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Frontiers in Plant Science

Abdul Akbar, Ananya Kuanar, Raj K Joshi, I S Sandeep, Sujata Mohanty, Pradeep K Naik, Antaryami Mishra, Sanghamitra Nayak
The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent 'curcumin.' Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Szabolcs Makai, László Tamás, Angéla Juhász
Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the x- and y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marcel D Torode, Kirk L Barnett, Sarah L Facey, Uffe N Nielsen, Sally A Power, Scott N Johnson
Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Catherine Coutand, Stephen J Mitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianbo Li, Huixia Jia, Xiaojiao Han, Jin Zhang, Pei Sun, Mengzhu Lu, Jianjun Hu
Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jing Zhang, Huibin Li, Bin Xu, Jing Li, Bingru Huang
Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. 'Pinnacle') leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min Chen, Meiling Ji, Binbin Wen, Li Liu, Shaoxuan Li, Xiude Chen, Dongsheng Gao, Ling Li
Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are members of the GARP family of Myb transcription factors with an established relationship to chloroplast development in the plant kingdom. In the last century, Golden2 was proposed as a second golden producing factor and identified as controlling cellular differentiation in maize leaves. Then, GLKs were also found to play roles in disease defense and their function is conserved in regulating chloroplast development. Recently, research on GLKs has rapidly increased and shown that GLKs control chloroplast development in green and non-green tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lingling Chen, Quanzhu Chen, Yanqiao Zhu, Longyu Hou, Peisheng Mao
Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rongfang Guo, Zhongkai Huang, Yanping Deng, Xiaodong Chen, Xu XuHan, Zhongxiong Lai
Brassica sprouts contain abundant phytochemicals, especially glucosinolates (GSs). Various methods have been used to enhance GS content in sprouts. However, the molecular basis of GS metabolism in sprouts remains an open question. Here we employed RNA-seq analysis to compare the transcriptomes of high-GS (JL-08) and low-GS (JL-09) Brassica alboglabra sprouts. Paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated and mapped to the Brassica oleracea reference genome. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed between JL-08 and JL-09...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tripti Sharma, Ingo Dreyer, Leon Kochian, Miguel A Piñeros
About a decade ago, members of a new protein family of anion channels were discovered on the basis of their ability to confer on plants the tolerance toward toxic aluminum ions in the soil. The efflux of Al(3+)-chelating malate anions through these channels is stimulated by external Al(3+) ions. This feature of a few proteins determined the name of the entire protein family as Aluminum-activated Malate Transporters (ALMT). Meanwhile, after several years of research, it is known that the physiological roles of ALMTs go far beyond Al-detoxification...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria Manuela Rigano, Assunta Raiola, Teresa Docimo, Valentino Ruggieri, Roberta Calafiore, Paola Vitaglione, Rosalia Ferracane, Luigi Frusciante, Amalia Barone
Solanum lycopersicum represents an important dietary source of bioactive compounds including the antioxidants flavonoids and phenolic acids. We previously identified two genotypes (IL7-3 and IL12-4) carrying loci from the wild species Solanum pennellii, which increased antioxidants in the fruit. Successively, these lines were crossed and two genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition (DHO88 and DHO88-SL) were selected. The amount of total antioxidant compounds was increased in DHOs compared to both ILs and the control genotype M82...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Udaya C Kalluri, Raja S Payyavula, Jessy L Labbé, Nancy Engle, Garima Bali, Sara S Jawdy, Robert W Sykes, Mark Davis, Arthur Ragauskas, Gerald A Tuskan, Timothy J Tschaplinski
A greater understanding of the genetic regulation of plant cell wall remodeling and the impact of modified cell walls on plant performance is important for the development of sustainable biofuel crops. Here, we studied the impact of down-regulating KORRIGAN-like cell wall biosynthesis genes, belonging to the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene family, on Populus growth, metabolism and the ability to interact with symbiotic microbes. The reductions in cellulose content and lignin syringyl-to-guaiacyl unit ratio, and increase in cellulose crystallinity of cell walls of PdKOR RNAi plants corroborated the functional role of PdKOR in cell wall biosynthesis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng Zhang, Kaizhen Zhong, Hanhua Tong, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Jinquan Li
Trivalent aluminum (Al(3+)) has drastic effect on the rice production in acidic soils. Elite genes for aluminum (Al) tolerance might exist in rice landraces. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to mine the elite genes within rice landraces. Association mapping for Al tolerance traits [i.e., relative root elongation (RRE)] was performed by using a core collection of 150 accessions of rice landraces (i.e., Ting's rice core collection). Our results showed that the Ting's rice core collection possessed a wide-range of phenotypic variation for Al tolerance, and the index of Al tolerance (RRE) was ranged from 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Chandra Thammina, Rania El-Tanbouly, Huseyin Yer, Emily Merewitz, Karl Guillard, John Inguagiato, Richard J McAvoy, Zongrang Liu, Yi Li
When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Yousaf, Xiaokun Li, Zhi Zhang, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Shah Fahad, Adnan N Shah, Jianwei Lu
The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sheng Shu, Pan Gao, Lin Li, Yinghui Yuan, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qing Fang, Zhengqiu Fan, Yujing Xie, Xiangrong Wang, Kun Li, Yafeng Liu
The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings) to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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