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Frontiers in Plant Science

Lingjie Wu, Zhendong Tian, Junhong Zhang
The phytohormone auxin is involved in many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor SlIAA9/ENTIRE/E plays an important role in leaf morphogenesis and fruit development, and the E gene encodes a protein from the Aux/IAA family of auxin response repressors. Both SlIAA9 -RNAi transgenic and entire ( e ) mutant plants reduce the leaf complexity in tomato, but the underlying mechanism is not yet completely resolved. Auxin signaling is known to regulate target genes expression via Aux/IAA and ARFs (auxin response factors) transcriptional regulators...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yanjun Yang, Xiuli Yang, Zhifang Jang, Zhehao Chen, Xiujun Ruo, Weiyang Jin, Ying Wu, Xiaojing Shi, Maojun Xu
UV Resistance Locus 8 (UVR8), an ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) photoreceptor, participates in the regulation of various plant growth and developmental processes. UV-B radiation is an important factor enhancing the production of active components in medicinal plants. To-date, however, studies on UV-B photoreceptors have largely focused on Arabidopsis , and the functions of UVR8 in medicinal plants are still largely unknown. In the present study, a homolog of Arabidopsis UVR8, CmUVR8, was isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, and its structure and function were analyzed in detail...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michelle A Oscar, Simon Barak, Gidon Winters
The tropical seagrass species, Halophila stipulacea , originated from the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, subsequently invading the Mediterranean and has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Due to its invasive nature, there is growing interest in understanding this species' capacity to adapt to new conditions. One approach to understanding the natural tolerance of a plant is to compare the tolerant species with a closely related non-tolerant species. We compared the physiological responses of H...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianlong Liu, Rui Zhai, Fengxia Liu, Yingxiao Zhao, Huibin Wang, Lulu Liu, Chengquan Yang, Zhigang Wang, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
Parthenocarpy, the production of seedless fruit without fertilization, has a variety of valuable qualities, especially for self-incompatible species, such as pear. To explore whether melatonin (MT) induces parthenocarpy, we used 'Starkrimson' pear as a material for morphological observations. According to our results, exogenous MT promoted the expansion and division of the mesocarp cells in a manner similar to hand pollination. However, the seeds of exogenous MT-treated fruit were undeveloped and aborted later in the fruit-setting stage...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Samuel Morales-Navarro, Ricardo Pérez-Díaz, Alfonso Ortega, Alberto de Marcos, Montaña Mena, Carmen Fenoll, Enrique González-Villanueva, Simón Ruiz-Lara
Stomata are microscopic valves formed by two guard cells flanking a pore, which are located on the epidermis of most aerial plant organs and are used for water and gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere. The number, size and distribution of stomata are set during development in response to changing environmental conditions, allowing plants to minimize the impact of a stressful environment. In Arabidopsis, STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 1 ( AtSDD1 ) negatively regulates stomatal density and optimizes transpiration and water use efficiency (WUE)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wencheng Yin, Xiaohui Yu, Guoping Chen, Boyan Tang, Yunshu Wang, Changguang Liao, Yanjie Zhang, Zongli Hu
MADS-box genes have been demonstrated to participate in a number of processes in tomato development, especially fruit ripening. In this study, we reported a novel MADS-box gene, SlMBP15 , which is implicated in fruit ripening. Based on statistical analysis, the ripening time of SlMBP15 -silenced tomato was delayed by 2-4 days compared with that of the wild-type (WT). The accumulation of carotenoids and biosynthesis of ethylene in fruits were decreased in SlMBP15 -silenced tomato. Genes related to carotenoid and ethylene biosynthesis were greatly repressed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laxman Adhikari, Orville M Lindstrom, Jonathan Markham, Ali M Missaoui
Understanding key adaptation traits is crucial to developing new cultivars with broad adaptations. The main objective of this research is to understand the genetic basis of winter hardiness (WH) and fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa and the association between the two traits. QTL analysis was conducted in a pseudo-testcross F1 population developed from two cultivars contrasting in FD (3010 with FD = 2 and CW 1010 with FD = 10). The mapping population was evaluated in three replications at two locations (Watkinsville and Blairsville, GA)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiancan Zhu, Shengqun Liu, Luying Sun, Fengbin Song, Fulai Liu, Xiangnan Li
