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American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533932/metabolic-parameters-and-responsiveness-of-isolated-iliac-artery-in-ldlr-mice-role-of-aerobic-exercise-training
#1
Nádia F Garcia, Amanda Cs Sponton, Maria A Delbin, Juliana M Parente, Michele M Castro, Angelina Zanesco, Camila de Moraes
Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL(-/-) mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533931/altered-expression-of-c-kit-and-nanog-in-a-rat-model-of-adriamycin-induced-chronic-heart-failure
#2
Shuo Li, Kang Guo, Junfang Wu, Zhikun Guo, Airong Li
A small number of cardiac stem cells that express the c-Kit and Nanog biomarkers can be differentiated into myocardial cells, which suggests that these stem cells may be able to repair damage and provide an internal reserve for tissue regeneration. It is unknown, however, whether the levels of myocardial stem cells are altered after heart failure (HF), and whether HF affects the myocardial regenerative ability. In this study, to address this question, we developed a rat model of chronic HF induced by Adriamycin, and examined the morphological changes in c-Kit and Nanog-expressing stem cells in heart tissue of normal and HF rats...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533930/early-onset-lyme-carditis-with-concurrent-disseminated-erythema-migrans
#3
Kinjan P Patel, Peter D Farjo, Joy J Juskowich, Ali Hama Amin, James D Mills
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533929/does-ischemic-burden-on-stress-testing-influence-patient-survival-in-subjects-with-known-severe-multi-vessel-cad
#4
Shey Mukundan, Mark I Travin, Jeffrey M Levsky, Matthew P Liakos, Daniel M Spevack
BACKGROUND: Ischemic burden observed during stress testing has been postulated to predict prognosis irrespective of anatomic atherosclerotic burden observed on angiography. However, it is not known if the stress test result influences the long-term prognosis of subjects with diffuse coronary artery disease. We sought to determine the prognostic importance of stress test false negativity amongst patients with severe multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing stress testing in the previous decade...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533928/leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#5
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533927/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-medicinal-plants-have-potential-role-in-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Peter Adegbola, Ifewumi Aderibigbe, Wasiu Hammed, Tolulope Omotayo
Cardiovascular disease is a compound name for clusters of disorders afflicting the heart and blood vessels; it is assuming an increasing role as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Unhealthy practices such as smoking, high intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity are predisposing factors. The risk factors cause alteration in vascular integrity, compromised membrane integrity, increase free radical generation and reduced endogenous antioxidant system resulting in oxidative stress...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337386/long-term-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-concomitant-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Marco Spartera, Cosmo Godino, Elena Baldissera, Corrado Campochiaro, Ketty La Spina, Patrizia Aiello, Anna Salerno, Michela Cera, Valeria Magni, Richard J Jabbour, Lorenzo Dagna, Moreno Tresoldi, Alberto Cappelletti, Ottavio Alfieri, Antonio Colombo, Maria Grazia Sabbadini, Alberto Margonato
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with high morbidity and mortality predominately due to increased cardiovascular risk. Few reports are available regarding the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in RA patients and the long-term clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive patients with RA were identified by retrospective review at a rheumatology tertiary center in Milan, Italy between 2001 and 2013...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337385/comparison-of-ticagrelor-and-high-dose-clopidogrel-on-the-platelet-functions-in-patients-with-inadequate-response-to-clopidogrel
#8
Xinshun Gu, Xianghua Fu, Yanbo Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Weize Fan, Yunfa Jiang, Guozhen Hao, Qing Miao, Yi Li, Wei Zhi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of ticagrelor and high-dose clopidogrel on the platelet functions in patients with inadequate response to clopidogrel. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized and controlled study, patients who had been diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with inadequate response to clopidogrel in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from July 2015 to June 2016 were enrolled. Inadequate response to clopidogrel was defined as absolute reduction of platelet aggregation rate (PAR) <30% or PAR >70%...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078179/tsutsugamushi-disease-presenting-with-aortic-valve-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Shujie Yu, Xianguan Yu, Bin Zhou, Dinghui Liu, Min Wang, Hui Zhang, Xiaoxian Qian
Tsutsugamushi disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi in which humans are accidental hosts. Infective endocarditis associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamushi disease presenting with aortic valve endocarditis. The clinical data of a 67-year-old female with O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Treatment of O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis with chloramphenicol is recommended...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078178/relationship-between-r-r-interval-and-left-ventricular-systolic-synchrony-in-subjects-with-coronary-artery-disease-determined-using-angiography
#10
Li Ma, Yanhong Li, Zhisheng Wu, Yuming Mu
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography. A total of 277 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected CAD were recruited in this study. For all subjects, the R-R interval was quantified using simultaneous ECG, and the times to peak systolic longitudinal strain (Tssl) on 17 LV segments were quantified using four-dimensional (4D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and manually measured...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078177/generation-of-a-giant-coronary-artery-aneurysm-from-an-intra-plaque-cavity-with-a-ruptured-fibrous-cap-an-observation-over-time-through-coronary-angiography
#11
Shunsuke Takagi, Taku Inohara, Dai Kusumoto, Takashi Matsubara
