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Frontiers in Oncology

Paul E Van Schil, Lawek Berzenji, Suresh K Yogeswaran, Jeroen M Hendriks, Patrick Lauwers
According to the eighth edition of the tumor-node-metastasis classification, stage III non-small cell lung cancer is subdivided into stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. They represent a heterogeneous group of bronchogenic carcinomas with locoregional involvement by extension of the primary tumor and/or ipsilateral or contralateral lymph node involvement. Surgical indications have not been definitely established but, in general, long-term survival is only obtained in those patients in whom a complete resection is obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Stephanie A Valente, Alicia Fanning, Robyn A Stewart, Sharon Grundfest, Rahul D Tendulkar, Sheen Cherian, Chirag Shah, Chao Tu, Courtney Yanda, Diane Radford, Zahraa Al-Hilli, Stephen R Grobmyer
Introduction: Intraoperative radiation with Intrabeam™ (IORT) for breast cancer is a newer technology recently implemented into the operating room (OR). This procedure requires time and coordination between the surgeon and radiation oncologist, who both perform their treatments in a single operative setting. We evaluated the surgeons at our center, who perform IORT and their OR times to examine changes in OR times following implementation of this new surgical procedure. We hypothesized that IORT is a technique for which timing could be improved with the increasing number of cases performed...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Kylie L Gorringe, Stephen B Fox
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an often-diagnosed breast disease and a known, non-obligate, precursor to invasive breast carcinoma. In this review, we explore the clinical and pathological features of DCIS, fundamental elements of DCIS biology including gene expression and genetic events, the relationship of DCIS with recurrence and invasive breast cancer, and the interaction of DCIS with the microenvironment. We also survey how these various elements are being used to solve the clinical conundrum of how to optimally treat a disease that has potential to progress, and yet is also likely over-treated in a significant proportion of cases...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Giuseppe A P Cirrone, Giacomo Cuttone, Luigi Raffaele, Vincenzo Salamone, Teresio Avitabile, Giuseppe Privitera, Corrado Spatola, Antonio G Amico, Giuseppina Larosa, Renata Leanza, Daniele Margarone, Giuliana Milluzzo, Valeria Patti, Giada Petringa, Francesco Romano, Andrea Russo, Antonio Russo, Maria G Sabini, Francesco Schillaci, Valentina Scuderi, Lucia M Valastro
[This corrects the article on p. 223 in vol. 7, PMID: 28971066.].
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Joseph A Baiocco, Adam R Metwalli
The standard of care treatment for solitary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors 4 cm or less is partial nephrectomy (PNx). However, multifocal kidney cancer presents unique challenges for treating physicians. Historically, total nephrectomy and hemodialysis with possible renal transplant later was the primary therapeutic strategy for these patients. Later, as nephron sparing surgical approaches improved, PNx became the standard of care for patients presenting with multifocal and hereditary RCC. Surgeries to remove multiple renal tumors simultaneously produce different perioperative outcomes and increased risk of complications...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Goran J Djuričić, Marko Radulovic, Jelena P Sopta, Marina Nikitović, Nebojša T Milošević
The prediction of induction chemotherapy response at the time of diagnosis may improve outcomes in osteosarcoma by allowing for personalized tailoring of therapy. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the predictive potential of the so far unexploited computational analysis of osteosarcoma magnetic resonance (MR) images. Fractal and gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were employed in retrospective analysis of MR images of primary osteosarcoma localized in distal femur prior to the OsteoSa induction chemotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Ivana Fiz, Francesco Mazzola, Francesco Fiz, Filippo Marchi, Marta Filauro, Alberto Paderno, Giampiero Parrinello, Cesare Piazza, Giorgio Peretti
INTRODUCTION: Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) represents one of the most effective treatment strategies for Tis-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The prognostic influence of close/positive margins is still debated, and the role of narrow band imaging (NBI) in their intraoperative definition is still to be validated on large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the influence of margin status on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 507 cases of pTis-T1b (Group A) and 127 cases of pT2 (Group B) glottic SCC...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Malika Danner, Ming-Yang Hung, Thomas M Yung, Marilyn Ayoob, Siyuan Lei, Brian T Collins, Simeng Suy, Sean P Collins
INTRODUCTION: Utilization of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to guide symptom management during radiation therapy is increasing. This study focuses on the use of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) as a tool to assess urinary and bowel bother during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its utility in guiding medical management. METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2017, 107 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Veronica Zingales, Alfio Distefano, Marco Raffaele, Antonio Zanghi, Ignazio Barbagallo, Luca Vanella
Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most frequent type of cancer in men. Recent data suggest that diabetic patients taking metformin have a lower incidence of certain cancer, including PCa. Metformin is the most common drug used in type II diabetes mellitus; its use has been shown to lower the incidence of several cancers, although there are ambiguous data about the anticancer activity of metformin. A large number of studies examined the potential antineoplastic mechanism of metformin although it is not still completely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Rui Lu, Gang Greg Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a common hematological cancer of myeloid lineage cells, generally exhibits poor prognosis in the clinic and demands new treatment options. Recently, direct sequencing of samples from human AMLs and pre-leukemic diseases has unveiled their mutational landscapes and significantly advanced the molecular understanding of AML pathogenesis. The newly identified recurrent mutations frequently "hit" genes encoding epigenetic modulators, a wide range of chromatin-modifying enzymes and regulatory factors involved in gene expression regulation, supporting aberration of chromatin structure and epigenetic modification as a main oncogenic mechanism and cancer-initiating event...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Lena Bohaumilitzky, Ann-Kathrin Huber, Eva Maria Stork, Simon Wengert, Franziska Woelfl, Heike Boehm
