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Frontiers in Oncology

Laura Caleca, Irene Catucci, Gisella Figlioli, Loris De Cecco, Tina Pesaran, Maggie Ward, Sara Volorio, Anna Falanga, Marina Marchetti, Maria Iascone, Carlo Tondini, Alberto Zambelli, Jacopo Azzollini, Siranoush Manoukian, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo
PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) was initially identified as a binding partner of BRCA2. It interacts also with BRCA1 forming a complex promoting DNA repair by homologous recombination. Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 DNA repair genes are associated with high risk of developing breast cancer. Mutation screening in these breast cancer predisposition genes is routinely performed and allows the identification of individuals who carry pathogenic variants and are at risk of developing the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Xiang Wang, Yuanliang Yan, Xi Chen, Shuangshuang Zeng, Long Qian, Xinxin Ren, Jie Wei, Xue Yang, Yangying Zhou, Zhicheng Gong, Zhijie Xu
Marsdenia tenacissima (MT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used for thousands of years to treat asthma, tracheitis, rheumatism, etc. An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the antitumor effects of MT. The effects of MT on cancer are the result of various activated signaling pathways and inhibiting factors and the high expression levels of regulatory proteins. MT can inhibit different cancer types including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), malignant tumors, hepatic carcinoma, and so on...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
John Aggelidakis, Aikaterini Berdiaki, Dragana Nikitovic, Antonis Papoutsidakis, Dionysios J Papachristou, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, George N Tzanakakis
Biglycan, a small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP), is an important participant in bone homeostasis and development as well as in bone pathology. In the present study biglycan was identified as a positive regulator of MG63 osteosarcoma cell growth ( p ≤ 0.001). IGF-I was shown to increase biglycan expression ( p ≤ 0.01), whereas biglycan-deficiency attenuated significantly both basal and IGF-I induced cell proliferation of MG63 cells (p ≤ 0.001; p ≤ 0.01, respectively). These effects were executed through the IGF-IR receptor whose activation was strongly attenuated ( p ≤ 0...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lili He, Jinhong Zhu, Fei Han, Yingzi Tang, Chunlei Zhou, Jincheng Dai, Yizhen Wang, Haixia Zhou, Jing He, Haiyan Wu
Background: Neuroblastoma, a neuroendocrine tumor, stems from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered a number of neuroblastoma susceptibility genes in Caucasians including LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) . Objective: We conducted a three-center case-control study including 313 cases and 716 controls with the purpose to evaluate the association between five GWAS-identified LMO1 variants (rs110419 A>G, rs4758051 G>A, rs10840002 A>G, rs204938 A>G, and rs2168101 G>T) and neuroblastoma susceptibility in eastern Chinese children...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Garrett Green, Ellen Kim, Ruben Carmona, Hanjie Shen, James D Murphy, Loren K Mell
Purpose: Treatments for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) negatively impact swallowing function, but the long-term incidence of severe toxicity requiring esophageal dilation is not well-documented in the population. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of long-term esophageal dilation across varying treatments for LAHNC. Methods and Materials: We identified 5,223 patients with LAHNC diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 in the SEER-Medicare database. We compared the incidence of esophageal dilation for surgery alone vs...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Jihye Kim, Joon-Yong Chung, Tae-Joong Kim, Jeong-Won Lee, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae, Chel Hun Choi, Stephen M Hewitt
We previously showed that PAUF is involved in tumor development and metastases in cervical cancer. This study was conducted to discover novel molecular markers linked with PAUF in cervical cancer using genomic network analysis and to assess their prognostic value in cervical cancer. Three PAUF-related genes were identified using in-silico network-based analysis of the open genome datasets. To assess the expression of these genes and their relationship to the outcome of cervical cancer, immunohistochemical analysis was performed using cervical cancer TMA...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Massimo Romani, Maria Pia Pistillo, Roberta Carosio, Anna Morabito, Barbara Banelli
