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Frontiers in Plant Science

Yuexia Wang, Ming Yang, Shimei Wei, Fujun Qin, Huijie Zhao, Biao Suo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of newly identified non-coding RNAs through high-throughput deep sequencing, which play important roles in miRNA function and transcriptional controlling in human, animals, and plants. To date, there is no report in wheat seedlings regarding the circRNAs identification and roles in the dehydration stress response. In present study, the total RNA was extracted from leaves of wheat seedlings under dehydration-stressed and well-watered conditions, respectively. Then, the circRNAs enriched library based deep sequencing was performed and the circRNAs were identified using bioinformatics tools...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dong-Qi Xue, Xiu-Ling Chen, Hong Zhang, Xin-Feng Chai, Jing-Bin Jiang, Xiang-Yang Xu, Jing-Fu Li
Cf-12 is an effective gene for resisting tomato leaf mold disease caused by Cladosporium fulvum (C. fulvum). Unlike many other Cf genes such as Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5, and Cf-9, no physiological races of C. fulvum that are virulent to Cf-12 carrying plant lines have been identified. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of Cf-12 gene resistance response, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the transcriptome changes at three different stages of C. fulvum infection (0, 4, and 8 days post infection [dpi]). A total of 9100 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 4 and 0 dpi, 8643 DEGs between 8 and 0 dpi and 2547 DEGs between 8 and 4 dpi were identified...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christian Jung, Klaus Pillen, Dorothee Staiger, George Coupland, Maria von Korff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhihao Su, Bryce A Richardson, Li Zhuo, Xiaolong Jiang
Population genetic studies provide a foundation for conservation planning, especially for endangered species. Three chloroplast SSRs (mtrnSf-trnGr, mtrnL2-trnF, and mtrnL5-trnL3) and the internal transcribed spacer were used to examine the population structure of Helianthemum in northwestern China. A total of 15 populations of the genus were collected. Nine chloroplast haplotypes and two nuclear genotypes were detected. Both the nuclear and chloroplast data showed two lineages in Helianthemum songaricum, respectively, distributed in Yili Valley and western Ordos Plateau...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Enshun Xu, Mingming Chen, Hui He, Chengfang Zhan, Yanhao Cheng, Hongsheng Zhang, Zhoufei Wang
Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cornelia Spetea, Ildikò Szabò, Hans-Henning Kunz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Jiang, Chengfeng Zhou, Guangting Han, Brian Via, Tammy Swain, Zhaofei Fan, Shaoyang Liu
Plant fibrous material is a good resource in textile and other industries. Normally, several kinds of plant fibrous materials used in one process are needed to be identified and characterized in advance. It is easy to identify them when they are in raw condition. However, most of the materials are semi products which are ground, rotted or pre-hydrolyzed. To classify these samples which include different species with high accuracy is a big challenge. In this research, both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were chosen to classify six different species of samples, including softwood, hardwood, bast, and aquatic plant...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dennis Eriksson, Klaus H Ammann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessandro Vannozzi, Silvia Donnini, Gianpiero Vigani, Massimiliano Corso, Giorgio Valle, Nicola Vitulo, Claudio Bonghi, Graziano Zocchi, Margherita Lucchin
Iron chlorosis is a serious deficiency that affects orchards and vineyards reducing quality and yield production. Chlorotic plants show abnormal photosynthesis and yellowing shoots. In grapevine iron uptake and homeostasis are most likely controlled by a mechanism known as "Strategy I," characteristic of non-graminaceous plants and based on a system of soil acidification, iron reduction and transporter-mediated uptake. Nowadays, grafting of varieties of economic interest on tolerant rootstocks is widely used practice against many biotic and abiotic stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mart Vlam, Peter van der Sleen, Peter Groenendijk, Pieter A Zuidema
Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently 'virgin' or 'old-growth' tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessandra Amato, Erika Cavallini, Sara Zenoni, Laura Finezzo, Maura Begheldo, Benedetto Ruperti, Giovanni Battista Tornielli
A small set of TTG2-like homolog proteins from different species belonging to the WRKY family of transcription factors were shown to share a similar mechanism of action and to control partially conserved biochemical/developmental processes in their native species. In particular, by activating P-ATPases residing on the tonoplast, PH3 from Petunia hybrida promotes vacuolar acidification in petal epidermal cells whereas TTG2 from Arabidopsis thaliana enables the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in the seed coat...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mihaly Horvath, Hans-Henning Steinbiss, Bernd Reiss
Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haoliang Yan, Binglin Zhang, Yunbo Zhang, Xinlan Chen, Hui Xiong, Tsutomu Matsui, Xiaohai Tian
