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Frontiers in Oncology

Vahid Atashgaran, Joseph Wrin, Simon Charles Barry, Pallave Dasari, Wendy V Ingman
Fluctuations in circulating estrogen and progesterone across the menstrual cycle lead to increased breast cancer susceptibility in women; however, the biological basis for this increased risk is not well understood. Estrogen and progesterone have important roles in normal mammary gland development, where they direct dynamic interactions among the hormonally regulated mammary epithelial, stromal, and immune cell compartments. The continuous fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone over a woman's reproductive lifetime affect the turnover of mammary epithelium, stem cells, and the extracellular matrix, as well as regulate the phenotype and function of mammary stromal and immune cells, including macrophages and regulatory T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Menglin Cheng, Zaver M Bhujwalla, Kristine Glunde
All cancers tested so far display abnormal choline and ethanolamine phospholipid metabolism, which has been detected with numerous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches in cells, animal models of cancer, as well as the tumors of cancer patients. Since the discovery of this metabolic hallmark of cancer, many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular origins of deregulated choline metabolism, to identify targets for cancer treatment, and to develop MRS approaches that detect choline and ethanolamine compounds for clinical use in diagnosis and treatment monitoring...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Simona Reina, Francesca Guarino, Andrea Magrì, Vito De Pinto
VDAC3 is the least known isoform of the mammalian voltage-dependent anion selective channels of the outer mitochondrial membrane. It has been recently shown that cysteine residues of VDAC3 are found over-oxidized. The VDAC3 cysteine over-oxidation was associated with the oxidizing environment and the abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intermembrane space. In this work, we have examined the role of VDAC3 in general pathogenic mechanisms at the basis of mitochondrial dysfunction and involving the mitochondrial quality control...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Noriko Mori, Flonné Wildes, Tomoyo Takagi, Kristine Glunde, Zaver M Bhujwalla
An increase of cellular phosphocholine (PC) and total choline (tCho)-containing compounds as well as alterations in lipids have been consistently observed in cancer cells and tissue. These metabolic changes are closely related to malignant transformation, invasion, and metastasis. The study of cancer cells in culture plays an important role in understanding mechanisms leading to altered choline (Cho) and lipid metabolism in cancer, as it provides a carefully controlled environment. However, a solid tumor is a complex system with a unique tumor microenvironment frequently containing hypoxic and acidic regions and areas of nutrient deprivation and necrosis...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Sandro M Krieg, Thomas Picht, Nico Sollmann, Ina Bährend, Florian Ringel, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Bernhard Meyer, Phiroz E Tarapore
INTRODUCTION: Preoperative mapping of motor areas with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been shown to improve surgical outcomes for peri-Rolandic lesions and, in particular, for gliomas. However, the impact of this technique on surgical outcomes for peri-Rolandic metastatic lesions is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of nTMS on surgical outcomes for peri-Rolandic metastatic lesions, various clinical parameters were analyzed in our international study group...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Hongmei Lin, Yuhchyau Chen, Anhui Shi, Kishan J Pandya, Rong Yu, Yannan Yuan, Jiancheng Li, Hang Li, Yingjie Wang, Tingyi Xia, Linchun Feng, Huimin Ma, Jianhao Geng, Guangying Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) but is associated with poor chest tumor control. Here, we report results of a randomized phase 3 study comparing two CCRT regimens in improving chest tumor control by low-dose paclitaxel chemoradiation for LA-NSCLC. METHODS: Due to the logistics of local referral pattern, the study was designed to enroll patients with stage III LA-NSCLC who had completed 2-4 cycles of full-dose chemotherapy...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Cora A Ricker, Yuan Pan, David H Gutmann, Charles Keller
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from germline mutations of the NF1 gene, creating a predisposition to low-grade gliomas (LGGs; pilocytic astrocytoma) in young children. Insufficient data and resources represent major challenges to identifying the best possible drug therapies for children with this tumor. Herein, we summarize the currently available cell lines, genetically engineered mouse models, and therapeutic targets for these LGGs. Conspicuously absent are human tumor-derived cell lines or patient-derived xenograft models for NF1-LGG...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Chelsey L Patten, Christine E Cutucache
Dozens of murine models of indolent and aggressive B-cell lymphomas have been generated to date. These include those manifesting chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), as well as xenografts of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). These models have led to an improved understanding of disease etiology, B-cell biology, immunomodulation, and the importance of the tumor microenvironment. Despite these efforts in CLL, DLBCL, and MCL, considerably little progress toward a model of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) has been accomplished...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Georg F Weber
Over the past decade, research into the unique ways, in which cancer cells skew their metabolism, has had a renaissance-for the repeated time over more than 80 years since the discovery of an inherent preference for glycolysis. Importantly, the Warburg effect that arises in primary neoplasms is not the sole prominent metabolic phenomenon. Once the transformed cells are shed from their initial growth and begin the process of metastasis, their energy requirements change and they adapt to the increased demand for adenosine triphosphate, which if not satisfied would lead to anoikis...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Valérie Dutoit, Denis Migliorini, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Paul R Walker
