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Frontiers in Oncology

James Dooley, Vasiliki Lagou, Tom Dresselaers, Katinka A van Dongen, Uwe Himmelreich, Adrian Liston
Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis, largely due to a poor record for early detection. Known risk factors for pancreatic cancer include obesity, diet, and diabetes, implicating glucose consumption and regulation as a key player. The role of artificial sweeteners may therefore be pertinent to disease kinetics. The oncogenic impact of artificial sweeteners is a highly controversial area. Aspartame, one of the most studied food additives, is widely recognized as being generally safe, although there are still specific areas where research is incomplete due to study limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Sandra Rutzner, Rainer Fietkau, Thomas Ganslandt, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Dorota Lubgan
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to verify the possible benefit of a clinical data warehouse (DWH) for retrospective analysis in the field of radiation oncology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We manually and electronically (using DWH) evaluated demographic, radiotherapy, and outcome data from 251 meningioma patients, who were irradiated from January 2002 to January 2015 at the Department of Radiation Oncology of the Erlangen University Hospital. Furthermore, we linked the Oncology Information System (OIS) MOSAIQ(®) to the DWH in order to gain access to irradiation data...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Jeroen Meulemans, Christophe Vanclooster, Tom Vauterin, Emmanuel D'heygere, Sandra Nuyts, Paul M Clement, Robert Hermans, Pierre Delaere, Vincent Vander Poorten
INTRODUCTION/AIM: We analyzed the functional and oncologic outcomes of primary and salvage transoral robotic surgery (TORS) procedures, performed in three Belgian institutions with a similar philosophy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 86 patients who underwent TORS between 24-12-2009 and 25-09-2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive statistics, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS; Kaplan-Meier), and the variation of these outcomes according to whether patients had primary or salvage TORS were evaluated (univariate log-rank analysis)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Ima Paydar, Abigail Pepin, Robyn A Cyr, Joseph King, Thomas M Yung, Elizabeth G Bullock, Siyuan Lei, Andrew Satinsky, K William Harter, Simeng Suy, Anatoly Dritschilo, John H Lynch, Thomas P Kole, Sean P Collins
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plus brachytherapy boost for unfavorable prostate cancer provides improved biochemical relapse-free survival over IMRT alone. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) may be a less invasive alternative to brachytherapy boost. Here, we report the 3-year gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities of IMRT plus SBRT boost. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2008 and September 2012, patients with prostate cancer were treated with robotic SBRT (19...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista Moreno, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira Souza, Sara Maria Moreira Lima Verde, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer among women. Breast cancer mortality rates remain high probably because its diagnosis is hampered by inaccurate detection methods. Since changes in protein expression as well as modifications in protein glycosylation have been frequently reported in cancer development, the aim of this work was to study the differential expression as well as modifications of glycosylation of proteins from plasma of women with breast cancer at different stages of disease (n = 30) compared to healthy women (n = 10)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Nirilanto Ramamonjisoa, Ellen Ackerstaff
Tumors are often characterized by hypoxia, vascular abnormalities, low extracellular pH, increased interstitial fluid pressure, altered choline-phospholipid metabolism, and aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). The impact of these tumor characteristics has been investigated extensively in the context of tumor development, progression, and treatment response, resulting in a number of non-invasive imaging biomarkers. More recent evidence suggests that cancer cells undergo metabolic reprograming, beyond aerobic glycolysis, in the course of tumor development and progression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Marina Pifano, Juan Garona, Carla S Capobianco, Nazareno Gonzalez, Daniel F Alonso, Giselle V Ripoll
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that express neuropeptides as synaptophysin, chromogranin A (CgA), and specific neuronal enolase (NSE), among others. Vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide with an endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effect in normal and pathological tissues. AVP receptors are present in human lung, breast, pancreatic, colorectal, and gastrointestinal tumors. While AVP V1 receptors are associated with stimulation of cellular proliferation, AVP V2 receptor (V2r) is related to antiproliferative effects...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Cory M Hugen, Daniel E Zainfeld, Amir Goldkorn
Precision medicine with molecularly directed therapeutics is rapidly expanding in all subspecialties of oncology. Molecular analysis and treatment monitoring require tumor tissue, but resections or biopsies are not always feasible due to tumor location, patient safety, and cost. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer a safe, low-cost, and repeatable tissue source as an alternative to invasive biopsies. "Liquid biopsies" can be collected from a peripheral blood draw and analyzed to isolate, enumerate, and molecularly characterize CTCs...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Florence Colliez, Bernard Gallez, Bénédicte F Jordan
Tumor hypoxia is recognized as a limiting factor for the efficacy of radiotherapy, because it enhances tumor radioresistance. It is strongly suggested that assessing tumor oxygenation could help to predict the outcome of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Strategies have also been developed to alleviate tumor hypoxia in order to radiosensitize tumors. In addition, oxygen mapping is critically needed for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), in which the most hypoxic regions require higher radiation doses and the most oxygenated regions require lower radiation doses...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Kyle Wang, Brandon T Mullins, Aaron D Falchook, Jun Lian, Kelei He, Dinggang Shen, Michael Dance, Weili Lin, Tiffany M Sills, Shiva K Das, Benjamin Y Huang, Bhishamjit S Chera
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT), combined positron emitted tomography and CT (PET/CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used in head and neck radiation planning. Hybrid PET/MRI has garnered attention for potential added value in cancer staging and treatment planning. Herein, we compare PET/MRI vs. planning CT for head and neck cancer gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with head and neck cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation to 60-70 Gy using IMRT...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Lisa M Abernathy, Matthew D Fountain, Michael C Joiner, Gilda G Hillman
