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Adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001663/the-role-of-adipocyte-specific-il-6-type-cytokine-signaling-in-ffa-and-leptin-release
#1
Stephan Wueest, Daniel Konrad
High secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 from white adipose tissue may contribute to metabolic complications in obesity. We have recently shown that IL-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes is involved in the development of obesity-associated hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. In addition, we revealed that adipocyte-specific IL-6 signaling ameliorates glucose metabolism in obesity via enhancing insulin secretion. Mechanistically, IL-6 induces the release of free fatty acid (FFA) and leptin from adipocytes thereby affecting liver metabolism and pancreatic β-cell function, respectively...
July 12, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956579/3d-microct-spatial-and-temporal-characterization-of-thoracic-aorta-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-plaque-volumes-in-the-apoe-mouse-model
#2
Erin Faight, Kostas Verdelis, Joseph M Ahearn, Kelly J Shields
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) influences vascular function and pathology. We present a protocol using micro-computed tomography (microCT), a novel imaging technique typically used for hard biological tissue, to characterize the temporal and spatial development of aorta PVAT and luminal plaque soft tissue. Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE) and C57Bl/6J (control) mice were fed a high fat western diet up to 30 weeks. 3D microCT reconstructions were used to quantify: 1) vascular wall volume, a surrogate measure of remodeling, was greater in ApoE, 2) aorta PVAT volume was reduced in ApoE, 3) plaque volumes increased over time in ApoE, 4) plaque development co-localized with luminal ostia, origins of branching arteries, which traveled through areas of greatest PVAT volume, 5) qualitatively, the same arteries showed evidence of increased tortuosity in ApoE...
June 29, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927687/free-lipid-and-computerized-determination-of-adipocyte-size
#3
Henrik Svensson, Daniel Olausson, Agneta Holmäng, Eva Jennische, Staffan Edén, Malin Lönn
The size distribution of adipocytes in a suspension, after collagenase digestion of adipose tissue, can be determined by computerized image analysis. Free lipid, forming droplets, in such suspensions implicates a bias since droplets present in the images may be identified as adipocytes. This problem is not always adjusted for and some reports state that distinguishing droplets and cells is a considerable problem. In addition, if the droplets originate mainly from rupture of large adipocytes, as often described, this will also bias size analysis...
June 21, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912625/promotion-of-lipid-storage-rather-than-of-thermogenic-competence-by-fetal-versus-newborn-calf-serum-in-primary-cultures-of-brown-adipocytes
#4
Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Much current understanding of brown adipocyte development comes from in-vitro cell models. Serum type may affect the behavior of cultured cells and thus conclusions drawn. Here, we investigate effects of serum type ("fetal bovine" versus "newborn calf") on responses to differentiation inducers (the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone or the neurotransmitter norepinephrine) in cultured primary brown adipocytes. Lipid storage was enhanced by fetal versus newborn serum. However, molecular adipose conversion (Pparg2 and Fabp4 expression) was not affected by serum type...
June 18, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898626/glucoraphanin-a-broccoli-sprout-extract-that-ameliorates-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#5
Liang Xu, Naoto Nagata, Tsuguhito Ota
Obesity is a low-grade sustained inflammatory state that causes oxidative stress in different metabolic tissues, which leads to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Particularly, obesity-induced metabolic endotoxemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress...
June 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882687/gender-and-age-related-cell-compositional-differences-in-c57bl-6-murine-adipose-tissue-stromal-vascular-fraction
#6
Trivia Frazier, Stephen Lee, Annie Bowles, Julie Semon, Bruce Bunnell, Xiying Wu, Jeffrey Gimble
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a functional organ that contains cellular heterogeneity and diversity within anatomical depots. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose contains endothelial progenitors, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, pericytes, pre-adipocytes, and stromal/stem cells, among others. In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the influence of age and gender in the field of stem cell biology. Yet few studies have evaluated the influence of biological age or sex on either SVF cell heterogeneity or immunophenotype...
June 8, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775127/glycemic-control-and-its-associated-factors-among-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-ayder-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-mekelle-ethiopia
#7
Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes
Diabetes is one of the largest health emergencies of the twenty-first century and it is increasing with alarming rate throughout the world. Glycemic Control in diabetes patients is an important issue in minimizing diabetes related complications and deaths. Institution based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017. Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and biochemical profiles were determined using Huma Meter A1c and ABX PENTRA 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. Independent t-test to compare groups, bivariate and multi variable logistic regression analysis were used...
May 18, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786471/the-effects-of-polyphenol-supplementation-on-adipose-tissue-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-overweight-and-obese-humans
#8
Jasper Most, Ines Warnke, Mark V Boekschoten, Johan W E Jocken, Philip de Groot, Angelika Friedel, Igor Bendik, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
Dietary polyphenols have beneficial effects on adipose tissue mass and function in rodents, but human studies are scarce. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 25 (10 women) overweight and obese humans received a combination of the polyphenols epigallocatechin-gallate and resveratrol (282 mg/d, 80 mg/d, respectively, EGCG+RES, n = 11) or placebo (PLA, n = 14) supplementation for 12 weeks. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were collected for assessment of adipocyte morphology and micro-array analysis...
