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American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease

Shujie Yu, Xianguan Yu, Bin Zhou, Dinghui Liu, Min Wang, Hui Zhang, Xiaoxian Qian
Tsutsugamushi disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi in which humans are accidental hosts. Infective endocarditis associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamushi disease presenting with aortic valve endocarditis. The clinical data of a 67-year-old female with O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Treatment of O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis with chloramphenicol is recommended...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Li Ma, Yanhong Li, Zhisheng Wu, Yuming Mu
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between R-R interval and left ventricular systolic synchrony in subjects with coronary artery disease determined using angiography. A total of 277 subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected CAD were recruited in this study. For all subjects, the R-R interval was quantified using simultaneous ECG, and the times to peak systolic longitudinal strain (Tssl) on 17 LV segments were quantified using four-dimensional (4D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and manually measured...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Shunsuke Takagi, Taku Inohara, Dai Kusumoto, Takashi Matsubara
A 74-year-old man underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thirteen years later, he presented with complaints of exertional anterior chest oppression again. Computed tomography coronary angiography revealed the significant stenosis at the mid right coronary artery (RCA). In addition, a giant proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) was found. We did not observe this aneurysm on his previous coronary angiogram, performed 12 years previously (i.e., 1 year after his surgery)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Caroline F Zhao, David M Herrington
Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes typically located within the lysosomes of macrophages. Once released, they can enhance the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis. Cathepsin X aids in the migration of T-lymphocytes and the release of cytokines. Cathepsin D modifies low-density lipoprotein to promote its uptake by macrophages and its subsequent foam cell formation. Furthermore, cathepsin D regulates apoptosis. Cathepsin B degrades the extracellular matrix within the arterial intima. Together, they increase plaque vulnerability...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Tsuyoshi Nozue, Kazuki Fukui, Yutaka Koyama, Hiroyuki Fujii, Tomoyuki Kunishima, Hiroyuki Hikita, Kiyoshi Hibi, Akiyoshi Miyazawa, Ichiro Michishita, For The Trust Investigators
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects in an animal model. However, the clinical usefulness of DPP-4 inhibitors, particularly its effects on coronary atherosclerosis, has not been evaluated thus far. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on coronary atherosclerosis using integrated backscatter (IB)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in patients with type 2 diabetes. This trial was a prospective, open-labeled, randomized, multicenter study...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Alesandra A Souza, Raquel Sb Silva, Tais F Silva, Renata L Tavares, Alexandre S Silva
The reduction in blood pressure after the physical exercise practice is called postexercise hypotension (PEH). Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of caffeine at levels corresponding to three doses of coffee eliminates this phenomenon. Thus, we evaluated the influence of different doses of coffee in the PEH in twelve hypertensives, who performed four experimental sessions of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer (lasting 40 minutes, with intensity between 60% and 80% of maximum heart rate), followed by the ingestion of one (CAF-1), two (CAF-2), or three (CAF-3) doses of caffeinated coffee, or three doses of decaffeinated coffee (DESC)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Siti Aisyah Faten Mohamed Sa'dom, Hashima Hashim, Sathiya Maran, Mohd Rizal Mohd Zain, Wan Pauzi Wan Ibrahim, Abdul Rahim Wong, Antonio F Corno, Wan Rohani Wan Taib, Huay Lin Tan
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common form of cardiac malformations accounting approximately 20% of all congenital heart defects. SMAD7 is an inhibitory protein that antagonizes the signalling of TGF-β family member and has been found in the development and function of mouse heart models. This study aims to screen and identify the polymorphisms of SMAD7 exonic regions in Malay population with VSD. Peripheral blood samples were collected and extracted from 30 clinically diagnosed VSD patients. PCR amplification was performed using 12 sets of designed primers encompassing seven exons of SMAD7...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Ashley N Carter, Penny A Ralston, Iris Young-Clark, Jasminka Z Ilich
African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Ming Li, Thor Tejada, Jonathan P Lambert, Chad K Nicholson, Eiji Yahiro, Vats T Ambai, Syeda F Ali, Eddie W Bradley, Robert M Graham, Louis J Dell'Italia, John W Calvert, Nawazish Naqvi
Angiotensin II (Ang II) modulates blood pressure and atherosclerosis development through its vascular type-1 (AT1R) and type-2 (AT2R) receptors, which have opposing effects. AT2R activation produces hypotension, and is anti-atherogenic. Targeted overexpression of AT2Rs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicates that these effects are due to increased nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, the role of endogenous VSMC AT2Rs in these events is unknown. Effect of 7-day low-dose Ang II-infusion (12 µg/kg/hr) on blood pressure was tested in 9-week-old apoE((-/-)) mice fed a low or high cholesterol diet (LCD or HCD, respectively)...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Fayez El Shaer, Ismael Raslan, Nora Al Osaimi, Ghada Bawazeer, Fhakr Alayobi, Tarek Alhogbani, Suliman Kharabsheh, Walid Al Habeeb
