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Frontiers in Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540256/concurrent-afatinib-and-whole-brain-radiotherapy-in-exon-19-del-egfr-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report-and-mini-review-of-the-literature
#1
Chukwuka Eze, Nina-Sophie Hegemann, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Maurice Dantes, Farkhad Manapov
Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are found in approximately 3.8% of non-small cell lung cancer cases with an increased incidence in adenocarcinoma, and approximately one-third of patients will present with concomitant brain metastases. We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient with stage IV exon 19-del-EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma who progressed on second-generation TKI therapy with manifestation of symptomatic simultaneous diffuse brain and LM. Whole-brain radiotherapy with concurrent afatinib resulted in an almost complete regression of neurological symptoms as well as good, durable radiological response...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536671/prognostic-significance-of-glutathione-peroxidase-levels-gpx1-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#2
Didier Dequanter, Ruveyda Dok, Louet Koolen, Vincent Vander Poorten, Sandra Nuyts
INTRODUCTION: To date, no reliable prognostic biological marker for all squamous cell carcinoma located in different subsites of the head and neck region has been identified and used in daily routine. In line with our previous studies, in which we showed a role of glutathione and associated enzymes as potential biological markers, we investigated the relationship between GPx1 and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: The association between GPx1 and patient and tumor related factors were investigated in 87 pretreatment biopsies from head and neck cancer patients treated by (chemo)radiation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536670/evidence-based-treatment-options-in-recurrent-and-or-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#3
REVIEW
Athanassios Argiris, Kevin J Harrington, Makoto Tahara, Jeltje Schulten, Pauline Chomette, Ana Ferreira Castro, Lisa Licitra
The major development of the past decade in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN) was the introduction of cetuximab in combination with platinum plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (CT), followed by maintenance cetuximab (the "EXTREME" regimen). This regimen is supported by a phase 3 randomized trial and subsequent observational studies, and it confers well-documented survival benefits, with median survival ranging between approximately 10 and 14 months, overall response rates between 36 and 44%, and disease control rates of over 80%...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534008/a-comparison-of-pediatric-vs-adult-patients-with-the-ewing-sarcoma-family-of-tumors
#4
Vivek Verma, Kyle A Denniston, Christopher J Lin, Chi Lin
PURPOSE: This study sought to identify differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatments between adult and pediatric patients with the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). METHODS: By using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1983 to 2013, 1,870 patients were analyzed (n = 976 pediatric, n = 894 adult). Between the two groups, demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collated and compared. The chi-square test determined differences in proportions of the variables between groups...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529925/targeting-lung-cancer-stem-cells-research-and-clinical-impacts
#5
REVIEW
Norashikin Zakaria, Nazilah Abdul Satar, Noor Hanis Abu Halim, Siti Hawa Ngalim, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Juntang Lin, Badrul Hisham Yahaya
Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 1.8 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths in 2012. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is one of two types of lung cancer, accounts for 85-90% of all lung cancers. Despite advances in therapy, lung cancer still remains a leading cause of death. Cancer relapse and dissemination after treatment indicates the existence of a niche of cancer cells that are not fully eradicated by current therapies. These chemoresistant populations of cancer cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs) because they possess the self-renewal and differentiation capabilities similar to those of normal stem cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529924/regulation-of-cancer-cell-responsiveness-to-ionizing-radiation-treatment-by-cyclic-amp-response-element-binding-nuclear-transcription-factor
#6
REVIEW
Francesca D'Auria, Lucia Centurione, Maria Antonietta Centurione, Antonio Angelini, Roberta Di Pietro
Cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) protein is a member of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family of transcription factors that play an important role in the cell response to different environmental stimuli leading to proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. A number of studies highlight the involvement of CREB in the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) therapy, demonstrating a relationship between IR-induced CREB family members' activation and cell survival. Consistent with these observations, we have recently demonstrated that CREB and ATF-1 are expressed in leukemia cell lines and that low-dose radiation treatment can trigger CREB activation, leading to survival of erythro-leukemia cells (K562)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523248/the-keap1-nrf2-system-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Keiko Taguchi, Masayuki Yamamoto