Targeting the Immune Checkpoint molecules (ICs; CTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1/2, and others) which provide inhibitory signals to T cells, dramatically improves survival in hard-to-treat tumors. The establishment of an immunosuppressive environment prevents endogenous immune response in glioblastoma; therefore, manipulating the host immune system seems a reasonable strategy also for this tumor. In glioma patients the accumulation of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells and Treg expressing high levels of CTLA-4 and PD-1, or the high expression of PD-L1 in glioma cells correlates with WHO high grade and short survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Bryan G Harder, Mylan R Blomquist, Junwen Wang, Anthony J Kim, Graeme F Woodworth, Jeffrey A Winkles, Joseph C Loftus, Nhan L Tran
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common, deadly, and difficult-to-treat adult brain tumors. Surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) administration, is the current treatment modality, but this regimen only modestly improves overall patient survival. Invasion of cells into the surrounding healthy brain tissue prevents complete surgical resection and complicates treatment strategies with the goal of preserving neurological function. Despite significant efforts to increase our understanding of GBM, there have been relatively few therapeutic advances since 2005 and even fewer treatments designed to effectively treat recurrent tumors that are resistant to therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Guohui Fan, Dan Hu, Xinran Zhang, Feng Peng, Xiandong Lin, Gang Chen, Binying Liang, Hejun Zhang, Yan Xia, Xiongwei Zheng, Jianzheng Jie, Wenquan Niu
Background: We aimed to investigate the interaction between prediabetes and the ABO blood types in predicting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)-specific mortality by analysing data from the FIESTA study on normal/prediabetic patients with ESCC. Methods: Total 1,857 normal/prediabetic patients with ESCC who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy between January 2000 and December 2010 and survived hospitalization were analyzable, with follow-up beginning in 2000 and ending in 2015. Results: At the end of the follow-up, there were 1,161 survivors and 696 non-survivors...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Joel D Leverson, Dan Cojocari
BCL-2 family proteins regulate the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and play a key role in the development and health of multicellular organisms. The dynamics of these proteins' expression and interactions determine the survival of all cells in an organism, whether the healthy cells of a fully competent immune system or the diseased cells of an individual with cancer. Anti-apoptotic proteins like BCL-2, BCL-XL , and MCL-1 are well-known for maintaining tumor cell survival and are therefore attractive drug targets...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Rui Suzuki, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Kei Kushitani, Yuichiro Kai, Takahiro Kambara, Yukio Takeshima
Dysregulation of miR-182 and miR-183 has been implicated in the progression of several human cancers. Our previous study showed that miR-182 and miR-183 are upregulated in malignant mesothelioma. However, their biological functions remain unclear. We performed in-situ hybridization to analyze the expression of miR-182 and miR-183 in human tissues. Functional analysis was performed by treatment of two mesothelioma cell lines (ACC-MESO1 and CRL-5915) with miR-182 and miR-183 inhibitors. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were conducted to analyze the expression of FOXO1, a known target of both miR-182 and miR-183...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Zhenhua Shang, Xue Wang, Hao Yan, Bo Cui, Qi Wang, Jiangtao Wu, Xin Cui, Jin Li, Tongwen Ou, Kun Yang
Background: Epidemiological evidences regarding the association between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of prostate cancer (PC) is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the controversy that exists. Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, BIOSIS, Scopus, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG, and CQVIP were used to search for and identify eligible studies published until December 31, 2017. Pooled effect estimates for the relative risk (RR) were computed through fixed-effects or random-effects models as appropriate...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Cesare Piazza, Giorgio Peretti, Vincent Vander Poorten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Karine A Al Feghali, Debra N Yeboa, Beth Chasen, Maria K Gule, Jason M Johnson, Caroline Chung
We hereby report the case of a patient with optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM), whose diagnosis and multidisciplinary management was guided by the use of Gallium-68 (68 Ga)-labeled dodecanetetraacetic acid-tyrosine-3-octreotate (DOTATATE) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan. We briefly review the diagnosis and management of ONSM, and review the literature on the role and current status of nuclear imaging with somatostatin receptor ligands in the non-invasive diagnosis and management of meningiomas...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Anna C Filley, Mario Henriquez, Mahua Dey
