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Frontiers in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428947/update-on-programmed-death-1-and-programmed-death-ligand-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Marco A J Iafolla, Rosalyn A Juergens
PURPOSE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a large worldwide prevalence with a high mortality rate. Chemotherapy has offered modest improvements in survival over the past two decades. Immune checkpoint modulation with programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition has shown the promise of changing the future landscape of cancer therapy. This update reviews recent advances in the treatment of NSCLC with immune checkpoint modulation. METHODS: Publications and proceedings were identified from searching PubMed and proceedings from the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and European Lung Cancer Conference...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424760/insights-into-local-tumor-microenvironment-immune-factors-associated-with-regression-of-cutaneous-melanoma-metastases-by-mycobacterium-bovis-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#2
Junbao Yang, Maris S Jones, Romela Irene Ramos, Alfred A Chan, Agnes F Lee, Leland J Foshag, Peter A Sieling, Mark B Faries, Delphine J Lee
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is listed as an intralesional (IL) therapeutic option for inoperable stage III in-transit melanoma in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. Although the mechanism is unknown, others have reported up to 50% regression of injected lesions, and 17% regression of uninjected lesions in immunocompetent patients after direct injection of BCG into metastatic melanoma lesions in the skin. BCG and other mycobacteria express ligands capable of stimulating the γ9δ2 T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424759/antiangiogenesis-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-and-personalized-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Samer Tabchi, Normand Blais
Over the past decade, patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have witnessed substantial advances in regards to therapeutic alternatives. Among newly developed agents, angiogenesis inhibitors were extensively tested in different settings and have produced some favorable outcomes despite several shortcomings. Bevacizumab is the most examined agent in this context and has demonstrated significant survival benefits when combined with standard chemotherapy in eligible patients. Preliminary results on the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC seem promising...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424758/redox-related-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-glioblastoma-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-cobalamin-and-dopamine-receptor-subtype-4
#4
Matthew Scott Schrier, Malav Suchin Trivedi, Richard Carlton Deth
Glioblastoma is an exceptionally difficult cancer to treat. Cancer is universally marked by epigenetic changes, which play key roles in sustaining a malignant phenotype, in addition to disease progression and patient survival. Studies have shown strong links between the cellular redox state and epigenetics. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates endogenous antioxidant production, and is aberrantly expressed in many cancers, including glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424757/the-emerging-role-of-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy-in-the-management-of-brain-metastases-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Annick Wong
Lung cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men and second leading in women. Brain metastases (BM) account for 10% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at initial presentation, with another 25-40% developing BM during the course of their disease. In the last decade, the field of precision oncology has led to the discovery of a multitude of heterogenous molecular abnormalities within NSCLC as well as the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target them. In this review, the focus will be on targeted therapy and immunotherapy that show efficacy in BM rather than conventional treatment for multiple BM (such as surgical resection, WBRT, or stereotactic radiosurgery)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421164/-targeted-chemotherapy-for-esophageal-cancer
#6
Joe Abdo, Devendra K Agrawal, Sumeet K Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421163/phase-i-trial-of-triapine-cisplatin-paclitaxel-chemotherapy-for-advanced-stage-or-metastatic-solid-tumor-cancers
#7
Charles A Kunos, Edward Chu, Della Makower, Andreas Kaubisch, Mario Sznol, Susan Percy Ivy
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an enzyme involved in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, which are critical for DNA replication and DNA repair. Triapine is a small-molecule RNR inhibitor. A phase I trial studied the safety of triapine in combination with cisplatin-paclitaxel in patients with advanced stage or metastatic solid tumor cancers in an effort to capitalize on disrupted DNA damage repair. A total of 13 patients with various previously treated cancers were given a 96-h continuous intravenous (i...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421162/r-ideal-a-framework-for-systematic-clinical-evaluation-of-technical-innovations-in-radiation-oncology
