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Frontiers in Oncology

Onoufrios Tsavaris, Panagiota Economopoulou, Ioannis Kotsantis, Lazaros Reppas, Chrysanthi Avgerinou, Nikolaos Spathas, Maria Prevezanou, Amanda Psyrri
Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignancy characterized by the production of cartilage matrix, displaying heterogeneous histopathology and clinical behavior. Due to lack of effective treatment for advanced disease, the clinical management of metastatic chondrosarcoma is exceptionally challenging. Chondrosarcomas harbor molecular abnormalities, such as overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-alpha and PDGFR-beta, which are required for cancer development, progression, and metastasis. Pazopanib is a potent and selective multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which co-inhibits stem cell growth factor receptor (c-KIT), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), PDGFR, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with advanced previously treated soft tissue sarcoma...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Muhammad Ramzan Manwar Hussain, Zeeshan Iqbal, Wajahat M Qazi, Daniel C Hoessli
The structural and functional diversity of the human proteome is mediated by N - and O- linked glycosylations that define the individual properties of extracellular and membrane-associated proteins. In this study, we utilized different computational tools to perform in silico based genome-wide mapping of 1,117 human proteins and unravel the contribution of both penultimate and vicinal amino acids for the asparagine-based, site-specific N -glycosylation. Our results correlate the non-canonical involvement of charge and polarity environment of classified amino acids (designated as L, O, A, P, and N groups) in the N -glycosylation process, as validated by NetNGlyc predictions, and 130 literature-reported human proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Guna Proboka, Andra Tilgase, Sergejs Isajevs, Agnija Rasa, Pēteris Alberts
Melanoma is considered an aggressive malignancy with a tendency of forming metastasis in the brain. Less than 10% of all melanoma cases present with unknown primary tumor location. This diagnose is yet to be fully understood, because there are only theoretical assumptions about the nature of the disease. Melanoma brain metastases have many severe side effects and, unfortunately, any disease related to the brain has limited therapeutic options due to the blood-brain barrier. The course of the disease after a treatment course is complicated to predict, and it is difficult to obtain long-lasting remission...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Fabiana S B Perez, Nathalia C Rosa, Adson F da Rocha, Luciana R T Peixoto, Cristiano J Miosso
In this study, we present a biofeedback method for the strengthening of perineal muscles during the preoperative procedures for radical prostatectomy, and we evaluate this technique as a prevention measure against complications such as urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED), which affect prostatectomy patients after surgery. In the experimental protocol, the patients performed specific exercises with the help of a device that provided the patient with visual biofeedback, based on a plot of the anal pressure...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Younguk Sun, Bo-Rui Chen, Aniruddha Deshpande
The importance of epigenetic dysregulation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathophysiology has become increasingly apparent in recent years. Epigenetic regulators, including readers, writers, and erasers, are recurrently dysregulated by way of chromosomal translocations, somatic mutations, or genomic amplification in AML and many of these alterations are directly implicated in AML pathogenesis. Mutations in epigenetic regulators are often discovered in founder clones and persist after therapy, indicating that they may contribute to a premalignant state poised for the acquisition of cooperating mutations and frank malignancy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kathrin Oehl, Jelena Kresoja-Rakic, Isabelle Opitz, Bart Vrugt, Walter Weder, Rolf Stahel, Peter Wild, Emanuela Felley-Bosco
Experimental models closely representing in vivo conditions allow investigating mechanisms of resistance. Our aims were to establish a live-cell biobank of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) samples and to obtain proof of principle that primary culture chemoresistant models, mimicking tumor progression observed in patients, can be obtained in vitro , providing a useful tool to investigate underlying mechanisms. Primary mesothelioma cultures were established from 235 samples between 2007 and 2014. Of two MPM patients, primary cultures obtained at different time points: at initial diagnosis, after neoadjuvant treatment at surgery and/or after tumor recurrence, were deeply investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Athanasios Blanas, Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Ernesto Rodríguez, Yvette van Kooyk, Sandra J van Vliet