T cell chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology has allowed for the introduction of a high degree of tumor selectivity into adoptive cell transfer therapies. Evolution of this technology has produced a robust antitumor immunotherapeutic strategy that has resulted in dramatic outcomes in liquid cancers. CAR-expressing T-cells (CARTs) targeting CD19 and CD20 have been successfully used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, producing sustained tumor regressions in a majority of treated patients. These encouraging results have led to a historic and unprecedented FDA approval of CTL019, Novartis' CAR T-cell therapy for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lorenzo Giannini, Fabiola Incandela, Marco Fiore, Alessandro Gronchi, Silvia Stacchiotti, Claudia Sangalli, Cesare Piazza
In the last decades, radiotherapy (RT) has become one of the cornerstones in the treatment of head and neck (HN) malignancies and has paralleled an increase in long-term patient survival. This lead to a concomitant increase in the incidence of radiation-induced sarcomas (RIS) of the irradiated field, with an annual rate up to 0.17%. The new techniques of irradiation do not seem to influence the risk of RIS of the HN (RISHN), which mainly develop within the middle-dose field. The median latency of RISHN after RT is 10-12 years and osteosarcoma is the most represented histotype, even though there is a high variability in time of occurrence and histological features observed...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Massimo Romani, Maria Pia Pistillo, Barbara Banelli
Glioblastoma is one of the first tumors where the biological changes accompanying a single epigenetic modification, the methylation of the MGMT gene, were found to be of clinical relevance. The exploration of the epigenomic landscape of glioblastoma has allowed to identify patients carrying a diffuse hypermethylation at gene promoters and with better outcome. Epigenetic and genetic data have led to the definition of major subgroups of glioma and were the basis of the current WHO classification of CNS tumors and of a novel classification based solely on DNA methylation data that shows a remarkable diagnostic precision...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Luigi Cormio, Luca Cindolo, Francesco Troiano, Michele Marchioni, Giuseppe Di Fino, Vito Mancini, Ugo Falagario, Oscar Selvaggio, Francesca Sanguedolce, Francesca Fortunato, Luigi Schips, Giuseppe Carrieri
The present study aimed to determine the ability of novel nomograms based onto readily-available clinical parameters, like those related to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), in predicting the outcome of first prostate biopsy (PBx). To do so, we analyzed our Internal Review Board-approved prospectively-maintained PBx database. Patients with PSA>20 ng/ml were excluded because of their high risk of harboring prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 2577 were found to be eligible for study analyses. The ability of age, PSA, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate volume (PVol), post-void residual urinary volume (PVR), and peak flow rate (PFR) in predicting PCa and clinically-significant PCa (CSPCa)was tested by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kripa Guram, Maria Nunez, John Einck, Loren K Mell, Ezra Cohen, P Dominick Sanders, Sayuri Miyauchi, Elizabeth Weihe, Razelle Kurzrock, Sarah Boles, Andrew B Sharabi
Background: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of the maxillary sinus is an extremely rare malignancy of the head and neck. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for UPS; however, proximity to vital structures makes it challenging to achieve negative surgical margins. Adjuvant therapy including radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy is generally indicated. Despite advances in multimodality treatment, objective response rates to available therapies and prognosis of metastatic UPS remain dismal...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
H Ian Robins, HuyTram N Nguyen, Aaron Field, Steven Howard, Shahriar Salamat, Dustin A Deming
Tumor Treating Field (TTFields) therapy has demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 study of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GB) following radiation (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ). We report the appearance of an isolated satellite anterior temporal lobe lesion, 2 months post primary RT/TMZ directed at the primary GB (MGMT methylated) parietal lobe lesion and one adjuvant cycle of TMZ and TTFields. The mean RT dose delivered to the temporal lobe lesion was negligible, i.e., 4.53 ± 0.95 Gy. Mapping of the generated TTFields demonstrated that both lesions were encompassed by a field intensity in a therapeutic range...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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