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Frontiers in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013951/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activity-as-a-switch-for-glioblastoma-responsiveness-to-temozolomide
#1
Alessia Lo Dico, Cristina Martelli, Cecilia Diceglie, Giovanni Lucignani, Luisa Ottobrini
Rationale: The activity of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, is a common driver of a number of the pathways involved in the aggressiveness of glioblastomas (GBMs), and it has been suggested that the reduction in this activity observed, soon after the administration of temozolomide (TMZ), can be a biomarker of an early response in GBM models. As HIF-1α is a tightly regulated protein, studying the processes involved in its downregulation could shed new light on the mechanisms underlying GBM sensitivity or resistance to TMZ...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013950/unraveling-the-role-of-angiogenesis-in-cancer-ecosystems
#2
REVIEW
Iratxe Zuazo-Gaztelu, Oriol Casanovas
Activation of the tumor and stromal cell-driven angiogenic program is one of the first requirements in the tumor ecosystem for growth and dissemination. The understanding of the dynamic angiogenic tumor ecosystem has rapidly evolved over the last decades. Beginning with the canonical sprouting angiogenesis, followed by vasculogenesis and intussusception, and finishing with vasculogenic mimicry, the need for different neovascularization mechanisms is further explored. In addition, an overview of the orchestration of angiogenesis within the tumor ecosystem cellular and molecular components is provided...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013949/diagnostic-value-of-methylated-septin9-for-colorectal-cancer-detection
#3
Li Xie, Xiyi Jiang, Qian Li, Zujun Sun, Wenqiang Quan, Yuping Duan, Dong Li, Tianhui Chen
Background: Methylated Septin9 ( mSEPT9 ) has been suggested as a reliable biomarker in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of mSEPT9 for CRC detection in Chinese patients. In addition, we compared the diagnostic efficacy of mSEPT9 to traditional screening method [fecal occult blood test (FOBT)] and two biomarkers [carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen-199 (Ca-199)]. Methods: Overall 248 subjects including 123 patients with CRC and 125 controls were included...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013948/urinary-lead-concentration-is-an-independent-predictor-of-cancer-mortality-in-the-u-s-general-population
#4
Sen Li, Jiaxin Wang, Biao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Tao Lu, Yuanyuan Shi, Guangliang Shan, Ling Dong
Lead is a ubiquitous pollutant that constitutes an environmental hazard worldwide. Although lead has been known as a carcinogenic factor in animal models, its role in human carcinogenesis is still a topic of debate with limited epidemiological evidence. Moreover, the association between urinary lead, as the most non-invasive and accessible way for lead measurement in human, and cancer mortality in general population has never been explored. We addressed this subject using continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data and its Mortality Follow-Up Study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009155/genomic-deletion-at-10q23-in-prostate-cancer-more-than-pten-loss
#5
Raghavendra Tejo Karthik Poluri, Étienne Audet-Walsh
The PTEN gene encodes for the phosphatase and tensin homolog; it is a tumor suppressor gene that is among the most frequently inactivated genes throughout the human cancer spectrum. The most recent sequencing approaches have allowed the identification of PTEN genomic alterations, including deletion, mutation, or rearrangement in about 50% of prostate cancer (PCa) cases. It appears that mechanisms leading to PTEN inactivation are cancer-specific, comprising gene mutations, small insertions/deletions, copy number alterations (CNAs), promoter hypermethylation, and RNA interference...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009154/a-non-platinum-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-or-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-region-results-from-an-extended-phase-ii-study-with-paclitaxel-and-capecitabine
#6
Jens K D Bentzen, Claus Andrup Kristensen, Marie Overgaard, Carsten Rytter, Kenneth Jensen, Hanne Sand Hansen
Background: This study presents the results of an extended phase II study originally published in 2007, regarding the antitumor activity and toxicity of a non-platinum containing regimen with paclitaxel and capecitabine for the treatment of recurrent or disseminated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. Fifty patients were included in the original study. Materials and methods: A total of 183 patients with recurrent or disseminated squamous cell carcinoma were eventually included in the extended study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003062/testing-of-a-tool-for-prostate-cancer-screening-discussions-in-primary-care
