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Frontiers in Oncology

Keisuke Yaku, Keisuke Okabe, Keisuke Hikosaka, Takashi Nakagawa
Cancer cells have a unique energy metabolism for sustaining rapid proliferation. The preference for anaerobic glycolysis under normal oxygen conditions is a unique trait of cancer metabolism and is designated as the Warburg effect. Enhanced glycolysis also supports the generation of nucleotides, amino acids, lipids, and folic acid as the building blocks for cancer cell division. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a co-enzyme that mediates redox reactions in a number of metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Laura G Baudrin, Jean-François Deleuze, Alexandre How-Kit
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genomic alteration in which microsatellites, usually of one to four nucleotide repeats, accumulate mutations corresponding to deletions/insertions of a few nucleotides. The MSI phenotype has been extensively characterized in colorectal cancer and is due to a deficiency of the DNA mismatch repair system. MSI has recently been shown to be present in most types of cancer with variable frequencies (from <1 to 30%). It correlates positively to survival outcome and predicts the response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Faisal Shahjehan, Amit Merchea, Jordan J Cochuyt, Zhuo Li, Dorin T Colibaseanu, Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi
Background: The association between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer is unique. There are several patient- and tumor-related factors that affect this and associations are not entirely clear. The primary aim of this study is to examine the association between BMI and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Methods: Among 26,908 Mayo Clinic patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1972 and 2017, 3,799 patients had information on BMI within 6 months prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the differences in overall survival between BMI groups in each cancer stage, controlling for age, gender, year of diagnosis, and cancer location...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Ali Vaziri-Gohar, Mahsa Zarei, Jonathan R Brody, Jordan M Winter
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal cancer with a long-term survival rate under 10%. Available cytotoxic chemotherapies have significant side effects, and only marginal therapeutic efficacy. FDA approved drugs currently used against PDA target DNA metabolism and DNA integrity. However, alternative metabolic targets beyond DNA may prove to be much more effective. PDA cells are forced to live within a particularly severe microenvironment characterized by relative hypovascularity, hypoxia, and nutrient deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Francesco Schettini, Irene De Santo, Carmen G Rea, Pietro De Placido, Luigi Formisano, Mario Giuliano, Grazia Arpino, Michelino De Laurentiis, Fabio Puglisi, Sabino De Placido, Lucia Del Mastro
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors, namely abemaciclib, palbociclib, and ribociclib, interfere with cell cycle progression, induce cell senescence and might promote cancer cell disruption by a cytotoxic T cells-mediated effect. Phase III randomized clinical trials have proven that CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) in combination with several endocrine agents improve treatment efficacy over endocrine agents alone for hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2 negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Based on such results, these combinations have been approved for clinical use...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Luopei Wei, Ni Li, Gang Wang, Xiaoshuang Feng, Zhangyan Lyu, Xin Li, Yan Wen, Yuheng Chen, Hongda Chen, Shuohua Chen, Shouling Wu, Min Dai, Jie He
Background: Waist circumference, as an indicator of central adiposity, has been identified as an important predictor of several specific cancers such as colorectal cancer and gastroesophageal cancer risk, however, a consensus regarding the association between waist circumference and primary liver cancer (PLC) risk has not been reached. Methods: A total of 104,825 males participating in the health checkup were included in the Kailuan male cohort study (2006-2015). Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, medical records, and anthropometric measures were collected...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Carolina Salazar, Ian G Campbell, Kylie L Gorringe
The dualistic classification of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) into "type I" and "type II" is widely applied in the research setting; it is used as a convenient way of conceptualizing different mechanisms of tumorigenesis. However, this classification conflicts with recent molecular insights of the etiology of EOC. Molecular and cell of origin studies indicate that while type II tumors could be classed together, type I tumors are not homogenous, even within the histological types, and can have poor clinical outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Fabiana Henriques Machado de Melo, Julia Salles Oliveira, Viviani Olivastro Bressani Sartorelli, Wagner Ricardo Montor
Cancers derive from step by step processes which are differentiated by the progressively accumulated mutations. For some tumors there is a clear progressive advancement from benign lesions to malignancy and for these, preventive screening programs exist. In such cases having those benign lesions are a clear indicator of predisposition while for some other cases, familial patterns of cancer incidence and the identification of mutations are the main indicators of higher risk for having the disease. For patients identified as having predisposition, chemoprevention is a goal and in some cases a possibility...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Alessia Cimadamore, Monica Cheng, Matteo Santoni, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Nicola Battelli, Francesco Massari, Andrea B Galosi, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi
The rising incidence rate of the cancer in the prostate gland has increased the demand for improved diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic approaches. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with folate hydrolase and carboxypeptidase and, internalization activities, is highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and is strongly upregulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma, with elevated expression correlating with, metastasis, progression, and androgen independence. Recently, PSMA has been an active target of investigation by several approaches, including the successful utilization of small molecule inhibitors, RNA aptamer conjugates, PSMA-based immunotherapy, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Giuseppe Lo Russo, Anna Tessari, Marina Capece, Giulia Galli, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Dario Palmieri
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor with a variable incidence among different countries. Occupational asbestos exposure is the most important etiological factor and a very long latency period is widely reported. In the early phase of the disease, clinical signs are absent or not specific. For this reason, the diagnosis is frequently achieved only in the advanced stages. The histopathological diagnosis per se is also very complex, and no known factor can predict the prognosis with certainty...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Shuangshuang Li, Kongcheng Wang, Zhen Hou, Ju Yang, Wei Ren, Shanbao Gao, Fanyan Meng, Puyuan Wu, Baorui Liu, Juan Liu, Jing Yan