Cancer cells first adapt to the microenvironment and then propagate. Mutations in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes are frequently found in cancer cells. Comprehensive genomic analyses have identified somatic mutations and other alterations in the KEAP1 or NRF2 genes and in well-known tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, such as TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, and PIK3CA, in various types of cancer. Aberrant NRF2 activation in cancer cells occurs through somatic mutations in the KEAP1 or NRF2 gene as well as through other mechanisms that disrupt the binding of KEAP1 to NRF2...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516063/modulation-of-ca-2-signaling-by-anti-apoptotic-b-cell-lymphoma-2-proteins-at-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondrial-interface
#8
REVIEW
Tim Vervliet, Eva Clerix, Bruno Seitaj, Hristina Ivanova, Giovanni Monaco, Geert Bultynck
Mitochondria are important regulators of cell death and cell survival. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels are critically involved in both of these processes. On the one hand, excessive mitochondrial Ca(2+) leads to Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and thus apoptosis. On the other hand, mitochondria need Ca(2+) in order to efficiently fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle and maintain adequate mitochondrial bioenergetics. For obtaining this Ca(2+), the mitochondria are largely dependent on close contact sites with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516062/endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondrial-ca-2-fluxes-underlying-cancer-cell-survival
#9
REVIEW
Hristina Ivanova, Martijn Kerkhofs, Rita M La Rovere, Geert Bultynck
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are crucial, ubiquitous, intracellular second messengers required for functional mitochondrial metabolism during uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. The mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are connected via "mitochondria-associated ER membranes" (MAMs) where ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer occurs, impacting the mitochondrial biology related to several aspects of cellular survival, autophagy, metabolism, cell death sensitivity, and metastasis, all cancer hallmarks. Cancer cells appear addicted to these constitutive ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes for their survival, since they drive the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the production of mitochondrial substrates needed for nucleoside synthesis and proper cell cycle progression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512625/using-murine-models-to-investigate-tumor-lymphoid-interactions-spotlight-on-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Tyler A Herek, Christine E Cutucache
The role of the tumor microenvironment in leukemias and lymphomas is well established, yet the intricacies of how the malignant cells regulate and influence their non-malignant counterparts remain elusive. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an expansion of malignant CD5(+)CD19(+) B cells, yet the non-malignant T cells play just as large of a role in disease presentation and etiology. Herein, we review the dynamic tumor cell to lymphoid repertoire interactions found in two non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes: CLL and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512624/the-close-interconnection-between-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-mitophagy-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Matteo Bordi, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Recent decades have revealed the shape changes of mitochondria and their regulators to be main players in a plethora of physiological cell processes. Mitochondria are extremely dynamic organelles whose highly controlled morphological changes respond to specific and diverse pathophysiological needs. Thus, their qualitative control is crucial for the determination of cell function and fate. Moreover, ever-new metabolic changes, mainly attributable to mitochondrial (dys)functions, are strongly connected to cancer and its microenvironment...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512623/ca-2-microdomains-in-t-lymphocytes
#12
REVIEW
Insa M A Wolf, Andreas H Guse
Early Ca(2+) signaling is characterized by occurrence of Ca(2+) microdomains formed by opening of single or clusters of Ca(2+) channels, thereby initiating first signaling and subsequently activating global Ca(2+) signaling mechanisms. However, only few data are available focusing on the first seconds and minutes of Ca(2+) microdomain formation and related signaling pathways in activated T-lymphocytes. In this review, we condense current knowledge on Ca(2+) microdomain formation in T-lymphocytes and early Ca(2+) signaling, function of Ca(2+) microdomains, and microdomain organization...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497027/data-based-radiation-oncology-design-of-clinical-trials-in-the-toxicity-biomarkers-era
#13
REVIEW
David Azria, Ariane Lapierre, Sophie Gourgou, Dirk De Ruysscher, Jacques Colinge, Philippe Lambin, Muriel Brengues, Tim Ward, Søren M Bentzen, Hubert Thierens, Tiziana Rancati, Christopher J Talbot, Ana Vega, Sarah L Kerns, Christian Nicolaj Andreassen, Jenny Chang-Claude, Catharine M L West, Corey M Gill, Barry S Rosenstein