#8
Helena M Verkooijen, Linda G W Kerkmeijer, Clifton D Fuller, Robbert Huddart, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Marcel Verheij, Stella Mook, Arjun Sahgal, Emma Hall, Chris Schultz
The pace of innovation in radiation oncology is high and the window of opportunity for evaluation narrow. Financial incentives, industry pressure, and patients' demand for high-tech treatments have led to widespread implementation of innovations before, or even without, robust evidence of improved outcomes has been generated. The standard phase I-IV framework for drug evaluation is not the most efficient and desirable framework for assessment of technological innovations. In order to provide a standard assessment methodology for clinical evaluation of innovations in radiotherapy, we adapted the surgical IDEAL framework to fit the radiation oncology setting...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421161/incidence-of-immune-related-adverse-events-with-program-death-receptor-1-and-program-death-receptor-1-ligand-directed-therapies-in-genitourinary-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin L Maughan, Erin Bailey, David M Gill, Neeraj Agarwal
Program death receptor-1 (PD-1) and program death receptor-1 ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors are increasingly being used in the clinic to treat a growing number of malignancies, including many genitourinary (GU) malignancies. These immune-based therapies have demonstrated a distinct toxicity profile compared to traditional chemotherapy and the targeted therapies directed at the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway or the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Autoimmune toxicity targeting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or the endocrine organs are some of the more common adverse events (AEs) noted with these therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421160/the-unfolded-protein-response-at-the-intersection-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-function-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#10
REVIEW
Amado Carreras-Sureda, Philippe Pihán, Claudio Hetz
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria communication has emerged in recent years as a signaling hub regulating cellular physiology with a relevant contribution to diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. This functional integration is exerted through discrete interorganelle structures known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). At these domains, ER/mitochondria physically associate to dynamically adjust metabolic demands and the response to stress stimuli. Here, we provide a focused overview of how the ER shapes the function of the mitochondria, giving a special emphasis to the significance of local signaling of the unfolded protein response at MAMs...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421159/mammalian-swi-snf-enzymes-and-the-epigenetics-of-tumor-cell-metabolic-reprogramming
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Nickerson, Qiong Wu, Anthony N Imbalzano
Tumor cells reprogram their metabolism to survive and grow in a challenging microenvironment. Some of this reprogramming is performed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetics is in turn affected by metabolism; chromatin modifying enzymes are dependent on substrates that are also key metabolic intermediates. We have shown that the chromatin remodeling enzyme Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), an epigenetic regulator, is necessary for rapid breast cancer cell proliferation. The mechanism for this requirement is the BRG1-dependent transcription of key lipogenic enzymes and regulators...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421158/cytotoxicity-of-zardaverine-in-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-from-a-costello-syndrome-patient
#12
Donna M Cartledge, Katherine M Robbins, Katherine M Drake, Rachel Sternberg, Deborah L Stabley, Karen W Gripp, E Anders Kolb, Katia Sol-Church, Andrew D Napper
Costello syndrome (CS) patients suffer from a very high 10% incidence of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). As tools to discover targeted therapeutic leads, we used a CS patient-derived ERMS cell line (CS242 ERMS) harboring a homozygous p.G12A mutation in HRAS, and a control cell line derived from the same patient comprising non-malignant CS242 fibroblasts with a heterozygous p.G12A HRAS mutation. A library of 2,000 compounds with known pharmacological activities was screened for their effect on CS242 ERMS cell viability...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409123/autophagy-and-the-cell-cycle-a-complex-landscape
#13
REVIEW
Søs Grønbæk Mathiassen, Daniela De Zio, Francesco Cecconi
Autophagy is a self-degradation pathway, in which cytoplasmic material is sequestered in double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Under basal conditions, autophagy plays a homeostatic function. However, in response to various stresses, the pathway can be further induced to mediate cytoprotection. Defective autophagy has been linked to a number of human pathologies, including neoplastic transformation, even though autophagy can also sustain the growth of tumor cells in certain contexts...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405578/the-chaperone-trap1-as-a-modulator-of-the-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-cancer-cells
