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Frontiers in Plant Science

Antonio Gazol, J Julio Camarero, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Sergio M Vicente-Serrano
A better understanding on the consequences of drought on forests can be reached by paying special attention to their resilience capacity, i.e., the ability to return to a state similar to pre-drought conditions. Nevertheless, extreme droughts may surpass the threshold for the resilience capacity triggering die-off causing multiple changes at varying spatial and temporal scales and affecting diverse processes (tree growth and regeneration, ecosystem productivity). Combining several methodological tools allows reaching a comprehensive characterization of post-drought forest resilience...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Julieta Barchiesi, Maria Belen Velazquez, Nicolas Palopoli, Alberto A Iglesias, Diego F Gomez-Casati, Miguel Angel Ballicora, Maria Victoria Busi
Starch is the major energy storage carbohydrate in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Several enzymes are involved in building highly organized semi-crystalline starch granules, including starch-synthase III (SSIII), which is widely conserved in photosynthetic organisms. This enzyme catalyzes the extension of the α-1,4 glucan chain and plays a regulatory role in the synthesis of starch. Interestingly, unlike most plants, the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri has three SSIII isoforms. In the present study, we describe the structure and function of OsttaSSIII-B, which has a similar modular organization to SSIII in higher plants, comprising three putative starch-binding domains (SBDs) at the N-terminal region and a C-terminal catalytic domain (CD)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jia Yang, Lucía Vázquez, Li Feng, Zhanlin Liu, Guifang Zhao
Past and current climatic changes have affected the demography, patterns of genetic diversity, and genetic structure of extant species. The study of these processes provides valuable information to forecast evolutionary changes and to identify conservation priorities. Here, we sequenced two functional nuclear genes and four chloroplast DNA regions for 105 samples from 21 populations of Quercus liaotungensis across its distribution range. Coalescent-based Bayesian analysis, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), and ecological niche modeling (ENM) were integrated to investigate the genetic patterns and demographical history of this species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cristina Mallor, Miguel Barberán, Joaquín Aibar
The "Caparrona" bean is a landrace that was grown largely in Monzón, and for that reason, it is also known by the name of "Caparrona de Monzón." Historical references mention that in the thirties of the last century, Caparrona beans reached a production higher than 200,000 kg. Nevertheless, the increasing modernization of agriculture at the end of the 20th century enhanced its replacement by newer varieties. As a result, only a few local growers continued producing Caparrona beans mainly for family use...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhen Yang, Tian-Tian Zhao, Qing-Hua Ma, Li-Song Liang, Gui-Xi Wang
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of species origin, divergence, and distribution patterns of the intercontinental disjunct taxa has long fascinated botanists. Based on 4,894 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism dataset, we present a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of genus Corylus (Betulaceae), which have a disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America (NA). The aim is to explore the speciation patterns and evolutionary relationships of Corylus species by establishing a general phylogenetic framework with extensive sampling...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianmei Fu, Xiaoling Song, Biao Liu, Yu Shi, Wenjing Shen, Zhixiang Fang, Li Zhang
The environmental release and biosafety of transgenic Bt crops have attracted global attention. China has a large area of saline-alkali land, which is ideal for large-scale production of Bt transgenic rice. Therefore an understanding of the fitness of Bt transgenic rice in saline-alkaline soils and the ability to predict its long-term environmental effects are important for the future sustainable use of these crops. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the fitness of cry1Ab/c transgenic rice in both farmland and natural ecosystems...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Saila Varis, Krystyna Klimaszewska, Tuija Aronen
The recalcitrance of adult conifer tissues has prevented vegetative propagation of trees with known and desired characteristics. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) initiation protocol, recently developed for white spruce ( Picea glauca , Klimaszewska et al., 2011), was applied in order to examine the feasibility, frequency and timing of SE induction from primordial shoots (PS) of Norway spruce (P. abies ). In total, 39 genotypes were screened from 2015 to 2017 using 4-6 years old trees of SE origin as explant donors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elide Formentin, Cristina Sudiro, Maria Beatrice Ronci, Vittoria Locato, Elisabetta Barizza, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Bushra Ijaz, Michela Zottini, Laura De Gara, Fiorella Lo Schiavo
Salt tolerance is a complex trait that varies between and within species. H2 O2 profiles as well as antioxidative systems have been investigated in the cultured cells of rice obtained from Italian rice varieties with different salt tolerance. Salt stress highlighted differences in extracellular and intracellular H2 O2 profiles in the two cell cultures. The tolerant variety had innate reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems that enabled ROS, in particular H2 O2 , to act as a signal molecule rather than a damaging one...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Micaela Mancini, Hugo Permingeat, Carolina Colono, Lorena Siena, Fulvio Pupilli, Celeste Azzaro, Diva Maria de Alencar Dusi, Vera Tavares de Campos Carneiro, Maricel Podio, José Guillermo Seijo, Ana María González, Silvina A Felitti, Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
Apomixis is a clonal mode of reproduction via seeds, which results from the failure of meiosis and fertilization in the sexual female reproductive pathway. In previous transcriptomic surveys, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (N46) displaying differential representation in florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes. Here, we retrieved and characterized the N46 full cDNA sequence from sexual and apomictic floral transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that N46 was a member of the YODA family, which was re-named QUI-GON JINN ( QGJ )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haiying Lin, Tao Sun, Yi Zhou, Ruiting Gu, Xiaomei Zhang, Wei Yang
Healthy seagrasses are considered a prime indicator of estuarine and coastal ecosystem function; however, as the only group of flowering plants recolonizing the sea, seagrasses are frequently exposed to anthropogenic heavy metal pollutants, which are associated with high levels of molecular damage. To determine whether biologically relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene expression study using transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq). We exposed the typical intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to 0 and 50 μM of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Guo, Bangyou Zheng, Andries B Potgieter, Julien Diot, Kakeru Watanabe, Koji Noshita, David R Jordan, Xuemin Wang, James Watson, Seishi Ninomiya, Scott C Chapman
Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a C4 tropical grass that plays an essential role in providing nutrition to humans and livestock, particularly in marginal rainfall environments. The timing of head development and the number of heads per unit area are key adaptation traits to consider in agronomy and breeding but are time consuming and labor intensive to measure. We propose a two-step machine-based image processing method to detect and count the number of heads from high-resolution images captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in a breeding trial...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katherine M Murphy, Li-Ting Ma, Yezhang Ding, Eric A Schmelz, Philipp Zerbe
As a major staple food, maize ( Zea mays ) is critical to food security. Shifting environmental pressures increasingly hamper crop defense capacities, causing expanded harvest loss. Specialized labdane-type diterpenoids are key components of maize chemical defense and ecological adaptation. Labdane diterpenoid biosynthesis most commonly requires the pairwise activity of class II and class I diterpene synthases (diTPSs) that convert the central precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate into distinct diterpenoid scaffolds...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shusheng Wang, Leen Leus, Marie-Christine Van Labeke, Johan Van Huylenbroeck
Rhododendrons are typically known to be calcifuges that cannot grow well in lime soils. Data on lime tolerance of different taxa in Rhododendron are scarce. Habitats of naturally distributed specimens of genus Rhododendron were compiled as Chinese text-based locations from the Chinese Virtual Herbarium. The locations were then geocoded into latitude/longitude pairs and subsequently connected to soil characteristics including pH and CaCO3 from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). Using the upper quartile values of pH > 7...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Evgeniy Donev, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
Non-cellulosic polysaccharides constitute approximately one third of usable woody biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these substances are composed of several different types of unit monosaccharides and their backbones are substituted by various groups. Their structural diversity and recent examples of their modification in transgenic plants and mutants suggest they can be targeted for improving wood-processing properties, thereby facilitating conversion of wood in a biorefinery setting...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takayuki Sawada, Mizuho Itoh, Yasunori Nakamura
Three starch branching enzyme (BE) isozymes, BEI, BEIIa, and BEIIb, are involved in starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm. Past in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that each BE isozyme plays a distinct role in forming the fine structure of amylopectin. To elucidate more details of their roles, we prepared DNA constructs in which all the possible combinations of the expressions of these three isozymes were suppressed in developing rice endosperm. Analysis of the chain-length distributions of amylopectin produced under these various conditions confirmed the contributions of the individual BE isozymes to the fine structure of amylopectin in rice endosperm...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jin Zhang, Meng Xie, Gerald A Tuskan, Wellington Muchero, Jin-Gui Chen
Plant cell walls provide structural support for growth and serve as a barrier for pathogen attack. Plant cell walls are also a source of renewable biomass for conversion to biofuels and bioproducts. Understanding plant cell wall biosynthesis and its regulation is of critical importance for the genetic modification of plant feedstocks for cost-effective biofuels and bioproducts conversion and production. Great progress has been made in identifying enzymes involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis, and in Arabidopsis it is generally recognized that the regulation of genes encoding these enzymes is under a transcriptional regulatory network with coherent feedforward and feedback loops...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ting Tang, Xiwen Yu, Hong Yang, Qi Gao, Hongtao Ji, Yanxu Wang, Guanbo Yan, Yan Peng, Huifeng Luo, Kede Liu, Xia Li, Chaozhi Ma, Chunying Kang, Cheng Dai
The CRISPR/Cas9 technique is a highly valuable tool in creating new materials for both basic and applied researches. Previously, we succeeded in effectively generating mutations in Brassica napus using an available CRISPR/Cas9 vector pKSE401 , while isolation of Cas9-free mutants is laborious and inefficient. Here, we inserted a fluorescence tag (sGFP) driven by the constitutive 35S promoter into pKSE401 to facilitate a visual screen of mutants. This modified vector was named pKSE401G and tested in several dicot plant species, including Arabidopsis , B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luis Buendia, Ariane Girardin, Tongming Wang, Ludovic Cottret, Benoit Lefebvre
Members of plant specific families of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), containing 3 extracellular LysMs have been shown to directly bind and/or to be involved in perception of lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO), chitooligosaccharides (CO), and peptidoglycan (PGN), three types of GlcNAc-containing molecules produced by microorganisms. These receptors are involved in microorganism perception by plants and can activate different plant responses leading either to symbiosis establishment or to defense responses against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Longming Zhu, Yang Zhou, Xiangnan Li, Jinming Zhao, Na Guo, Han Xing
Soybean is one of the most important economic and oil crops across the world. Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytophthora sojae ( P. sojae ), is a major disease in most soybean-growing regions worldwide. Here, we investigated metabolic changes in hypocotyls of two soybean lines, Nannong 10-1 (resistant line, R) and 06-070583 (susceptible line, S), at two time points (12 and 36 hpi) after P. sojae infection and metabolic differences between the R line and the S line. In total, 90 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified after P...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peizhou Xu, Asif Ali, Baolin Han, Xianjun Wu
Yield is majorly affected by photosynthetic efficiency. Leaves are essential structure for photosynthesis and their morphology especially size and shape in a plant canopy can affect the rate of transpiration, carbon fixation and photosynthesis. Leaf rolling and size are considered key agronomic traits in plant architecture that can subsidize yield parameters. In last era, a number of genes controlling leaf morphology have been molecularly characterized. Despite of several findings, our understanding toward molecular mechanism of leaf rolling and size are under-developed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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