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy for lung cancer causes pneumonitis and fibrosis. Soy isoflavones protect against radiation-induced lung injury, but the mediators of radioprotection remain unclear. We investigated the effect of radiation on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the lung and their modulation by soy isoflavones for a potential role in protection from radiation-induced lung injury. METHODS: BALB/c mice (5-6 weeks old) received a single 10 Gy dose of thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones were orally administrated daily before and after radiation at 1 mg/day...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Eduardo N Maldonado
Aerobic enhanced glycolysis characterizes the Warburg phenotype. In cancer cells, suppression of mitochondrial metabolism contributes to maintain a low ATP/ADP ratio that favors glycolysis. We propose that the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane is a metabolic link between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the Warburg phenotype. Most metabolites including respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi enter mitochondria only through VDAC. Oxidation of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH that enters the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force utilized to generate ATP and to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Mark E Bernard, Scott M Glaser, Beant S Gill, Sushil Beriwal, Dwight E Heron, James D Luketich, David M Friedland, Mark A Socinski, Joel S Greenberger
BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with morbidity and outcomes of a series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with dose-escalated chemoradiotherapy at the University of Pittsburgh Lung Cancer Program. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 170 stage III NSCLC patients treated with definitive intent were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received four-dimensional CT simulation scan and had respiratory gating if tumor movement exceeded 5 mm...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Katherine M Morgan, Gregory M Riedlinger, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Shridar Ganesan, Sharon R Pine
Traditional preclinical studies of cancer therapeutics have relied on the use of established human cell lines that have been adapted to grow in the laboratory and, therefore, may deviate from the cancer they were meant to represent. With the emphasis of cancer drug development shifting from non-specific cytotoxic agents to rationally designed molecularly targeted therapies or immunotherapy comes the need for better models with predictive value regarding therapeutic activity and response in clinical trials. Recently, the diversity and accessibility of immunodeficient mouse strains has greatly enhanced the production and utility of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for many tumor types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Summer B Dewdney, Jason Lachance
Despite many perceived advances in treatment over the past few decades, cancer continues to present a significant health burden, particularly to the aging US population. Forces including shrinking funding mechanisms, cost and quality concerns, as well as disappointing clinical outcomes have driven a surge of recent efforts into utilizing the technological innovation that has permeated other industries by leveraging large and complex data sets, so called "big data." In this review, we will review some of the history of oncology data collection, including the earliest data registries, as well as explore the future directions of this new brand of research while highlighting some of the more recent and promising efforts to harness the power of the electronic health record and the multitude of data co-located there, in an effort to improve individualized cancer-related outcomes in rapid real time...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Giulia Gallerani, Pietro Fici, Francesco Fabbri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Mutlay Sayan, Richard J Cassidy, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Oluwatosin A Kayode, Nabil F Saba, Conor E Steuer, Dong M Shin, J Trad Wadsworth, Mark El-Deiry, Mihir Patel, Jonathan J Beitler, Kristin A Higgins
OBJECTIVES: The late effects of RT are not well reported in patients with oral tongue cancer (OTC). This study reports the incidence of late effects and factors associated with the development of late effects in OTC patients. METHODS: Patients with OTC treated in our institution from 2003 to 2013 were evaluated. The association between RT doses, including mandible maximum and minimum doses and total 3D maximum dose, and late toxicity, defined as development of osteoradionecrosis (ORN), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube dependence for >6 months after treatment, and narcotic dependency >6 months posttreatment were assessed using both univariate and multivariable (MV) analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Raghav Sundar, Aishwarya Bandla, Stacey Sze Hui Tan, Lun-De Liao, Nesaretnam Barr Kumarakulasinghe, Anand D Jeyasekharan, Samuel Guan Wei Ow, Jingshan Ho, David Shao Peng Tan, Joline Si Jing Lim, Joy Vijayan, Aravinda K Therimadasamy, Zarinah Hairom, Emily Ang, Sally Ang, Nitish V Thakor, Soo-Chin Lee, Einar P V Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) due to paclitaxel is a common dose-limiting toxicity with no effective prevention or treatment. We hypothesize that continuous-flow limb hypothermia can reduce paclitaxel-induced PN. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An internally controlled pilot trial was conducted to investigate the neuroprotective effect of continuous-flow limb hypothermia in breast cancer patients receiving weekly paclitaxel. Patients underwent limb hypothermia of one limb for a duration of 3 h with every paclitaxel infusion, with the contralateral limb used as control...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Jens Ceder, Jörgen Elgqvist
Modern molecular and radiopharmaceutical development has brought the promise of tumor-selective delivery of antibody-drug conjugates to tumor cells for the diagnosis and treatment of primary and disseminated tumor disease. The classical mode of discourse regarding targeted therapy has been that the antigen targeted must be highly and homogenously expressed in the tumor cell population, and at the same time exhibit low expression in healthy tissue. However, there is increasing evidence that the reason cancer patients are not cured by current protocols is that there exist subpopulations of cancer cells that are resistant to conventional therapy including radioresistance and that these cells express other target antigens than the bulk of the tumor cells...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Vivek Verma, Smith Giri, Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Catalina Amador-Ortiz, James O Armitage
INTRODUCTION: Concurrent hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is rare; management is inadequately described in the literature. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Five patients are described. The first patient developed synchronous HCL and CLL and was treated with rituximab for 13 months with HCL in remission and stable CLL. The second patient developed HCL and was treated with cladribine...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
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