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Malaria Research and Treatment

Abiodun Ogunniyi, Magbagbeola David Dairo, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi, Adebola Olayinka, Wellington A Oyibo, Olufunmilayo I Fawole, Olufemi Ajumobi
Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM)...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Eric B Fokam, Kevin T J Dzi, Leonard Ngimuh, Peter Enyong
Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010-2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Jacques-Mari Ndong Ngomo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Noé Patrick M'Bondoukwe, Rosalie Nikiéma Ndong Ella, Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet
In Gabon, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) and for uncomplicated malaria treatment through ACTs drug. P. falciparum strains resistant to SP are frequent in areas where this drug is highly used and is associated with the occurrence of mutations on Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes. The aim of the study was to compare the proportion of mutations on Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes in isolates collected at Oyem in northern Gabon, in 2005 at the time of IPTp-SP introduction and three years later...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
E T Ngarakana-Gwasira, C P Bhunu, M Masocha, E Mashonjowa
The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Getachew Geleta, Tsige Ketema
Despite rigorous effort made to control malaria for more than a century, it is still among the main public health problems in least developed regions of the world. Majority of deaths associated with malaria occur in sub-Sahara Africa among biologically risked groups. Thus, this study was designed to assess the incidence of severe malaria syndromes among children in Pawe Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Children seeking medication for malaria infection in Pawe Hospital during the study period were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical, hematological, and clinical features of complicated malaria were assessed following standard parasitological and clinical procedures...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Olatunji Joshua Awoleye, Chris Thron
Nigeria's 2009-2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January-October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Pierrette Melin, Patrick De Mol, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Célestin Ndosimao Nsibu, Solange Efundu Umesumbu, Marie-Pierre Hayette
Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Getaneh Alemu, Mohammedaman Mama
Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites...
2016: Malaria Research and Treatment
Aderonke A Adeola, Eugenia A Okwilagwe
The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Deresse Legesse, Yusuf Haji, Solomon Abreha
Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years' trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years' laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Shongkour Roy, Tanjina Khatun
Background. To control the malaria mortality, the global and national communities have worked together and produced impressive results in the world. Some of the Asian counties' malaria mortality rate is more compared to countries with high health facilities around the world. This paper's main aim is to describe trend of malaria cases and mortality in 10 Asian countries using the World Health Organization data. Methods. Malaria mortality data was collected systematically from WHO and UN database for the period 2006-2011...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Karen N Zablon, Charles Kakilla, Tatiana Lykina, Victoria Minakova, Alphaxad Chibago, Zanda Bochkaeva
Malaria in pregnancy, being often asymptomatic, is a major problem in endemic African countries. It is characterized by anemia and placental malaria leading to poor pregnancy outcomes. In 2001 Tanzania adopted an intermittent-preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) policy, which recommends receiving doses of antimalarial drugs every planned visit to the antenatal care centre (ANC), starting from the second trimester. Currently the policy is valid across the whole country, regardless that there are regions with very low malaria endemicity in Tanzania, such as Dodoma region...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Gholam Reza Hatam, Fatemeh Nejati, Tahereh Mohammadzadeh, Reza Shahriari Rad, Bahador Sarkari
The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803) were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east) of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Anil Pareek, Nitin Chandurkar, Nithya Gogtay, Alaka Deshpande, Arjun Kakrani, Mala Kaneria, Partha Karmakar, Arvind Jain, Dhanpat Kochar, Arun Chogle, Arnab Ray
Background. Primaquine is used to eradicate latent Plasmodium vivax parasite from liver, with administration of standard dose daily up to 14 days. We studied efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sustained release (SR) formulation of primaquine in comparison with conventional primaquine in preventing relapse of P. vivax malaria. Methods. Microscopically confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria received chloroquine therapy for three days. Aparasitemic and asymptomatic patients were then randomized to receive either conventional primaquine 15 mg for 14 days or primaquine SR 15 mg for 14 days, or primaquine SR 30 mg for seven days...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
William Yavo, Abibatou Konaté, Fulgence Kondo Kassi, Vincent Djohan, Etienne Kpongbo Angora, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Henriette Vanga-Bosson, Eby Ignace Hervé Menan
Two years after the introduction of free Artesunate-Amodiaquine (ASAQ) and Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, we carried out this study to compare their efficacy and tolerability in three surveillance sites. It was a multicentre open randomised clinical trial of 3-day ASAQ treatment against AL for the treatment of 2 parallel groups of patients aged 2 years and above. The endpoints were (1) Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR) at day 28 and (2) the clinical and biological tolerability...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Amged G Mostafa, Naser E Bilal, Awad-Elkareem Abass, Elhassan M Elhassan, Ahmed A Mohmmed, Ishag Adam
This study aimed to investigate coagulation, fibrinolysis indicators, and malaria during pregnancy. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Medani, Sudan. Sociodemographic characteristics were gathered from each parturient woman (163) and malaria was investigated by blood film and placental histology. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin-III, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels (PAI-1) were measured using ELISA. Results. One (0.6%), three (1.8), and 19 (11...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Addisu Workineh Kassa, Mulugojjam Andualem Tamiru, Addisu Gize Yeshanew
Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs) and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS) operation at household level was observed...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Kwaku Poku Asante, Sam Newton, Sabastina Amoako, David Dosoo, Love Ankrah, George Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Introduction. The estimation of malaria parasite density using a microscope heavily relies on White Blood Cells (WBCs) counts. An assumed WBCs count of 8000/µL has been accepted as reasonably accurate in estimating malaria parasite densities due to the challenge to accurately determine WBCs count. Method. The study used 4944 pieces of laboratory data of consented participants of age group less than 5 years. The study compared parasite densities of absolute WBCs, assumed WBCs, and the WBCs reference values in Central Ghana...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Ntokozo Dambuza, Peter Smith, Alicia Evans, Dale Taylor, Kelly Chibale, Lubbe Wiesner
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for approximately 80% of the incidence and 90% of deaths which occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, with children and pregnant women having the highest incidence. P. falciparum has developed resistance, and therefore new effective candidate antimalarial drugs need to be developed. Previous studies identified 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridines as potential antimalarial drug candidates; therefore, derivatives of these compounds were synthesized in order to improve their desired properties and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the derivatives were investigated in a mouse model which was dosed orally and intravenously...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
Nayana Gunathilaka, Menaka Hapugoda, Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
Background. Malaria was an endemic problem in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available which transmit malaria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various Anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in Trincomalee District for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. Method. Entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, using five entomological techniques, namely, indoor hand collection (HC), window trap collection (WTC), cattle-baited net collection (CBNC), and cattle-baited hut collection (CBHC) from June 2010 to June 2012 in 32 study areas under five entomological sentinel sites...
2015: Malaria Research and Treatment
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