May 1, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708458/use-of-14-c-glucose-by-primary-cultures-of-mature-rat-epididymal-adipocytes-marked-release-of-lactate-and-glycerol-but-limited-lipogenesis-in-the-absence-of-external-stimuli
#9
Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, José Antonio Fernández-López, Xavier Remesar, Marià Alemany
White adipose tissue can metabolize large amounts of glucose to glycerol and lactate. We quantitatively traced glucose label to lactate, glycerol and fats in primary cultures of mature rat epididymal adipocytes. Cells were incubated with 7/14 mM 14 C-glucose for 24/48 h. Medium metabolites and the label in them and in cells' components were measured. Gene expression analysis was done using parallel incubations. Glucose concentration did not affect lactate efflux and most parameters. Glycerol efflux increased after 24 h, coinciding with arrested lipogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693476/effects-of-gut-microbiota-manipulation-on-ex-vivo-lipolysis-in-human-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#10
Johan W E Jocken, Dorien Reijnders, Emanuel E Canfora, Mark V Boekschoten, Joghum Plat, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by affecting host lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. To investigate the effects of microbiota manipulation on ex vivo basal and β-adrenergically-stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes, 36 obese men were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic) or placebo treatment (7 d, 1500 mg/d). Before and after treatment, ex vivo adipose tissue lipolysis was assessed under basal conditions and during stimulation with the non-selective β-agonist isoprenaline using freshly isolated mature adipocytes...
April 25, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#11
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570038/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-epigenetics-is-related-to-adiposity-dyslipidemia-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga, J Alfredo Martinez
Unresolved ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of several obesity-related metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Different epigenetic modifications may regulate ER stress response and consequently disease risks. These epigenetic phenomena encompass DNA and histone methylation patterns in ER stress genes and downstream signaling molecules, as well as microRNA expression. Our results suggest potential associations of methylation signatures at ER regulatory genes in white blood cells with an abdominal/central obesity marker (waist circumference), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance...
March 23, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561195/a-role-for-fgf2-in-visceral-adiposity-associated-mammary-epithelial-transformation
#13
Vanessa Benham, Debrup Chakraborty, Blair Bullard, Jamie J Bernard
Obesity is a leading risk factor for post-menopausal breast cancer, and this is concerning as 40% of cancer diagnoses in 2014 were associated with overweight/obesity. Despite this epidemiological link, the underlying mechanism responsible is unknown. We recently published that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) releases FGF2 and stimulates the transformation of skin epithelial cells. Furthermore, obesity is differentially associated with many epithelial cancers, and this mechanistic link could be translational. As FGF2 and FGFR1 are implicated in breast cancer progression, we hypothesize that VAT-derived FGF2 plays a translational role in promoting adiposity-associated mammary epithelial cell transformation...
March 21, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537934/the-role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-n-3-pufas-on-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-insulin-action
#14
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521565/fish-oil-as-a-potential-activator-of-brown-and-beige-fat-thermogenesis
#15
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509047/adipocyte-cd1d-determines-adipose-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#16
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is regulated by various immune cells for innate and adaptive immunity. Among adipose tissue immune cells, it has been proposed that invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play crucial roles in anti-inflammatory responses in obesity. iNKT cells recognize 'lipid' antigens loaded on CD1d of antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses by secreting Th1 or Th2 type cytokines depending on species of lipid antigens, antigen presenting cell types, and environmental cytokine milieu...
March 6, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411678/dysregulated-lipid-storage-and-its-relationship-with-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-non-obese-asian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Chatchalit Rattarasarn
The prevalence of non-obese type 2 diabetes in Asians is up to 50%. This review aims to summarize the role of regional fat in the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes as well as the role of intra-pancreatic fat and β-cell dysfunction. The body fat content of non-obese Asian type 2 diabetic patients is not different from that of non-diabetic subjects but the proportion of intra-abdominal and intra-hepatic fat are greater. Visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes...
February 7, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411671/mirna-biogenesis-pathway-is-differentially-regulated-during-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
E C Martin, A T Qureshi, C B Llamas, M E Burow, A G King, O C Lee, V Dasa, M A Freitas, J A Forsberg, E A Elster, T A Davis, J M Gimble
Stromal/stem cell differentiation is controlled by a vast array of regulatory mechanisms. Included within these are methods of mRNA gene regulation that occur at the level of epigenetic, transcriptional, and/or posttranscriptional modifications. Current studies that evaluate the posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA demonstrate microRNAs (miRNAs) as key mediators of stem cell differentiation through the inhibition of mRNA translation. miRNA expression is enhanced during both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation; however, the mechanism by which miRNA expression is altered during stem cell differentiation is less understood...
February 7, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676668/in-this-issue-of-adipocyte
#19
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400609/adipose-tissue-autophagy-related-gene-expression-is-associated-with-glucometabolic-status-in-human-obesity
#20
Qing Xu, Edwin C M Mariman, Nadia J T Roumans, Roel G Vink, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak, Johan W E Jocken
Adipose tissue autophagy (AT) is associated with human obesity and increased metabolic risk. Recent findings establish a role for autophagy in lipid metabolism. Here, we compared the expression of autophagy-related and lipolysis genes in human abdominal subcutaneous AT (SCAT) in overweight/obese subjects (n = 17) with or without impaired glucose tolerance in comparison with lean normal glucose tolerant individuals (n = 9), and investigated the association between AT autophagy and lipolysis. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (hMADS) were used to investigate the effect of pharmacological HSL inhibition on changes in the autophagic flux...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
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