Appropriate management of patients with mechanical prosthetic valves on warfarin during dental procedures is crucial. If the patients continue warfarin, they might develop bleeding, while interruption of therapy can cause thromboembolic events. Bridging therapy (mostly heparin) is used in some patients, while others stop medications. There is no unifying protocol. Information on management of patients on warfarin undergoing dental procedures in Saudi Arabia is lacking. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide more insight into various approaches utilized by clinicians to deal with such patients at a large teaching hospital in Riyadh, and to evaluate the frequency and severity of bleeding and thromboembolic complications during different types of dental procedures in this population...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Ngonidzashe B Madungwe, Netanel F Zilberstein, Yansheng Feng, Jean C Bopassa
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been implicated in many pathologies including ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This led to multiple studies on antioxidant therapies to treat cardiovascular diseases but paradoxically, results have so far been mixed as ROS production can be beneficial as a signaling mechanism and in cardiac protection via preconditioning interventions. We investigated whether the differential impact of increased ROS in injury as well as in protection could be explained by their site of production on the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Ang-Peng Wong, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Paula Camacho, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Jia-Qiang He
There is an urgent clinical need to develop new therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease, but the biology of cardiovascular regeneration is complex. Model systems are required to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis, progression, and mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease as well as to test therapeutic approaches to regenerate tissue and restore cardiac function following injury. An ideal model system should be inexpensive, easily manipulated, reproducible, physiologically representative of human disease, and ethically sound...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Yassamine Bentata, Ilham Karimi, Nawal Benabdellah, Fatiha El Alaoui, Intissar Haddiya, Redouane Abouqal
UNLABELLED: Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cigarette smoking is probably the most complex and the least understood among the risk factors for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of smoking on progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria and those without albuminuria...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Anneli Svensson, Meriam Åström-Aneq, Kjerstin Ferm Widlund, Christina Fluur, Anna Green, Malin Rehnberg, Cecilia Gunnarsson
In this study, the genotype-phenotype correlations in four unrelated families with a PKP2 c.2146-1G>C gene variant were studied. Our primary aim was to determine the carriers that fulfilled the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) diagnostic criteria of 2010. Our secondary aim was to investigate whether any specific clinical characteristics can be attributed to this particular gene variant. Index patients were assessed using next generation ARVC panel sequencing technique and their family members were assessed by Sanger sequencing targeted at the PKP2 c...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Kathryn F Cunningham, Gyda C Beeson, Craig C Beeson, Paul J McDermott
UNLABELLED: Estrogen-related Receptors (ERR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors that regulate expression of genes required for energy metabolism including mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While ERRα and EPPγ isoforms are known to share a wide array of target genes in the adult myocardium, the function of ERRβ has not been characterized in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ERRβ in regulating energy metabolism in adult cardiomyocytes in primary culture...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Flavia Rossi Caruso, Jose Carlos Bonjorno Junior, Renata G Mendes, Milena Pelosi Sperling, Vivian M Arakelian, Daniela Bassi, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
Resistance (RE) and aerobic exercise (AE) can promote hemodynamic, physiologic and clinical modifications in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. The aim of the study is to assess key physiologic and clinical responses during RE at 30% and 60% of 1-RM on a 45° leg press and to compare responses during AE. We evaluated fifteen male subjects with coronary artery disease (60.8±4.7 years) that performed the following tests: (1) incremental AE test on cycle ergometer; (2) 1-RM test on a leg press at 45°; (3) and RE at 30% and 60% of 1-RM for 24 repetitions...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Vadim Ivanov, Svetlana Ivanova, Tatiana Kalinovsky, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Xinghui Sun, Danny Wong
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent an important class of non-coding RNAs that plays key roles in regulating the expression of genes in health and disease. Accumulating genetic, experimental, and epidemiological studies highlight a growing list of lncRNAs that control glucose homeostasis and diabetic pathologies and complications. Through interactions with chromatin, RNA, and protein, lncRNAs modulate chromatin modification, mRNA stability, microRNA activity, and the function of proteins such as transcription factors...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Jared J Liebelt, Yuanquan Yang, Joseph J DeRose, Cynthia C Taub
Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a rare but devastating complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the incidence has decreased, the mortality rate from VSR has remained extremely high. The use of mechanical circulatory support with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be useful in providing hemodynamic stability and time for myocardial scarring. However, the optimal timing for surgical repair remains an enigma. Retrospective analysis of 14 consecutive patients diagnosed with VSR after AMI at Montefiore Medical Center between January 2009 and June 2015...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
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