Aberrant glycosylation of tumor cells is recognized as a universal hallmark of cancer pathogenesis. Overexpression of fucosylated epitopes, such as type I (H1, Lewisa , Lewisb , and sialyl Lewisa ) and type II (H2, Lewisx , Lewisy , and sialyl Lewisx ) Lewis antigens, frequently occurs on the cancer cell surface and is mainly attributed to upregulated expression of pertinent fucosyltransferases (FUTs). Nevertheless, the impact of fucose-containing moieties on tumor cell biology is not fully elucidated yet. Here, we review the relevance of tumor-overexpressed FUTs and their respective synthesized Lewis determinants in critical aspects associated with cancer progression, such as increased cell survival and proliferation, tissue invasion and metastasis, endothelial to mesenchymal transition, endothelial and immune cell interaction, angiogenesis, multidrug resistance, and cancer stemness...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Dennis Jones, Ethel R Pereira, Timothy P Padera
Cancer patients with lymph node (LN) metastases have a worse prognosis than those without nodal disease. However, why LN metastases correlate with reduced patient survival is poorly understood. Recent findings provide insight into mechanisms underlying tumor growth in LNs. Tumor cells and their secreted molecules engage stromal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells within primary tumors and in the lymphatic system, decreasing antitumor immunity and promoting tumor growth. Understanding the mechanisms of cancer survival and growth in LNs is key to designing effective therapy for the eradication of LN metastases...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kerstin Anne Kessel, Anne W M Lee, Søren M Bentzen, Bhadrasain Vikram, Fridtjof Nüsslin, Stephanie E Combs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Branislav Jeremić, Francesc Casas, Pavol Dubinsky, Antonio Gomez-Caamano, Nikola Čihorić, Gregory Videtic, Ivan Igrutinovic
While there are no established pretreatment predictive and prognostic factors in patients with stage IIIA/pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) indicating a benefit to surgery as a part of trimodality approach, little is known about treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors in this setting. A literature search was conducted to identify possible treatment-related predictive and prognostic factors for patients for whom trimodality approach was reported on. Overall survival was the primary endpoint of this study...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Christiana Neophytou, Panagiotis Boutsikos, Panagiotis Papageorgis
Breast cancer represents a highly heterogeneous disease comprised by several subtypes with distinct histological features, underlying molecular etiology and clinical behaviors. It is widely accepted that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive subtypes, often associated with poor patient outcome due to the development of metastases in secondary organs, such as the lungs, brain, and bone. The molecular complexity of the metastatic process in combination with the lack of effective targeted therapies for TNBC metastasis have fostered significant research efforts during the past few years to identify molecular "drivers" of this lethal cascade...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Nghi C Nguyen, Melissa K Yee, Abuzar M Tuchayi, John M Kirkwood, Hussein Tawbi, James M Mountz
Introduction: This pilot study aimed at exploring the utility of the proliferation tracer F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT) and positron-emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (FLT-PET/MRI) for early treatment monitoring in patients with melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) who undergo targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed MBM underwent baseline and follow-up FLT-PET/MRI scans at 3-4 weeks of targeted therapy or immunotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Michael Kreiberg, Mikkel Bandak, Jakob Lauritsen, Julie Wang Skøtt, Nanna Borup Johansen, Mads Agerbaek, Niels Vilstrup Holm, Christoffer Johansen, Gedske Daugaard
The cohort was set up in order to analyze late effects in long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) and to contribute to the design of future follow-up programs addressing and potentially preventing late effects. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, among living Danish TCS and 60% agreed to participate in the cohort ( N  = 2,572). Mean time since testicular cancer (TC) diagnosis was 18 years (range 7-33) and mean age of participants was 53 years (range 25-95)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Jackline P Ayres-Silva, Martin H Bonamino, Maria E Gouveia, Barbara C R Monte-Mor, Diego F Coutinho, Adelmo H Daumas, Cristiana Solza, Esteban Braggio, Ilana Renault Zalcberg
