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Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements

Liam S Carroll, Thomas H Massey, Mark Wardle, Kathryn J Peall
Background: Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by myoclonus, epilepsy, ataxia, and dementia. Diagnosis is challenging due to the heterogeneous presentation and symptomatic overlap with other spinocerebellar ataxias. Symptoms vary according to age of onset, with a mean age at onset of 31 years. A CAG repeat expansion in the ATN1 gene results in neuronal intranuclear inclusions, variable neuronal loss, and astrocytosis in the globus pallidus, dentate and red nuclei...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Jannik Prasuhn, Georg Royl, Klaus P Wandinger, Norbert Brüggemann, Alexander Neumann, Thomas F Münte
Background: Influenza A infections are a rare cause of movement disorders. Previously described patients have suffered from acute-onset myoclonus and/or dystonia or post-viral parkinsonism. Case Report: We present the case of a 74-year-old female patient with transient generalized chorea due to influenza A-mediated encephalopathy. Discussion: We discuss whether the clinical presentation and the magnetic resonance imaging changes may be attributable to cytokine-mediated encephalopathy or to direct cytotoxic effects of the virus...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ming-Kai Pan, Chun-Lun Ni, Yeuh-Chi Wu, Yong-Shi Li, Sheng-Han Kuo
Background: Tremor is the most common movement disorder; however, the pathophysiology of tremor remains elusive. While several neuropathological alterations in tremor disorders have been observed in post-mortem studies of human brains, a full understanding of the relationship between brain circuitry alterations and tremor requires testing in animal models. Additionally, tremor animal models are critical for our understanding of tremor pathophysiology, and/or to serve as a platform for therapy development...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ana Vives-Rodriguez, Christine Y Kim, Elan D Louis
Background: Primary writing tremor (PWT) is a rare condition; tremor occurs primarily while writing rather than during other tasks. Phenomenology Shown: We illustrate the phenomenology of PWT and point out associated subtle dystonic posturing on neurological examination. Educational Value: PWT is a tremor disorder that shares clinical features with both dystonia and essential tremor.
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Wei Hu, Zakia Jabarkheel, Syed Shah, Joseph Legacy, Kamilia Nozile Firth, Pam Zeilman, Kelly Foote, Michael S Okun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Pichet Termsarasab, Yuvadee Pitakpatapee, Steven J Frucht, Prachaya Srivanitchapoom
Background: Myoclonus and tremor are common movement disorder phenomenologies in steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT). Pure ataxia without encephalopathy has rarely been reported. Case report: We report 21- and 40-year-old females who presented with subacute pure ataxia without encephalopathy. After immunotherapies, both exhibited initial improvement of ataxia, and subsequently remained in plateau phase. Discussion: This treatable disorder should be added to the differential diagnoses of progressive cerebellar ataxia, and anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin should be considered as part of the workup...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Norma L Alvarado-Franco, Catalina Gonzalez-Marques, Leticia A Olguín-Ramírez, Alejandro Garza-Alpirez, Giovana Femat-Roldan, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez
Background: Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by exocrine gland and extraglandular symptoms. We present a case report of pSS with an initial presentation of athetoid movements. Case Report: A 74-year-old female presented with a 2-month history of slow undulating movements in her trunk and thighs that eventually spread to her neck and lower extremities. She also reported dry eyes, dry mouth, as well as pain in her shoulders and thighs...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Anelyssa D'Abreu, Joseph H Friedman
Background: Although tardive dyskinesia (TD) is most commonly defined as a movement disorder caused by chronic exposure to dopamine-receptor-blocking drugs (DRBDs), it has also been thought to result from exposure to some non-DRBDs. Methods: We critiqued many reviews making the association between non-DRBDs and a TD-like syndrome and almost all case reports. We checked whether cases met criteria for the diagnosis of TD-like syndrome and whether DRBDs had been excluded...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ashley K Yearwood, Shruthi Rethi, Karla P Figueroa, Ruth H Walker, Andrew K Sobering
Background: Access to medical care in many regions is limited by socioeconomic status, at both the individual and the community level. This report describes the diagnostic process of a family residing on an underserved Caribbean island where routine neurological care is typically addressed by general practitioners, and genetic diagnosis is not available through regular medical channels. The diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative disorders is especially challenging in this setting...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Virgilio Gerald H Evidente, Zachary J Baker, Maris H Evidente, Robin Garrett, Margaret Lambert, Francisco A Ponce