Immunotherapy is now advancing at remarkable pace for tumors located in various tissues, including the brain. Strategies launched decades ago, such as tumor antigen-specific therapeutic vaccines and adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are being complemented by molecular engineering approaches allowing the development of tumor-specific TCR transgenic and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. In addition, the spectacular results obtained in the last years with immune checkpoint inhibitors are transfiguring immunotherapy, these agents being used both as single molecules, but also in combination with other immunotherapeutic modalities...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Malgorzata Banys-Paluchowski, Natalia Krawczyk, Tanja Fehm
The phenomenon of hematogenous tumor cell dissemination in patients with solid tumors has been extensively explored over the last decades. Breast cancer research investigated at first disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow; however, the focus soon moved to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood as blood is easily accessible without an invasive procedure. The prognostic significance of CTC presence has been shown in large studies both in adjuvant and metastatic setting and commercially available detection assays have been evaluated for monitoring in clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Jose Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Viktor H Koelzer, Karl Steuer, Ulrike Camenisch Gross, Dieter Zimmermann, Aino Paasinen-Sohns, Kirsten D Mertz, Gieri Cathomas
BACKGROUND: Personalized therapy of colorectal cancer is influenced by morphological, molecular, and host-related factors. Here, we report the comprehensive clinicopathological and molecular analysis of an extra-gestational colorectal choriocarcinoma in a patient with probable Lynch syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old female with history of gastric cancer at age 36 presented with a transmurally invasive tumor of the right hemicolon and liver metastasis. A right hemicolectomy was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Francesco Gatto, Marco Maruzzo, Cristina Magro, Umberto Basso, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) vastly improved since the introduction of antiangiogenic-targeted therapy. However, it is still unclear which biological processes underlie ccRCC aggressiveness and affect prognosis. Here, we checked whether a recently discovered systems biomarker based on plasmatic or urinary measurements of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) aggregated into diagnostic scores correlated with ccRCC prognosis. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of ccRCC (23 metastatic) were prospectively enrolled, and their urine and plasma biomarker scores were correlated to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as either a dichotomous ("Low" vs...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Tom G Keulers, Marco B E Schaaf, Kasper M A Rouschop
Autophagy is best known as a lysosomal degradation and recycling pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis. During autophagy, cytoplasmic content is recognized and packed in autophagic vacuoles, or autophagosomes, and targeted for degradation. However, during the last years, it has become evident that the role of autophagy is not restricted to degradation alone but also mediates unconventional forms of secretion. Furthermore, cells with defects in autophagy apparently are able to reroute their cargo, like mitochondria, to the extracellular environment; effects that contribute to an array of pathologies...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Kaori Sasai, Warapen Treekitkarnmongkol, Kazuharu Kai, Hiroshi Katayama, Subrata Sen
Aurora kinases play critical roles in regulating spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis to ensure faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitotic cell division cycle. Molecular and cell biological studies have revealed that Aurora kinases, at physiological levels, orchestrate complex sequential cellular processes at distinct subcellular locations through functional interactions with its various substrates. Aberrant expression of Aurora kinases, on the other hand, cause defects in mitotic spindle assembly, checkpoint response activation, and chromosome segregation leading to chromosomal instability...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Juan Ruiz-Bañobre, Urbano Anido, Ihab Abdulkader, José Antúnez-López, Rafael López-López, Jorge García-González
INTRODUCTION: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), which represents around 20% of renal cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that includes different tumor types with several clinical and molecular phenotypes. Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has shown not only an overall survival advantage when compared to everolimus but also a relatively good side-effect profile among patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Shaakir Hasan, Anthony Ricco, Kaylette Jenkins, Rachelle Lanciano, Alexandra Hanlon, John Lamond, Jun Yang, Jing Feng, Michael Good, Joel Noumoff, Luther Brady
PURPOSE: To define prognostic factors associated with improved survival and local control (LC) for gynecologic cancer recurrences limited to the pelvis and para-aortic (PA) region using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS: Between 2/2008 and 7/2014, 30 women (35 targets) with pelvic or PA recurrence of endometrioid (n = 12), cervical (n = 11), ovarian (n = 3), uterine-serous (n = 2), or carcinosarcoma (n = 2) cancer were treated with SBRT...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Timothy Malouff, Nathan R Bennion, Vivek Verma, Gabriel A Martinez, Nathan Balkman, Abhijeet Bhirud, Tanner Smith, Chi Lin
OBJECTIVES: To determine if five commonly used prognostic indices (PIs) - recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR), Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and the diagnosis-specific GPA - are valid following delay between diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases. METHODS: In a single-institutional cohort, records of patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) more than 30 days from diagnosis of brain metastases were collected, and five PI scores were calculated for each patient...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
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