The genetic events associated with transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML), particularly in the subgroup of essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients, remain incompletely understood. Deep studies using high-throughput methods might lead to a better understanding of genetic landscape of ET patients who transformed to sAML. We performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and whole exome sequencing (WES) to analyze paired samples from ET and sAML phases...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Constantinos Roufas, Dimitrios Chasiotis, Anestis Makris, Christodoulos Efstathiades, Christos Dimopoulos, Apostolos Zaravinos
Background: Recently, immune-checkpoint blockade has shown striking clinical results in different cancer patients. However, a significant inter-individual and inter-tumor variability exists among different cancers. The expression of the toxins granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin 1 (PRF1), secreted by effector cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, were recently used as a denominator of the intratumoral immune cytolytic activity (CYT). These levels are significantly elevated upon CD8+ T-cell activation as well as during a productive clinical response against immune-checkpoint blockade therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Marissa Mattar, Craig R McCarthy, Amanda R Kulick, Besnik Qeriqi, Sean Guzman, Elisa de Stanchina
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have recently emerged as a highly desirable platform in oncology and are expected to substantially broaden the way in vivo studies are designed and executed and to reshape drug discovery programs. However, acquisition of patient-derived samples, and propagation, annotation and distribution of PDXs are complex processes that require a high degree of coordination among clinic, surgery and laboratory personnel, and are fraught with challenges that are administrative, procedural and technical...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Keitaro Fukuda, Takeru Funakoshi
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow-growing, cutaneous adenocarcinoma that usually originates in the anogenital area and axillae outside the mammary glands. EMPD mostly progresses slowly and is often diagnosed as carcinoma in situ ; however, upon becoming invasive, it promptly and frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, leading to subsequent distant metastasis. To date, several chemotherapy regimens have been used to treat metastatic EMPD; however, they present limited effect and patients with distant metastasis exhibit a poor prognosis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Johnny R Ramroop, Mark N Stein, Justin M Drake
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. While androgen deprivation therapy results in tumor responses initially, there is relapse and progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Currently, all prostate cancer patients receive essentially the same treatment, and there is a need for clinically applicable technologies to provide predictive biomarkers toward personalized therapies. Genomic analyses of tumors are used for clinical applications, but with a paucity of obvious driver mutations in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, other applications, such as phosphoproteomics, may complement this approach...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Colleen Bailey, David J Collins, Nina Tunariu, Matthew R Orton, Veronica A Morgan, Thorsten Feiweier, David J Hawkes, Martin O Leach, Daniel C Alexander, Eleftheria Panagiotaki
Purpose: To examine the usefulness of rich diffusion protocols with high b -values and varying diffusion time for probing microstructure in bone metastases. Analysis techniques including biophysical and mathematical models were compared with the clinical apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods: Four patients were scanned using 13 b -values up to 3,000 s/mm2 and diffusion times ranging 18-52 ms. Data were fitted to mono-exponential ADC, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), Kurtosis and Vascular, extracellular, and restricted diffusion for cytometry in tumors (VERDICT) models...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lea Weber, Désirée Maßberg, Christian Becker, Janine Altmüller, Burkhard Ubrig, Gabriele Bonatz, Gerhard Wölk, Stathis Philippou, Andrea Tannapfel, Hanns Hatt, Günter Gisselmann
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are known to be expressed in a variety of human tissues and act on different physiological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, or secretion and have been found to function as biomarkers for carcinoma tissues of prostate, lung, and small intestine. In this study, we analyzed the OR expression profiles of several different carcinoma tissues, with a focus on breast cancer. The expression of OR2B6 was detectable in breast carcinoma tissues; here, transcripts of OR2B6 were detected in 73% of all breast carcinoma cell lines and in over 80% of all of the breast carcinoma tissues analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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