The effects of CO2 elevation on sensitivity of photosynthetic electron transport system of wheat in relation to low temperature stress are unclear. The performance of photosynthetic electron transport system and antioxidant system in chloroplasts was investigated in a temperature sensitive wheat cultivar Lianmai6 grown under the combination of low temperature (2 days at 2/-1°C in the day/night) and CO2 elevation (800 μmol l-1 ). It was found that CO2 elevation increased the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport in wheat exposed to low temperature stress, which was related to the enhanced maximum quantum yield for electron transport beyond QA and the increased quantum yield for reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side in plants under elevated CO2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chayanika Chaliha, Michael D Rugen, Robert A Field, Eeshan Kalita
Plants and microbes utilize glycoconjugates as structural entities, energy reserves for cellular processes, and components of cellular recognition or binding events. The structural heterogeneity of carbohydrates in such systems is a result of the ability of the carbohydrate biosynthetic enzymes to reorient sugar monomers in a variety of forms, generating highly complex, linear, branched, or hierarchical structures. During the interaction between plants and their microbial pathogens, the microbial cell surface glycans, cell wall derived glycans, and glycoproteins stimulate the signaling cascades of plant immune responses, through a series of specific or broad spectrum recognition events...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Clare Gough, Ludovic Cottret, Benoit Lefebvre, Jean-Jacques Bono
LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs), which are specific to plants, can control establishment of both the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and the rhizobium-legume (RL) symbioses in response to signal molecules produced, respectively, by the fungal and bacterial symbiotic partners. While most studies on these proteins have been performed in legume species, there are also important findings that demonstrate the roles of LysM-RLKs in controlling symbiosis in non-legume plants. Phylogenomic studies, which have revealed the presence or absence of certain LysM-RLKs among different plant species, have provided insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying both the acquisition and the loss of symbiotic properties...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rowena C Downie, Laura Bouvet, Eiko Furuki, Nick Gosman, Keith A Gardner, Ian J Mackay, Camila Campos Mantello, Greg Mellers, Huyen T T Phan, Gemma A Rose, Kar-Chun Tan, Richard P Oliver, James Cockram
Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important crops. P. nodorum mediates host cell death using proteinaceous necrotrophic effectors, presumably liberating nutrients that allow the infection process to continue. The identification of pathogen effectors has allowed host genetic resistance mechanisms to be separated into their constituent parts. In P. nodorum , three proteinaceous effectors have been cloned: SnToxA , SnTox1 , and SnTox3 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph J Coombs, Gina M Pham, F Parker E Laimbeer, Guilherme T Braz, Jiming Jiang, Richard E Veilleux, C Robin Buell, David S Douches
The cultivated potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) has a complex genetic structure due to its autotetraploidy and vegetative propagation which leads to accumulation of mutations and a highly heterozygous genome. A high degree of heterozygosity has been considered to be the main driver of fitness and agronomic trait performance in potato improvement efforts, which is negatively impacted by genetic load. To understand the genetic landscape of cultivated potato, we constructed a gynogenic dihaploid (2 n = 2 x = 24) population from cv...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ryosuke Hashimoto, Risa Ueta, Chihiro Abe, Yuriko Osakabe, Keishi Osakabe
Several expression systems for multiple guide RNA (gRNAs) have been developed in the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9) system to induce multiple-gene modifications in plants. Here, we evaluated mutation efficiencies in the tomato genome using multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 vectors consisting of various Cas9 expression promoters with multiple gRNA expression combinations. In transgenic tomato calli induced with these vectors, mutation patterns varied depending on the promoters used to express Cas9 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yue Niu, Yun Xiang
