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Frontiers in Plant Science

Laura Moyano, María D Correa, Leonardo C Favre, Florencia S Rodríguez, Sara Maldonado, María P López-Fernández
The megagametophyte of mature seeds of Araucaria angustifolia consists of cells with thin walls, one or more nuclei, a central vacuole storing proteins, and a cytoplasm rich in amyloplasts, mitochondria and lipid bodies. In this study, we describe the process of mobilization of reserves and analyzed the dismantling of the tissue during germination, using a range of well-established markers of programmed cell death (PCD), including: morphological changes in nuclei and amyloplasts, DNA degradation, and changes in nuclease profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alexander Hammel, David Zimmer, Frederik Sommer, Timo Mühlhaus, Michael Schroda
For modeling approaches in systems biology, knowledge of the absolute abundances of cellular proteins is essential. One way to gain this knowledge is the use of quantification concatamers (QconCATs), which are synthetic proteins consisting of proteotypic peptides derived from the target proteins to be quantified. The QconCAT protein is labeled with a heavy isotope upon expression in E. coli and known amounts of the purified protein are spiked into a whole cell protein extract. Upon tryptic digestion, labeled and unlabeled peptides are released from the QconCAT protein and the native proteins, respectively, and both are quantified by LC-MS/MS...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ludovica D'Imperio, Marie F Arndal, Cecilie S Nielsen, Bo Elberling, Inger K Schmidt
In wet tundra ecosystems, covering vast areas of the Arctic, the belowground plant biomass exceeds the aboveground, making root dynamics a crucial component of the nutrient cycling and the carbon (C) budget of the Arctic. In response to the projected climatic scenarios for the Arctic, namely increased temperature and changes in precipitation patterns, root dynamics may be altered leading to significant changes in the net ecosystem C budget. Here, we quantify the single and combined effects of 1 year of increased winter snow deposition by snow fences and summer warming by open-top chambers (OTCs) on root dynamics in a wetland at Disko Island (West Greenland)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Raed Elferjani, Raju Soolanayakanahally
Photosynthetic assimilation is remarkably altered by heat and drought, and this depends on the individual or combined occurrence of stressors and their respective intensities and durations. Abiotic stressors may also alter the nutritional quality and economic value of crops. In this controlled greenhouse study, we evaluated the response of Brassica napus L., from flowering to seed development, to two temperature and water treatments and a combination of these treatments. The diffusional limitations of stomatal conductance and mesophyll conductance on photosynthesis, as well as resource-use efficiency (particularly water and nitrogen), were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yun Jia, Juan Zhu, Ying Wu, Wei-Bing Fan, Gui-Fang Zhao, Zhong-Hu Li
The effects of mountain uplift and environmental oscillations on nucleotide variability and species divergence remain largely unknown in East Asia. In this study, based on multiple nuclear DNA markers, we investigated the levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and interspecific divergence in four closely related pines in China, i.e., Pinus koraiensis , P. armandii , P. griffithii , and P. pumila . The four pine taxa shared low levels of nucleotide polymorphisms at the species level. P. pumila had the highest silent nucleotide diversity (πsil = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katja Karppinen, Pinja Tegelberg, Hely Häggman, Laura Jaakola
Ripening of non-climacteric bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit is characterized by a high accumulation of health-beneficial anthocyanins. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose have been shown to be among the central signaling molecules coordinating non-climacteric fruit ripening and anthocyanin accumulation in some fruits such as strawberry. Our earlier studies have demonstrated an elevation in endogenous ABA level in bilberry fruit at the onset of ripening indicating a role for ABA in the regulation of bilberry fruit ripening...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Athanasios Dalakouras, Wolfgang Jarausch, Guenther Buchholz, Alexandra Bassler, Mario Braun, Thorsten Manthey, Gabi Krczal, Michael Wassenegger
Since its discovery, RNA interference has been widely used in crop protection. Recently, transgene-free procedures that were based on exogenous application of RNA molecules having the capacity to trigger RNAi in planta have been reported. Yet, efficient delivery of such RNA molecules to plants and particularly to trees poses major technical challenges. Here, we describe simple methods for efficient delivery of hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to Malus domestica , Vitis vinifera , and Nicotiana benthamiana that are based on trunk injection and/or petiole absorption...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Brennan H Baker, Lars J Berg, Sonia E Sultan