Objective: To analyze the recurrence patterns and reasons in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and to investigate the feasibility of radiomics for analysis of radioresistance. Methods: We analyzed 306 NPC patients treated with IMRT from Jul-2009 to Aug-2016, 20 of whom developed with recurrence. For the NPCs with recurrence, CT, MR, or PET/CT images of recurrent disease were registered with the primary planning CT for dosimetry analysis. The recurrences were defined as in-field, marginal or out-of-field, according to dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the recurrence volume...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Maksim Sinyuk, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, Ofer Reizes, Justin Lathia
Despite concerted clinical and research efforts, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have remained the most common standard-of-care strategies against cancer for decades. However, the side effects of these therapies demonstrate the need to investigate adjuvant novel treatment modalities that minimize the harm caused to healthy cells and tissues. Normal and cancerous cells require communication amongst themselves and with their surroundings to proliferate and drive tumor growth...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Hongqi Li, Jing Li, Xuan Wang, Haifeng Pang, Yupeng Di, Gang Ren, Ping Li, Chen Liu, Xiao Chen, Xiaoli Kang, Yingjie Wang, Tingyi Xia
Introduction: Stereotactic ablative radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is the standard treatment for patients with inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the body gamma knife SRS (ɤ-SRS) is a special SABR technology developed in China. This study prospectively assessed the clinical outcome, toxicity and cost following body ɤ-SRS for early stage NSCLC. Methods: From 2007 to 2010, a total of 29 patients with early stage NSCLC were prospectively enrolled in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Chen Wang, Hongcui Diao, Ping Ren, Xufu Wang, Yangang Wang, Wenjuan Zhao
Purpose: Radioiodine (131 I) thyroid remnant ablation is an important treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and various factors affecting its efficacy have been reported but not well defined. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and the affecting factors of 131 I ablation after total or near-total thyroidectomy in a relative large DTC cohort. Methods: 261 DTC patients with negative thyroglobulin antibody received 100-200 mCi 131 I for thyroid remnant ablation after total or near-total thyroidectomy between January 2012 and October 2015 in our hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yi Shao, Zhaolai Hua, Lei Zhao, Yi Shen, Xudong Guo, Chen Niu, Wenqiang Wei, Fen Liu
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in China which seriously threaten people's health and lives. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal trend in the epidemiology of GI cancers from 1991 to 2015, with an emphasis on the effects of age, period and cohort in Yangzhong City, Jiangsu province, a high-risk area of GI cancers in China. Methods: Our study extracted cases of gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer diagnosed from 1991 to 2015 from Yangzhong Cancer Registry...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Xiaojie Ding, Ying Chen, Jiapeng Yang, Guangjian Li, Huatao Niu, Rui He, Jie Zhao, Huanqi Ning
Background: Lung cancer has inherited susceptibility and show familial aggregation, the characteristics of familial lung cancer exhibit population heterogeneity. Despite previous studies, familial lung cancer in China's Yunnan-Guizhou plateau remains understudied. Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, 1,023 lung cancer patients (residents of Yunnan-Guizhou plateau) were enrolled with no limitation on other parameters, 152 subjects had familial lung cancer. Clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed and compared, 4,754 lung cancer patients from NCI-GDC were used to represent a general population...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Masaki Shiota, Naohiro Fujimoto, Kenjiro Imada, Eiji Kashiwagi, Ario Takeuchi, Junichi Inokuchi, Katsunori Tatsugami, Shunichi Kajioka, Takeshi Uchiumi, Masatoshi Eto
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling which is closely associated with hypertension plays important roles in resistance to antiandrogen therapy in prostate cancer. However, its impact on the prognosis in androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been elucidated. Then, we investigated the impact of genetic variation in MR and comorbidity with hypertension on the prognosis in ADT. This study included 182 Japanese patients with prostate cancer treated with ADT, whose comorbidity status with hypertension were available...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Junlong Wu, Wen-Hao Xu, Yu Wei, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Hai-Liang Zhang, Ding-Wei Ye
Objective: The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has proposed a grading system to classify renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, classification using biopsy specimens remains problematic and, consequently, the accuracy of a biopsy-based diagnosis is relatively poor. This study aims to combine clinical and immunohistochemical (IHC) factors for the prediction of high ISUP grade clear cell RCC (ccRCC) in an attempt to complement and improve the accuracy of a biopsy-based diagnosis. Methods: A total of 362 ccRCC patients were enrolled in this study and used for the training set...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Sagar S Varankar, Sharmila A Bapat
Metastatic dissemination generates an aggressive disease facilitated by enhanced migratory and invasive properties. Experimental approaches employ several in vitro and in vivo assays toward quantification of these functionalities. In vitro assessments of cell motility often employ endpoint assays that rely on the global efficacy of wound closure and thwart quantification of migratory phenotypes observed during metastatic dissemination. Recent studies highlight the distinct signatures associated with individual vs...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Xichun Xia, Wei Zhou, Chengbin Guo, Zhen Fu, Leqing Zhu, Peng Li, Yan Xu, Liangyan Zheng, Hua Zhang, Changliang Shan, Yunfei Gao
Previous studies have demonstrated that programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed in an aggressive activated B-cell (ABC)/non-germinal center B cell-like (GCB) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with inhibition of the tumor-associated T cell response. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PD-L1 expression in ABC-DLBCL remains unclear. Here, we report that MALT1 protease activity is required for ABC-DLBCL cells to evade cytotoxity of Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes by generating substantial PD-L1+ ABC-DLBCL cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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