Predicted climate changes, in particular, the increased dimension and frequency of heat waves, are expected to affect crop growth in the future seriously. Hybrid rice relies on seed production from male sterile and restorer lines. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years to compare the high temperature tolerance of parents of different hybrid rice combinations, in terms of fertility rate, flowering pattern, pollination and physiological parameters of the lodicule. Three male sterile lines and a broad compatibility restorer line (as pollen donor and conventional variety as well) were grown to heading stage and then treated with average daily temperatures of 26°C (range 23-30°C), 28°C (25-32°C), and 30°C (26-34°C), respectively, continued for 5-7 days each in a natural light phytotron which simulated the local typical high temperature weather in the field...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ben D Moore, Scott N Johnson
Grasses (Poaceae) are the fifth-largest plant family by species and their uses for crops, forage, fiber, and fuel make them the most economically important. In grasslands, which broadly-defined cover 40% of the Earth's terrestrial surface outside of Greenland and Antarctica, 40-60% of net primary productivity and 70-98% of invertebrate biomass occurs belowground, providing extensive scope for interactions between roots and rhizosphere invertebrates. Grasses invest 50-70% of fixed carbon into root construction, which suggests roots are high value tissues that should be defended from herbivores, but we know relatively little about such defenses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xia Liu, Zhaoshan Wang, Wenhao Shao, Zhanyang Ye, Jianguo Zhang
Although, the Abaso section is widely accepted as an independent section, the taxonomic status of Populus mexicana (section Abaso) has not yet been resolved due to the limited availability markers and/or the lack of P. mexicana specimens in previous studies. Thirty-one poplar species that represent six sections of the Populus genus were sampled, and 23 single-copy nuclear DNA and 34 chloroplast fragments were sequenced. The present study obtained two updated phylogenies of Populus. We found that monophyly of the genus Populus is strongly supported by nuclear and plastid gene, which is consistent with previous studies...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Coline E Meï, Mathilde Cussac, Richard P Haslam, Frédéric Beaudoin, Yung-Sing Wong, Eric Maréchal, Fabrice Rébeillé
Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation often occurs in growth limiting conditions such as nutrient deprivations. We analyzed and compared the lipid contents of Arabidopsis cells grown under two conditions that inhibited growth as a way to study interactions between membrane and storage lipids. In order to inhibit C1 metabolism, the first condition utilized methotrexate (MTX), a drug that inhibits methyl transfer reactions and potentially reduces Pi-choline synthesis, the polar head of phosphatidylcholine (PC). MTX-treated cells displayed a 10- to 15-fold increase in TAG compared to that found in control cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoqian Wang, Yunlong Pang, Chunchao Wang, Kai Chen, Yajun Zhu, Congcong Shen, Jauhar Ali, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
Appearance and milling quality are two crucial properties of rice grains affecting its market acceptability. Understanding the genetic base of rice grain quality could considerably improve the high quality breeding. Here, we carried out an association analysis to identify QTL affecting nine rice grain appearance and milling quality traits using a diverse panel of 258 accessions selected from 3K Rice Genome Project and evaluated in two environments Sanya and Shenzhen. Genome-wide association analyses using 22,488 high quality SNPs identified 72 QTL affecting the nine traits...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kai Guo, Lili Tu, Pengcheng Wang, Xueqiong Du, Shue Ye, Ming Luo, Xianlong Zhang
Fe deficiency causes significant losses to crop productivity and quality. To understand better the mechanisms of plant responses to Fe deficiency, we used an in vitro cotton ovule culture system. We found that Fe deficiency suppressed the development of ovules and fibers, and led to tissue browning. RNA-seq analysis showed that the myo-inositol and galacturonic acid pathways were activated and cytosolic APX (ascorbate peroxidase) was suppressed in Fe-deficient treated fibers, which increased ASC (ascorbate) concentrations to prevent tissue browning...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sindy Schedel, Stefanie Pencs, Götz Hensel, Andrea Müller, Twan Rutten, Jochen Kumlehn
Customizable endonucleases are providing an effective tool for genome engineering. The resulting primary transgenic individuals (T0) are typically heterozygous and/or chimeric with respect to any mutations induced. To generate genetically fixed mutants, they are conventionally allowed to self-pollinate, a procedure which segregates individuals into mutant heterozygotes/homozygotes and wild types. The chances of recovering homozygous mutants among the progeny depend not only on meiotic segregation but also on the frequency of mutated germline cells in the chimeric mother plant...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Evgenii Komyshev, Mikhail Genaev, Dmitry Afonnikov
Grain morphometry in cereals is an important step in selecting new high-yielding plants. Manual assessment of parameters such as the number of grains per ear and grain size is laborious. One solution to this problem is image-based analysis that can be performed using a desktop PC. Furthermore, the effectiveness of analysis performed in the field can be improved through the use of mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a method for the automated evaluation of phenotypic parameters of grains using mobile devices running the Android operational system...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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