Parental environment influences progeny development in numerous plant and animal systems. Such inherited environmental effects may alter offspring phenotypes in a consistent way, for instance when resource-deprived parents produce low quality offspring due to reduced maternal provisioning. However, because development of individual organisms is guided by both inherited and immediate environmental cues, parental conditions may have different effects depending on progeny environment. Such context-dependent transgenerational plasticity suggests a mechanism of environmental inheritance that can precisely interact with immediate response pathways, such as epigenetic modification...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sangam L Dwivedi, Kadambot H M Siddique, Muhammad Farooq, Philip K Thornton, Rodomiro Ortiz
Drought and heat in dryland agriculture challenge the enhancement of crop productivity and threaten global food security. This review is centered on harnessing genetic variation through biotechnology-led approaches to select for increased productivity and stress tolerance that will enhance crop adaptation in dryland environments. Peer-reviewed literature, mostly from the last decade and involving experiments with at least two seasons' data, form the basis of this review. It begins by highlighting the adverse impact of the increasing intensity and duration of drought and heat stress due to global warming on crop productivity and its impact on food and nutritional security in dryland environments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gulshan Mahajan, Barbara George-Jaeggli, Michael Walsh, Bhagirath S Chauhan
Sisymbrium thellungii O. E. Schulz is an emerging problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Several different biotypes exist in this region but not all biotypes exhibit the same growth and reproduction behavior. This might be due to local adaptation to the different agro-ecosystems, however, information on this aspect is limited. To determine whether adaptation to water stress was a factor in biotype demographic growth and reproduction behavior, we evaluated the physiological and biochemical responses of two Australian S...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Caitlin Keller, Junko Maeda, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Sanhita Chakraborty, Michael R Sussman, Jeanne M Harris, Jean-Michel Ané, Lingjun Li
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is routinely used to determine the spatial distributions of various biomolecules in tissues. Recently, there has been an increased interest in creating higher resolution images using sources with more focused beams. One such source, an atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI source from MassTech, has a laser capable of reaching spatial resolutions of 10 μm. Here, the AP-MALDI source coupled with a Q Exactive HF Orbitrap platform is compared to the commercial MALDI LTQ Orbitrap XL system using Medicago truncatula root nodules...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qing Hu, Chao Zhang, Zhihui Xue, Lijun Ma, Wei Liu, Yi Shen, Bojun Ma, Zhukuan Cheng
The repair of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes. In yeast and human, RAD17 is involved in DNA damage checkpoint control and DSB repair. However, little is known about its function in plants. In this study, we characterized the RAD17 homolog in rice. In Osrad17 pollen mother cells (PMCs), associations between non-homologous chromosomes and chromosome fragmentation were constantly observed. These aberrant chromosome associations were dependent on the formation of programmed DSBs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dorota A Jarret, Jenny Morris, Danny W Cullen, Sandra L Gordon, Susan R Verrall, Linda Milne, Pete E Hedley, J William Allwood, Rex M Brennan, Robert D Hancock
Blackcurrant fruit collected at six stages of development were assessed for changes in gene expression using custom whole transcriptome microarrays and for variation in metabolite content using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis demonstrated that fruit development could be clearly defined according to their transcript or metabolite profiles. During early developmental stages, metabolite profiles were dominated by amino acids and tannins, whilst transcript profiles were enriched in functions associated with cell division, anatomical structure morphogenesis and cell wall metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haiyan Lü, Yuming Yang, Haiwang Li, Qijia Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Junyi Yin, Shanshan Chu, Xiangqian Zhang, Kaiye Yu, Lingling Lv, Xi Chen, Dan Zhang
Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth and development, and is seriously affected by low phosphorus (P) stress. However, few studies have reported for the genetic foundation of photosynthetic response to low P stress in soybean. To address this issue, 219 soybean accessions were genotyped by 292,035 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotyped under normal and low P conditions in 2015 and 2016. These datasets were used to identify quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for photosynthesis-related traits using mrMLM, ISIS EM-BLASSO, pLARmEB, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, and pKWmEB methods...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vera Inácio, Madalena T Martins, José Graça, Leonor Morais-Cecílio
Plants are subjected to adverse conditions being outer protective tissues fundamental to their survival. Tree stems are enveloped by a periderm made of cork cells, resulting from the activity of the meristem phellogen. DNA methylation and histone modifications have important roles in the regulation of plant cell differentiation. However, studies on its involvement in cork differentiation are scarce despite periderm importance. Cork oak periderm development was used as a model to study the formation and differentiation of secondary protective tissues, and their behavior after traumatic wounding (traumatic periderm)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joo Hyuk Cho, Mi Na Choi, Kwan Hee Yoon, Kyung-Nam Kim
Extensive studies with Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins constitute a unique family of calcium sensors in plants, which mediate a variety of abiotic stress responses. However, little is known about their function in most plants that do not have available genome sequences. In this study, we have developed a pair of universal primers that make it possible to isolate CBL1-like genes from various plants without sequence information. Using these primers, we successfully cloned a full-length cDNA of CBL1-like gene in Sedirea japonica ( SjCBL1 )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shugo Maekawa, Yoshiaki Ueda, Shuichi Yanagisawa
The Brix domain is a conserved domain in several proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis in yeast and animals. In the Arabidopsis genome, six Brix domain-containing proteins are encoded; however, their molecular functions have not been fully characterized, as yet. Here we report the functional analysis of a Brix domain-containing protein, ARPF2, which is homologous to yeast Rpf2 that plays an essential role in ribosome biogenesis as a component of the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle. By phenotypic characterization of arpf2 mutants, histochemical GUS staining, and analysis using green fluorescence protein, we show that ARPF2 is an essential and ubiquitously expressed gene encoding a nucleolar protein...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianqiang Huo, Dengjing Huang, Jing Zhang, Hua Fang, Bo Wang, Chunlei Wang, Weibiao Liao
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), as a signaling molecule, is involved in the regulation of growth and development in plants. Recent studies have indicated that H2 S also plays important roles in regulating postharvest senescence of horticultural products. The focus of this review is to summarize the synthesis of H2 S in plants and its potential roles in alleviating the senescence of cut flowers, fruits, and vegetables during postharvest storage. During postharvest of horticultural products, H2 S could scavenge reactive oxygen species via promoting the activity of antioxidant enzymes, thereby, sustaining the integrity of the membrane...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alvaro F Fuentes, Sook Yoon, Jaesu Lee, Dong Sun Park
A fundamental problem that confronts deep neural networks is the requirement of a large amount of data for a system to be efficient in complex applications. Promising results of this problem are made possible through the use of techniques such as data augmentation or transfer learning of pre-trained models in large datasets. But the problem still persists when the application provides limited or unbalanced data. In addition, the number of false positives resulting from training a deep model significantly cause a negative impact on the performance of the system...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Su Yang, Sheng Chen, Kangni Zhang, Lan Li, Yuling Yin, Rafaqat A Gill, Guijun Yan, Jinling Meng, Wallace A Cowling, Weijun Zhou
A doubled haploid (DH) mapping population was obtained from microspore culture of an allohexaploid F1 from the cross between two recently-synthesized allohexaploid Brassica lines. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic variation based on restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to construct a high density genetic linkage map of the population. RAD libraries were constructed from the genomic DNA of both parents and 146 DH progenies. A total of 2.87 G reads with an average sequencing depth of 2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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