#14
REVIEW
Ionica Masgras, Carlos Sanchez-Martin, Giorgio Colombo, Andrea Rasola
Mitochondria can receive, integrate, and transmit a variety of signals to shape many biochemical activities of the cell. In the process of tumor onset and growth, mitochondria contribute to the capability of cells of escaping death insults, handling changes in ROS levels, rewiring metabolism, and reprograming gene expression. Therefore, mitochondria can tune the bioenergetic and anabolic needs of neoplastic cells in a rapid and flexible way, and these adaptations are required for cell survival and proliferation in the fluctuating environment of a rapidly growing tumor mass...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401062/genomic-insights-into-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#15
REVIEW
Danielle H Lapin, Maria Tsoli, David S Ziegler
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor with a peak incidence in middle childhood and a median survival of less than 1 year. The dismal prognosis associated with DIPG has been exacerbated by the failure of over 250 clinical trials to meaningfully improve survival compared with radiotherapy, the current standard of care. The traditional practice to not biopsy DIPG led to a scarcity in available tissue samples for laboratory analysis that till recently hindered therapeutic advances...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401061/transcription-factor-gfi1b-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Eduardo Anguita, Francisco J Candel, Alberto Chaparro, Juan J Roldán-Etcheverry
Many human diseases arise through dysregulation of genes that control key cell fate pathways. Transcription factors (TFs) are major cell fate regulators frequently involved in cancer, particularly in leukemia. The GFI1B gene, coding a TF, was identified by sequence homology with the oncogene growth factor independence 1 (GFI1). Both GFI1 and GFI1B have six C-terminal C2H2 zinc fingers and an N-terminal SNAG (SNAIL/GFI1) transcriptional repression domain. Gfi1 is essential for neutrophil differentiation in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401060/therapeutic-targeting-of-histone-modifications-in-adult-and-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#17
REVIEW
Maria J Williams, Will G B Singleton, Stephen P Lowis, Karim Malik, Kathreena M Kurian
Recent exciting work partly through The Cancer Genome Atlas has implicated epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications in the development of both pediatric and adult high-grade glioma (HGG). Histone lysine methylation has emerged as an important player in regulating gene expression and chromatin function. Lysine (K) 27 (K27) is a critical residue in all seven histone 3 variants and the subject of posttranslational histone modifications, as it can be both methylated and acetylated. In pediatric HGG, two critical single-point mutations occur in the H3F3A gene encoding the regulatory histone variant H3...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396848/update-on-the-treatment-of-metastatic-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-new-era-of-personalized-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Sara Victoria Soldera, Natasha B Leighl
Despite advances in molecular characterization and lung cancer treatment in recent years, treatment options for patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SCC) remain limited as actionable mutations are rarely detected in this subtype. This article reviews potential molecular targets and associated novel agents for the treatment of advanced SCC in the era of personalized medicine. Elements of various pathways including epidermal growth factor receptor, PI3KCA, fibroblast growth factor receptor, retinoblastoma, cyclin-dependent kinases, discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition may play pivotal roles in the development of SCC and are under investigation for drug development...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393049/apparatus-for-histological-validation-of-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-human-prostate
#19
Roger M Bourne, Colleen Bailey, Edward William Johnston, Hayley Pye, Susan Heavey, Hayley Whitaker, Bernard Siow, Alex Freeman, Greg L Shaw, Ashwin Sridhar, Thomy Mertzanidou, David J Hawkes, Daniel C Alexander, Shonit Punwani, Eleftheria Panagiotaki
This article describes apparatus to aid histological validation of magnetic resonance imaging studies of the human prostate. The apparatus includes a 3D-printed patient-specific mold that facilitates aligned in vivo and ex vivo imaging, in situ tissue fixation, and tissue sectioning with minimal organ deformation. The mold and a dedicated container include MRI-visible landmarks to enable consistent tissue positioning and minimize image registration complexity. The inclusion of high spatial resolution ex vivo imaging aids in registration of in vivo MRI and histopathology data...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382277/editorial-aurora-kinases-classical-mitotic-roles-non-canonical-functions-and-translational-views
#20
EDITORIAL
Ignacio Pérez de Castro, Mar Carmena, Claude Prigent, David M Glover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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