Background: Orthostatic tremor (OT) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by rapid tremor in the lower extremities or trunk upon standing. Case Report: We report two patients presenting with OT, whose symptoms improved markedly following asleep bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Discussion: Medically refractory OT can respond favorably to asleep bilateral DBS surgery similar to awake surgery, and may have the advantages of less psychological trauma to the patient, shorter procedure times, and less exposure to anesthesia...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Natalia González Rojas, Martin Cesarini, José Luis Etcheverry, Gustavo Da Prat, Tomás Viera Aramburu, Emilia Mabel Gatto
Background: Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder, characterized by a combination of resting, postural, and intention tremor. It is usually caused by lesions in the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebellum. Despite pharmacological advances, its treatment remains a challenge; many medications have been used with various degrees of effectiveness. Stereotactic thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation in the ventralis intermedius nucleus have been effective surgical procedures in cases refractory to medical treatment...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Adrian Handforth, Pournima A Kadam, Hovsep P Kosoyan, Pirooz Eslami
Background: Metabolic imaging has revealed excessive cerebellar activity in essential tremor patients. Golgi cells control cerebellar activity by releasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors on cerebellar granule cells. We postulated that the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-specific agonist THIP (gaboxadol; 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) would suppress tremor in the harmaline model of essential tremor and, since cerebellar extrasynaptic receptors contain α 6 and δ subunits, would fail to do so in mice lacking either subunit...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Jung E Park
Background: Functional movement disorders are recognized as a "crisis" in neurology. We aimed to determine the rate of incidence of functional movement disorder patients at a university outpatient neurology clinic in South Korea, and highlight the clinical and phenomenological characteristics. Methods: Patients who were assessed by a movement disorders neurologist at a university hospital between March 2016 and May 2017 were screened for functional movement disorders...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7916/D89S20H7.].
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A Scorza, Ana C Fiorini, Carla A Scorza, Antonio Carlos Almeida
In Response To: Giron C, Roze E, Degos, B, Méneret A, Jardel C, Lannuzel A, et al. Adult-onset generalized dystonia as the main manifestation of MEGDEL syndrome. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2018; 8. doi: 10.7916/D8VM5VBQ.
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Gholamali Shahidi, Mohammad Rohani, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Fahimeh H Akhoundi
Background: Akathisia is an inner urge to move a body area with an objective motor component of restlessness. Tardive akathisia (TA) is usually bilateral with a predominant lower-body presentation. We report two patients with an asymmetrical predominantly upper-body involvement. Case Report: Two young men with history of psychiatric problems and neuroleptic use revealed atypical TA, characterized by asymmetrical and predominantly upper-body involvement. Their main manifestations were rubbing the face, mostly with one hand, accompanied by an inner sensation of restlessness...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Femke Dijkstra, Mineke Viaene, Inge Beijer, Harald de Cauwer
Background: Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder occurs frequently in childhood with a minority of patients having persistent symptoms in adolescence. Phenomenology Shown: We describe a 14-year-old female showing a typical example of head banging at onset of sleep. Educational Value: Sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder usually has a benign and self-limiting nature and medication might only be warranted in cases of severe sleep disruption or frequent injuries...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Deepak K Gupta, Victor A Blanco-Palmero, Wendy K Chung, Sheng-Han Kuo
Background: Adult-onset Niemann-Pick Type C is a rare neurogenetic lysosomal disorder, whose diagnosis is often delayed and missed because of its heterogeneous clinical presentations and rarity as well as the lack of awareness of characteristic eye findings among neurologists. Phenomenology Shown: Impaired smooth pursuits, saccades, and optokinetic nystagmus in the vertical direction, with relatively normal eye movements in the horizontal direction, and ataxia features on finger chase testing, tandem walking, and gait ataxia...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Amar Patel, Wissam Deeb, Michael S Okun
Clinical Vignette: A 64-year-old female with essential tremor (ET) presents for evaluation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) candidacy. Examination revealed subtle dystonic features as well as a disabling postural-action tremor. Clinical Dilemma: Can dystonia occur in the setting of the diagnosis of ET and can its presence alter DBS target selection? Clinical Solution: Unilateral DBS implantation of the ventralis intermedius (Vim) led to improvement in both tremor and dystonic posturing...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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