Biological membranes are highly ordered structures consisting of mosaics of lipids and proteins. Elevated temperatures can directly and effectively change the properties of these membranes, including their fluidity and permeability, through a holistic effect that involves changes in the lipid composition and/or interactions between lipids and specific membrane proteins. Ultimately, high temperatures can alter microdomain remodeling and instantaneously relay ambient cues to downstream signaling pathways. Thus, dynamic membrane regulation not only helps cells perceive temperature changes but also participates in intracellular responses and determines a cell's fate...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qingbo Ke, Jun Ye, Bomei Wang, Jianhong Ren, Lina Yin, Xiping Deng, Shiwen Wang
Melatonin, a small molecular weight indoleamine molecule, is involved in various biological processes and responses to environmental cues in plants. However, its function in abiotic stress response and the underlying mechanisms is less clear. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on wheat seedlings growth under salt stress condition. Exogenous melatonin pretreatment partially mitigated the salt-induced inhibition of whole-plant growth as judged from shoot dry weight, IAA content, leaf photosynthesis rate, maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, and chlorophyll...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Richard van Duijnen, Julien Roy, Werner Härdtle, Vicky M Temperton
Nitrate leaching is a pressing environmental problem in intensive agriculture. Especially after the crop harvest, leaching risk is greatest due to decomposing plant residues, and low plant nutrient uptake and evapotranspiration. The specific crop also matters: grain legumes and canola commonly result in more leftover N than the following winter crop can take up before spring. Addition of a high carbon amendment (HCA) could potentially immobilize N after harvest. We set up a 2-year mesocosm experiment to test the effects of N fertilization (40 or 160 kg N/ha), HCA addition (no HCA, wheat straw, or sawdust), and precrop plant functional group identity on winter barley yield and soil C/N ratio...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haixiao Dong, Rui Wang, Yaping Yuan, James Anderson, Michael Pumphrey, Zhiwu Zhang, Jianli Chen
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) has emerged in spring wheat production in Pacific Northwest during the last decade due to factors including climate changes, crop rotations, and tillage practices. A breeding population with 170 spring wheat lines was established and screened over a 2-year period in multiple locations for FHB incidence (INC), severity (SEV), and deposition of the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). A genome-wide association study suggested that the detectable number of genetic loci and effects are limited for marker-assisted selection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nuria Andrés-Colás, Angela Carrió-Seguí, Salah E Abdel-Ghany, Marinus Pilon, Lola Peñarrubia
Copper is an essential element in plants. When scarce, copper is acquired from extracellular environment or remobilized from intracellular sites, through members of the high affinity copper transporters family COPT located at the plasma membrane and internal membrane, respectively. Here, we show that COPT3 is an intracellular copper transporter, located at a compartment of the secretory pathway, that is mainly expressed in pollen grains and vascular bundles. Contrary to the COPT1 plasma membrane member, the expression of the internal COPT3 membrane transporter was higher at 12 h than at 0 h of a neutral photoperiod day under copper deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xing Tian, Liping Song, Yi Wang, Weibo Jin, Fudan Tong, Fangli Wu
Gray mold of tomato is caused by the pathogen Botrytis cinerea . MicroRNAs play a crucial role in the biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and regulate their targets by gene silencing. miR394 is an ancient and conserved miRNA in plants, and it participates in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. In our previous study, miR394 was found to respond to B. cinerea infection in tomato, but the roles and regulatory mechanisms of miR394 in B. cinerea -infected tomato remain unclear. miR394 was down-regulated in tomato in response to B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ping Wang, Yun Sun, Yakun Pei, Xiancai Li, Xueyan Zhang, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate membrane fusion and deliver cargo to specific cellular locations through vesicle trafficking. Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) is a target membrane SNARE that drives exocytosis by fusing plasma and vesicular membranes. In this study, we isolated GhSNAP33 , a gene from cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ), encoding a SNAP25-type protein containing glutamine (Q)b- and Qc-SNARE motifs connected by a linker...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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