of T-lymphocytes and the release of cytokines. Cathepsin D modifies low-density lipoprotein to promote its uptake by macrophages and its subsequent foam cell formation. Furthermore, cathepsin D regulates apoptosis. Cathepsin B degrades the extracellular matrix within the arterial intima. Together, they increase plaque vulnerability...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
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