A 74-year-old man underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thirteen years later, he presented with complaints of exertional anterior chest oppression again. Computed tomography coronary angiography revealed the significant stenosis at the mid right coronary artery (RCA). In addition, a giant proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) was found. We did not observe this aneurysm on his previous coronary angiogram, performed 12 years previously (i.e., 1 year after his surgery)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078176/the-function-of-cathepsins-b-d-and-x-in-atherosclerosis
#12
Caroline F Zhao, David M Herrington
Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes typically located within the lysosomes of macrophages. Once released, they can enhance the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis. Cathepsin X aids in the migration of T-lymphocytes and the release of cytokines. Cathepsin D modifies low-density lipoprotein to promote its uptake by macrophages and its subsequent foam cell formation. Furthermore, cathepsin D regulates apoptosis. Cathepsin B degrades the extracellular matrix within the arterial intima. Together, they increase plaque vulnerability...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078175/effects-of-sitagliptin-on-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-serial-integrated-backscatter-intravascular-ultrasound-study
#13
Tsuyoshi Nozue, Kazuki Fukui, Yutaka Koyama, Hiroyuki Fujii, Tomoyuki Kunishima, Hiroyuki Hikita, Kiyoshi Hibi, Akiyoshi Miyazawa, Ichiro Michishita, For The Trust Investigators
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects in an animal model. However, the clinical usefulness of DPP-4 inhibitors, particularly its effects on coronary atherosclerosis, has not been evaluated thus far. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on coronary atherosclerosis using integrated backscatter (IB)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. This trial was a prospective, open-labeled, randomized, multicenter study...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078174/influence-of-different-doses-of-coffee-on-post-exercise-blood-pressure-response
#14
Alesandra A Souza, Raquel Sb Silva, Tais F Silva, Renata L Tavares, Alexandre S Silva
The reduction in blood pressure after the physical exercise practice is called postexercise hypotension (PEH). Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of caffeine at levels corresponding to three doses of coffee eliminates this phenomenon. Thus, we evaluated the influence of different doses of coffee in the PEH in twelve hypertensives, who performed four experimental sessions of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer (lasting 40 minutes, with intensity between 60% and 80% of maximum heart rate), followed by the ingestion of one (CAF-1), two (CAF-2), or three (CAF-3) doses of caffeinated coffee, or three doses of decaffeinated coffee (DESC)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078173/screening-of-smad7-in-malay-patients-with-ventricular-septal-defect
#15
Siti Aisyah Faten Mohamed Sa'dom, Hashima Hashim, Sathiya Maran, Mohd Rizal Mohd Zain, Wan Pauzi Wan Ibrahim, Abdul Rahim Wong, Antonio F Corno, Wan Rohani Wan Taib, Huay Lin Tan
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common form of cardiac malformations accounting approximately 20% of all congenital heart defects. SMAD7 is an inhibitory protein that antagonizes the signalling of TGF-β family member and has been found in the development and function of mouse heart models. This study aims to screen and identify the polymorphisms of SMAD7 exonic regions in Malay population with VSD. Peripheral blood samples were collected and extracted from 30 clinically diagnosed VSD patients. PCR amplification was performed using 12 sets of designed primers encompassing seven exons of SMAD7...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679747/diabetic-indicators-are-the-strongest-predictors-for-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-african-american-adults
#16
Ashley N Carter, Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Jasminka Z Ilich
African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679746/angiotensin-type-2-receptor-at2r-activation-induces-hypotension-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-by-activating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE
#17
Ming Li, Thor Tejada, Jonathan P Lambert, Chad K Nicholson, Eiji Yahiro, Vats T Ambai, Syeda F Ali, Eddie W Bradley, Robert M Graham, Louis J Dell'Italia, John W Calvert, Nawazish Naqvi
Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates blood pressure and atherosclerosis development through its vascular type-1 (AT1R) and type-2 (AT2R) receptors, which have opposing effects. AT2R activation produces hypotension, and is anti-atherogenic. Targeted overexpression of AT2Rs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicates that these effects are due to increased nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, the role of endogenous VSMC AT2Rs in these events is unknown. Effect of 7-day low-dose Ang II-infusion (12 µg/kg/hr) on blood pressure was tested in 9-week-old apoE((-/-)) mice fed a low or high cholesterol diet (LCD or HCD, respectively)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679745/documentation-of-various-approaches-and-outcomes-in-patients-on-warfarin-undergoing-dental-procedures-a-review-article
#18
Fayez El Shaer, Ismael Raslan, Nora Al Osaimi, Ghada Bawazeer, Fhakr Alayobi, Tarek Alhogbani, Suliman Kharabsheh, Walid Al Habeeb
Appropriate management of patients with mechanical prosthetic valves on warfarin during dental procedures is crucial. If the patients continue warfarin, they might develop bleeding, while interruption of therapy can cause thromboembolic events. Bridging therapy (mostly heparin) is used in some patients, while others stop medications. There is no unifying protocol. Information on management of patients on warfarin undergoing dental procedures in Saudi Arabia is lacking. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide more insight into various approaches utilized by clinicians to deal with such patients at a large teaching hospital in Riyadh, and to evaluate the frequency and severity of bleeding and thromboembolic complications during different types of dental procedures in this population...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679744/critical-role-of-mitochondrial-ros-is-dependent-on-their-site-of-production-on-the-electron-transport-chain-in-ischemic-heart
#19
Ngonidzashe B Madungwe, Netanel F Zilberstein, Yansheng Feng, Jean C Bopassa
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679743/myocardial-energetics-and-the-role-of-micronutrients-in-heart-failure-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Ang-Peng Wong, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
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