Hyaluronan (HA) is a simple but diverse glycosaminoglycan. It plays a major role in aging, cellular senescence, cancer, and tissue homeostasis. In which way HA affects the surrounding tissues greatly depends on the molecular weight of HA. Whereas high molecular weight HA is associated with homeostasis and protective effects, HA fragments tend to be linked to the pathologic state. Furthermore, the interaction of HA with its binding partners, the hyaladherins, such as CD44, is essential for sustaining tissue integrity and is likewise related to cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Yun Jiang, Juan Chen, Jing He, Ao Pei, Jinsong Zhang, Yinhong Liu
Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare and fatal disease with no special clinical manifestations. Here, we report the dynamic brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in a 30-year-old female PDLG patient over a 10-month period. MRI showed aggressive dilation of the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system, numerous encapsulated cysts in the subarachnoid space and the dilated cerebral sulci, diffuse reticulated or focal nodular enhancement in the subarachnoid space, as well as overall enhancement in the cystic walls...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
S R Priya, Chandra Shekhar Dravid, Raghunadharao Digumarti, Mitali Dandekar
Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) constitute between 2 and 5% of all thyroid cancers. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with localized disease is around 95% while that of patients with regional stage disease is about 75%. Only 20% of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis survive 10 years which is significantly lower than for differentiated thyroid cancers. Cases with regional metastases at presentation have high recurrence rates. Adjuvant external radiation confers local control but not improved OS...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Gabriele Schubert-Fritschle, Stephanie E Combs, Thomas Kirchner, Volkmar Nüssler, Jutta Engel
Large clinical cancer registries (CCRs) in Germany shall be strengthened by the German Social Code Book V (SGB V) and implemented until the end of 2017. There are currently several large cancer registries that support clinical data for outcome analysis and knowledge acquisition. The various examples of the Munich Cancer Registry outlined in this paper present many-sided possibilities using and analyzing registry data. The main objective of population-based cancer registration within a defined area and the performance of outcomes research is to provide feedback regarding the results to the broad public, the reporting doctors, and the scientific community...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Roberta Peruzzo, Andrea Mattarei, Matteo Romio, Cristina Paradisi, Mario Zoratti, Ildikò Szabò, Luigi Leanza
Previous results link the mitochondrial potassium channel Kv1.3 (mitoKv1.3) to the regulation of apoptosis. By synthesizing new, mitochondria-targeted derivatives (PAPTP and PCARBTP) of PAP-1, a specific membrane-permeant Kv1.3 inhibitor, we have recently provided evidence that both drugs acting on mitoKv1.3 are able to induce apoptosis and reduce tumor growth in vivo without affecting healthy tissues and cells. In the present article, by exploiting these new drugs, we addressed the question whether mitoKv1...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Pravanya Nandakumar, Alireza Mansouri, Sunit Das
The current World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors has made a tremendous leap from past editions by incorporating molecular criteria in addition to the pre-existing histological parameters. The revised version has had a particular impact on the classification of diffuse low-grade gliomas and their high-grade variants. The ATRX status is one of the critical markers that define the molecular classification of gliomas. In this review, we will first provide an overview of the role of ATRX in regular cell biology...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Charissa A C Jessurun, Julien A M Vos, Jacqueline Limpens, Rosalie M Luiten
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), targeting CTLA-4 or PD-1 molecules, have shown impressive therapeutic results. However, only 20-40% of advanced melanoma patients have durable responses to ICI, and these positive effects must be balanced against severe off-target immune toxicity and high costs. This urges the development of predictive biomarkers for ICI response to select patients with likely clinical benefit from treatment. Although many candidate biomarkers exist, a systematic overview of biomarkers and their usefulness is lacking...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Valentina Tosato, Nicole West, Jan Zrimec, Dmitri V Nikitin, Giannino Del Sal, Roberto Marano, Michael Breitenbach, Carlo V Bruschi
In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT) that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Brooke C Bloom, Alexander Augustyn, Boris Sepesi, Sunil Patel, Shalin J Shah, Ritsuko U Komaki, Steven E Schild, Stephen G Chun
With increasing use of low-dose screening CT scans, the diagnosis of early-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) without evidence of mediastinal nodal or distant metastasis is likely to become more common, but the role of adjuvant therapies such as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) are not well understood in this population. We performed a review of the literature pertaining to the impact of PCI in patients who underwent surgical resection of early-stage SCLC. Four studies were identified that were pertinent including three single-institution retrospective analyses and a National Cancer Database analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Alia Daoud, Quincy S Chu
Discovery of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase chromosomal translocation in non-small cell lung cancer has prompted efforts around the world to identify many less common targetable oncogenic drivers. Such concerted efforts have been variably successful in both non-squamous and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Some of the targeted therapies for these oncogenic drivers have received regulatory approval for clinical use, while others have modest clinical benefit...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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