#7
Anita D Misra-Hebert, Grant Hom, Eric A Klein, Janine M Bauman, Niyati Gupta, Xinge Ji, Andrew J Stephenson, J Stephen Jones, Michael W Kattan
Background: As prostate cancer (PCa) screening decisions often occur in outpatient primary care, a brief tool to help the PCa screening conversation in busy clinic settings is needed. Methods: A previously created 9-item tool to aid PCa screening discussions was tested in five diverse primary care clinics. Fifteen providers were recruited to use the tool for 4 weeks, and the tool was revised based upon feedback. The providers then used the tool with a convenience sample of patients during routine clinic visits...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998084/notch1-aberrations-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Emanuela Rosati, Stefano Baldoni, Filomena De Falco, Beatrice Del Papa, Erica Dorillo, Chiara Rompietti, Elisa Albi, Franca Falzetti, Mauro Di Ianni, Paolo Sportoletti
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable B-cell neoplasm characterized by highly variable clinical outcomes. In recent years, genomic and molecular studies revealed a remarkable heterogeneity in CLL, which mirrored the clinical diversity of this disease. These studies profoundly enhanced our understanding of leukemia cell biology and led to the identification of new biomarkers with potential prognostic and therapeutic significance. Accumulating evidence indicates a key role of deregulated NOTCH1 signaling and NOTCH1 mutations in CLL...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988568/editorial-cell-stress-metabolic-reprogramming-and-cancer
#9
EDITORIAL
Sergio Giannattasio, Mario G Mirisola, Cristina Mazzoni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988496/active-role-of-the-necrotic-zone-in-desensitization-of-hypoxic-macrophages-and-regulation-of-csc-fate-a-hypothesis
#10
Maryam Mehrabi, Fatemeh Amini, Shima Mehrabi
Fast-proliferating cancer cells in the hypoxic region face a shortage of oxygen and nutrients, undergo necrotic cell death, and release numerous signaling components. Hypoxia-induced chemo-attractants signal for macrophages/monocytes to clear debris and return the system to steady state. Accordingly, macrophages arrange into pre-necrotic positions, where they are continuously exposed to stress signals. It can thus be hypothesized that gradual alteration of gene expression in macrophages eventually turns off their phagocytic machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988492/editorial-intraoperative-radiotherapy-iort-a-new-frontier-for-personalized-medicine-as-adjuvant-treatment-and-treatment-of-locally-recurrent-advanced-malignancy
#11
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988339/vocal-fold-cancer-transoral-laser-microsurgery-following-european-laryngological-society-laser-cordectomy-classification
#12
Abie H Mendelsohn, Marc Joseph Remacle
Background: The surgical treatment of glottic, or vocal cord, cancer has seen considerable progression over the past several decades. Specifically, there has been a stark transition from open partial laryngectomy surgery to endoscopic laser microsurgical techniques which have been inspired in large part by two landmark studies: Professor Wolfgang Steiner's original case series describing transoral laser microsurgery for glottic cancer (1993) and the European Laryngological Society's (ELS) classification scheme (2000)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977864/machine-learning-and-radiogenomics-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
John Kang, Tiziana Rancati, Sangkyu Lee, Jung Hun Oh, Sarah L Kerns, Jacob G Scott, Russell Schwartz, Seyoung Kim, Barry S Rosenstein
Due to the rapid increase in the availability of patient data, there is significant interest in precision medicine that could facilitate the development of a personalized treatment plan for each patient on an individual basis. Radiation oncology is particularly suited for predictive machine learning (ML) models due to the enormous amount of diagnostic data used as input and therapeutic data generated as output. An emerging field in precision radiation oncology that can take advantage of ML approaches is radiogenomics, which is the study of the impact of genomic variations on the sensitivity of normal and tumor tissue to radiation...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974036/the-warburg-effect-as-a-type-b-lactic-acidosis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-diagnostic-challenge-for-clinicians
#14
Clément Brault, Yoann Zerbib, Caroline Delette, Julien Marc, Bérengère Gruson, Jean P Marolleau, Julien Maizel
