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Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements

José Luiz Pedroso, Thiago Cardoso Vale, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Julián Benito-León, Ángela Domingo-Santos
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic tremor (OT) remains among the most intriguing and poorly understood of movement disorders. Compared to Parkinson's disease or even essential tremor, there are very few articles addressing more basic science issues. In this review, we will discuss the findings of main case series on OT, including data on etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, treatment strategies, and outcome. METHODS: Data for this review were identified by searching PUBMED (January 1966 to August 2016) for the terms "orthostatic tremor" or "shaky leg syndrome," which yielded 219 entries...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Harsh V Gupta, Charles Gervais, Mark A Ross, Shyamal H Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Elliot Hogg, Michele Tagliati
BACKGROUND: Overuse or task-specific dystonia has been described in a number of professions characterized by repetitive actions, typically affecting the upper extremities. Cervical dystonia (CD), however, has rarely been associated with overuse. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of typical CD that developed in the context of chronic repetitive movements associated with the patient's professional occupation as an office manager who spent many hours per day holding a phone to his ear...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Harsh V Gupta, John N Caviness
BACKGROUND: Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. METHODS: A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Ujjawal Roy, Shyamal Kumar Das, Adreesh Mukherjee, Debsadhan Biswas, Koushik Pan, Atanu Biswas, Ajay Panwar
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea-hemiballism (HCHB) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder with features of both chorea and ballism occurring on the same side. CASE REPORT: We present a case of HCHB due to nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) that was the initial presentation of diabetes and was irreversible clinically even after 6 months of optimal blood sugar control. DISCUSSION: Although HCHB due to hyperglycemia is a potentially reversible condition in the majority of patients, prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia may cause ischemic insult and persistent symptoms...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Sajish Jacob, Harsh V Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Mallory Jackman, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, S Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Rajni Patel, Mandar Jog
INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Various assessments have been used to determine response prediction to BoNT-A, but not in the same population of patients. METHODS: A comprehensive assessment was employed to measure various symptom aspects...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Alexandre Gironell, Juan Marin-Lahoz
BACKGROUND: T-type calcium channel activation has been postulated to underlie rhythmicity in the olivo-cerebellar system that is implicated in ET. Ethosuximide reduces T-type calcium currents and can suppress tremor in two animal models of ET. We explored the effects of ethosuximide in subjects with ET in an open-label trial using both clinical scales and accelerometric recordings measures. We initially planned to conduct the trial with 15 patients, but due to lack of efficacy and a high incidence of adverse effects, the trial was stopped after seven patients had participated...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Priya Jagota, Lalita Kaewwilai, Nonglak Boonrod, Surat Singmaneesakulchai, Kamolwan Boonpang, Jirada Sringean, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Sitthi Petchrutchatachart
BACKGROUND: Cervical dystonia (CD) is a debilitating neurological disorder that may gravely affect a patient's quality of life (QoL). Botulinum toxin treatment has been approved as a first-line treatment for this condition. This study aims to look at the efficacy and impact on the QoL of neu-botulinumtoxinA, a newer and cheaper botulinum toxin type A, in patients with CD. METHODS: This is a prospective, open-label, single-arm study. CD patients were recruited and evaluated for severity of CD using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS), and for QoL using the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24), and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and 6 weeks after injection...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Carlos Cosentino, Luis Torres, Yesenia Nuñez, Rafael Suarez, Miriam Velez, Martha Flores
BACKGROUND: Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia is a well-recognized syndrome, but few case series have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We describe 20 patients with hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia (9 males and 11 females) with mean age of 67.8 years. Ten patients had a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and one had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Six of them had documentation of poor diabetic control over at least the last 3 months...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Brian B Koo, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters
BACKGROUND: In the past few decades, much has been learned about the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Investigators have studied neuropathology, imaging, electrophysiology, and genetics of RLS, identifying brain regions and biological systems affected in RLS. This manuscript will review RLS pathophysiology literature, examining the RLS state through consideration of the neuroanatomy, then the biological, organ, and genetic systems. METHODS: Pubmed (1966 to April 2016) was searched for the term "restless legs syndrome" cross-referenced with "pathophysiology," "pathogenesis," "pathology," or "imaging...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Carlos Cosentino, Miriam Velez, Yesenia Nuñez, Henry Palomino, Darko Quispe, Martha Flores, Luis Torres
BACKGROUND: Lesions in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle or dentate-rubro-olivary pathway may lead to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD), a secondary trans-synaptic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus. HOD is usually associated with palatal tremor and rarely with Holmes tremor. Bilateral HOD is a very unusual condition and very few cases are reported. CASE REPORT: We report here two cases of bilateral HOD after two different vascular lesions located at the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncles, thus impairing both central tegmental tracts and interrupting bilaterally the dentate-rubral-olivary pathway...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Toni S Pearson
BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by complex neurological features in addition to progressive ataxia. Hyperkinetic movement disorders occur in a significant proportion of patients, and may sometimes be the presenting motor symptom. Presentations with involuntary movements rather than ataxia are diagnostically challenging, and are likely under-recognized. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was performed in October 2015 utilizing pairwise combinations of disease-related terms (autosomal recessive ataxia, ataxia-telangiectasia, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with vitamin E deficiency), and symptom-related terms (movement disorder, dystonia, chorea, choreoathetosis, myoclonus)...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
David A Isaacs, Peter Hedera
BACKGROUND: Acquired neurogenic stuttering has been considered a fairly uncommon clinical occurrence; speech-activated myoclonus is a rare entity that can mimic stuttering and is caused by a wide array of etiologies. CASE REPORT: Here we report a patient with myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS), due to an identified disease-causing mutation, who displayed speech-activated myoclonus mimicking stuttering. DISCUSSION: In MDS, myoclonus has only infrequently been reported to affect speech...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Brian C Kaszuba, Lucy Gee, Julia Prusik, Fabio Danisi, Damian Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Holmes tremor (HT) is an irregular, low-frequency rest tremor associated with prominent action and postural tremors. Currently, the most effective stereotactic target and neurophysiologic characterization of HT, specifically local field potentials (LFPs) are uncertain. We present the outcome, intraoperative neurophysiologic analysis with characterization of LFPs in a patient managed with left globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation (Gpi DBS). CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old male underwent left Gpi DBS for medically refractory HT...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Thiago Cardoso Vale, José Luiz Pedroso, Marcos Knobel, Elias Knobel
BACKGROUND: Tics beginning in late adulthood often have an identifiable etiology. Psychogenic tics with onset around 60 years of age are rarely described in the literature. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old female had experienced phonic tics for 8 years. Episodes occurred without premonitory sensations and precipitant factors, and she could not suppress them. She had no history of childhood tic disorder, and secondary causes of tics were excluded. She was diagnosed with psychogenic tics and treated with quetiapine with mild improvement...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Pavel Filip, Martin Bareš, Milan Brázdil
Basic epilepsy teachings assert that seizures arise from the cerebral cortex, glossing over infratentorial structures such as the cerebellum that are believed to modulate rather than generate seizures. Nonetheless, ataxia and other clinical findings in epileptic patients are slowly but inevitably drawing attention to this neural node. Tracing the evolution of this line of inquiry from the observed coincidence of cerebellar atrophy and cerebellar dysfunction (most apparently manifested as ataxia) in epilepsy to their close association, this review considers converging clinical, physiological, histological, and neuroimaging evidence that support incorporating the cerebellum into epilepsy pathology...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
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