The ability to stratify patients using a set of biomarkers, which predict that toxicity risk would allow for radiotherapy (RT) modulation and serve as a valuable tool for precision medicine and personalized RT. For patients presenting with tumors with a low risk of recurrence, modifying RT schedules to avoid toxicity would be clinically advantageous. Indeed, for the patient at low risk of developing radiation-associated toxicity, use of a hypofractionated protocol could be proposed leading to treatment time reduction and a cost-utility advantage...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497026/chchd4-regulates-intracellular-oxygenation-and-perinuclear-distribution-of-mitochondria
#14
Luke W Thomas, Oliver Staples, Mark Turmaine, Margaret Ashcroft
Hypoxia is a characteristic of the tumor microenvironment and is known to contribute to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dimeric transcription factors control the cellular response to reduced oxygenation by regulating the expression of genes involved in metabolic adaptation, cell motility, and survival. Alterations in mitochondrial metabolism are not only a downstream consequence of HIF-signaling but mitochondria reciprocally regulate HIF signaling through multiple means, including oxygen consumption, metabolic intermediates, and reactive oxygen species generation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491821/editorial-exploring-cancer-metabolic-reprogramming-through-molecular-imaging
#15
EDITORIAL
Franca Podo, Zaver M Bhujwalla, Egidio Iorio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491820/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-unfolded-protein-response-and-cancer-cell-fate
#16
REVIEW
Marco Corazzari, Mara Gagliardi, Gian Maria Fimia, Mauro Piacentini
Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in a stress condition termed "ER stress" determining the activation of a finely regulated program defined as unfolded protein response (UPR) and whose primary aim is to restore this organelle's physiological activity. Several physiological and pathological stimuli deregulate normal ER activity causing UPR activation, such as hypoxia, glucose shortage, genome instability, and cytotoxic compounds administration. Some of these stimuli are frequently observed during uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells, resulting in tumor core formation and stage progression...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487844/inflammation-in-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-carcinoma-basic-scientific-approach
#17
REVIEW
Božo Krušlin, Davor Tomas, Tihana Džombeta, Marija Milković-Periša, Monika Ulamec
Chronic inflammation is associated with both benign conditions and cancer. Likewise, inflammatory cells are quite common in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic tissue harboring cancer. Triggers that activate inflammatory pathways in the prostate remain a subject of argument and are likely to be multifactorial, some of these being bacterial antigens, different chemical irritations, and metabolic disorders. Acute and chronic inflammation in prostate leads to accumulation of immunocompetent cells, mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages, but also neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, depending on the type of offending agent...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484682/vitamin-c-transporters-in-cancer-current-understanding-and-gaps-in-knowledge
#18
REVIEW
Christina Wohlrab, Elisabeth Phillips, Gabi U Dachs
Sufficient uptake and whole body distribution of vitamin C (ascorbate) is essential for many biochemical processes, including some that are vital for tumor growth and spread. Uptake of ascorbate into cancer cells is modulated by availability, tumor blood flow, tissue diffusion parameters, and ascorbate transport proteins. Uptake into cells is mediated by two families of transport proteins, namely, the solute carrier gene family 23, consisting of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) 1 and 2, and the SLC2 family of glucose transporters (GLUTs)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459042/autophagy-regulating-micrornas-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Devrim Gozuacik, Yunus Akkoc, Deniz Gulfem Ozturk, Muhammed Kocak
Macroautophagy (autophagy herein) is a cellular stress response and a survival pathway that is responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins, protein aggregates, as well as damaged organelles in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Consequently, abnormalities of autophagy are associated with a number of diseases, including Alzheimers's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. According to the current view, autophagy seems to serve as a tumor suppressor in the early phases of cancer formation, yet in later phases, autophagy may support and/or facilitate tumor growth, spread, and contribute to treatment resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459041/advancing-cancer-therapy-with-present-and-emerging-immuno-oncology-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Jeff Kamta, Maher Chaar, Anusha Ande, Deborah A Altomare, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Immuno-oncology (I-O) is a young and growing field on the frontier of cancer therapy. Contrary to cancer therapies that directly target malignant cells, I-O therapies stimulate the body's immune system to target and attack the tumor, which is otherwise invisible to, or inhibiting the immune response. To this end, several methods have been developed: First, passive therapies that enable T-cells to fight the tumor without direct manipulation, typically through binding and modifying the intracellular signaling of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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