Introduction: The Warburg effect (WE) is an uncommon cause of type B lactic acidosis (LA) due to a deregulation of carbohydrate metabolism in neoplastic cells where lactic fermentation predominates over oxidative phosphorylation regardless of the oxygen level. Case presentation: We report the case of a 57-year-old man presenting with concomitant acute myeloid leukemia and type B LA with asymptomatic hypoglycemia. We did not find arguments for a septic state, liver dysfunction, or acute mesenteric ischemia...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974035/cancer-immunotherapy-and-the-immune-response-in-follicular-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Frank Stenner, Christoph Renner
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most frequent indolent lymphoma in the Western world and is characterized in almost all cases by the t(14;18) translocation that results in overexpression of BCL2, an anti-apoptotic protein. The entity includes a spectrum of subentities that differ from an indolent to a very aggressive growth pattern. As a consequence, treatment can include watch & wait up to intensive chemotherapy including allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The immune cell microenvironment has been recognized as a major driver of outcome of FL patients and gene expression profiling has identified a clinically relevant gene expression signature that classifies an immune response to the lymphoma cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29971216/predictors-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-two-underserved-u-s-populations-a-parallel-analysis
#16
Brittany M Bernardo, Amy L Gross, Gregory Young, Ryan Baltic, Sarah Reisinger, William J Blot, Electra Diane Paskett
Background: Despite declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates in the U.S., significant geographic and racial disparities in CRC death rates remain. Differences in guideline-concordant CRC screening rates may explain some of these disparities. We aim to assess individual and neighborhood-level predictors of guideline-concordant CRC screening within two cohorts of individuals located within CRC mortality geographic hotspot regions in the U.S. Methods: A total of 36,901 participants from the Southern Community Cohort Study and 4,491 participants from the Ohio Appalachia CRC screening study were included in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967762/editorial-controversies-in-the-local-management-of-lung-cancer
#17
EDITORIAL
John M Varlotto, Giulia Veronesi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967761/non-coding-rnas-and-resistance-to-anticancer-drugs-in-gastrointestinal-tumors
#18
REVIEW
Jens C Hahne, Nicola Valeri
Non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene expression and transcription. It is well established that impaired non-coding RNA expression especially the one of long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs is involved in a number of pathological conditions including cancer. Non-coding RNAs are responsible for the development of resistance to anticancer treatments as they regulate drug resistance-related genes, affect intracellular drug concentrations, induce alternative signaling pathways, alter drug efficiency via blocking cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage response...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967760/anti-leukemic-properties-of-histamine-in-monocytic-leukemia-the-role-of-nox2
#19
Roberta Kiffin, Hanna Grauers Wiktorin, Malin S Nilsson, Johan Aurelius, Ebru Aydin, Brianna Lenox, Jonas A Nilsson, Anders Ståhlberg, Fredrik B Thorén, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Anna Martner
In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), treatment with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose IL-2 (HDC/IL-2) in the post-chemotherapy phase has been shown to reduce the incidence of leukemic relapse. The clinical benefit of HDC/IL-2 is pronounced in monocytic forms of AML, where the leukemic cells express histamine type 2 receptors (H2 R) and the NAPDH oxidase-2 (NOX2). HDC ligates to H2 Rs to inhibit NOX2-derived formation of reactive oxygen species, but details regarding the anti-leukemic actions of HDC remain to be elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963498/recent-advances-in-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Christy W S Tong, Mingxia Wu, William C S Cho, Kenneth K W To
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. It is classified into a few major molecular subtypes according to hormone and growth factor receptor expression. Over the past few years, substantial advances have been made in the discovery of new drugs for treating BC. Improved understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of BC has allowed the development of more effective and individualized approach to treatment. In this review, we provide an update about the current treatment strategy and discuss the various emerging novel therapies for the major molecular subtypes of BC...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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