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Adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700319/adamts1-responds-to-systemic-cues-and-gates-adipogenesis
#1
Janica C Wong, Brian J Feldman
Intuitively, excess caloric intake causes adipose tissue expansion. However, the signals and mechanisms by which this systemic trigger directs a local response in the adipose tissue are incompletely understood. Both hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and the generation of new adipocytes through differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), contribute to adipose tissue expansion in response to changes in the diet. Ex vivo studies of this process elucidated an elegant network of mostly transcription factors that drive APCs through the differentiation (adipogenesis) process...
July 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700271/lsd1-a-metabolic-sensor-of-environment-requirements-that-prevents-adipose-tissue-from-aging
#2
Delphine Duteil, Milica Tosic, Roland Schüle
Understanding development and maintenance of beige adipocytes provide exciting insights in establishing novel therapies against obesity and obesity-associated disorders. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser required for differentiation and function of adipocytes. Lsd1 is involved in early commitment of preadipocytes, but dispensable for terminal differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT). In mature adipocytes, Lsd1 responds to different environmental stimuli to alter metabolic function and enable proper thermogenic and oxidative response...
June 26, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410005/meeting-report-of-the-2016-bone-marrow-adiposity-meeting
#3
Bram van der Eerden, André van Wijnen
There is considerable interest in the physiology and pathology, as well as the cellular and molecular biology, of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Because bone marrow adiposity is linked not only to systemic energy metabolism, but also to both bone marrow and musculoskeletal disorders, this biologic compartment has become of major interest to investigators from diverse disciplines. Bone marrow adiposity represents a virtual multi-tissue endocrine organ, which encompasses cells from multiple developmental lineages (e...
April 5, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605293/in-this-issue-of-adipocyte
#4
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481699/obesity-is-associated-with-depot-specific-alterations-in-adipocyte-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression
#5
Si Brask Sonne, Rachita Yadav, Guangliang Yin, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Lene Secher Myrmel, Ramneek Gupta, Jun Wang, Lise Madsen, Shingo Kajimura, Karsten Kristiansen
The present study aimed to identify genes exhibiting concomitant obesity-dependent changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in adipose tissues in the mouse using diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J and genetically obese ob/ob mice as models. Mature adipocytes were isolated from epididymal and inguinal adipose tissues of ob/ob and DIO C57BL/6J mice. DNA methylation was analyzed by MeDIP-sequencing and gene expression by microarray analysis. The majority of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were hypomethylated in obese mice...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453382/flow-cytometric-single-cell-analysis-reveals-heterogeneity-between-adipose-depots
#6
Badwi B Boumelhem, Stephen J Assinder, Kim S Bell-Anderson, Stuart T Fraser
Understanding adipose tissue heterogeneity is hindered by the paucity of methods to analyze mature adipocytes at the single cell level. Here, we report a system for analyzing live adipocytes from different adipose depots in the adult mouse. Single cell suspensions of buoyant adipocytes were separated from the stromal vascular fraction and analyzed by flow cytometry. Compared to other lipophilic dyes, Nile Red uptake effectively distinguished adipocyte populations. Nile Red fluorescence increased with adipocyte size and granularity and could be combined with MitoTracker® Deep Red or fluorescent antibody labeling to further dissect adipose populations...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453364/quantification-of-ucp1-function-in-human-brown-adipose-tissue
#7
Craig Porter
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria are distinct from their counterparts in other tissues in that ATP production is not their primary physiologic role. BAT mitochondria are equipped with a specialized protein known as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 short-circuits the electron transport chain, allowing mitochondrial membrane potential to be transduced to heat, making BAT a tissue capable of altering energy expenditure and fuel metabolism in mammals without increasing physical activity. The recent discovery that adult humans have metabolically active BAT has rekindled an interest in this intriguing tissue, with the overarching aim of manipulating BAT function to augment energy expenditure as a countermeasure for obesity and the metabolic abnormalities it incurs...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441086/hematopoietic-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-fabricated-fibrin-matrices
#8
Kathleen M Gavin, Susan M Majka, Wendy M Kohrt, Heidi L Miller, Timothy M Sullivan, Dwight J Klemm
Some bona fide adult adipocytes arise de novo from a bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage. These studies further demonstrate that adipose tissue stroma contains a resident population of myeloid cells capable of adipocyte and multilineage mesenchymal differentiation. These resident myeloid cells lack hematopoietic markers and express mesenchymal and progenitor cell markers. Because bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells have not been shown to enter the circulation, we hypothesized that myeloid cells acquire mesenchymal differentiation capacity in adipose tissue...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425851/altered-structure-and-function-of-adipose-tissue-in-long-lived-mice-with-growth-hormone-related-mutations
#9
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Andrzej Bartke
A major focus of biogerontology is elucidating the role(s) of the endocrine system in aging and the accumulation of age-related diseases. Endocrine control of mammalian longevity was first reported in Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)) mice, which are long-lived due to a recessive Prop1 loss-of-function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Following this report, several other GH-related mutants with altered longevity have been described including long-lived Snell dwarf and growth hormone receptor knockout mice, and short-lived GH overexpressing transgenic mice...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425850/a-novel-and-robust-method-for-testing-bimodality-and-characterizing-porcine-adipocytes-of-adipose-tissue-of-5-purebred-lines-of-pig
#10
Eric D Testroet, Peter Sherman, Chad Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Adipocyte sizes from adipose tissue of mature animals form a bimodal distribution, thus reporting mean cell size is misleading. The objectives of this study were to develop a robust method for testing bimodality of porcine adipocytes, describe the size distribution with an informative metric, and statistically test hypertrophy and appearance of new small adipocytes, possibly resulting from hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. Ninety-three percent of adipose samples measured were bimodal (P < 0...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425849/age-dependent-obesity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#11
Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Ines Soro-Arnaiz, Julián Aragonés
Aging is associated with progressive visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion both in human and mouse. Importantly, WAT enlargement is initiated early in life, suggesting that molecular mechanisms underlying age-dependent obesity are activated at early stages of lifetime. Our recent study found that age-dependent obesity was associated with a specific decline in mitochondrial complex IV activity, which leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation and subsequent adipocyte hypertrophy. At the molecular level, global mitochondrial complex IV inhibition was driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)-mediated repression of some of its key subunits, including cytochrome c oxidase 5b (Cox5b)...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425846/alterations-to-adipose-tissue-morphology-during-inflammatory-arthritis-is-indicative-of-vasculopathology-in-dba-1-mice
#12
Katie Sime, Ernest H Choy, Anwen S Williams
The physiologic function of adipose tissue is altered by the host's inflammatory response; the implications for maintaining human health and regulating inflammation-associated disease progression are ill defined. However, this cannot be investigated in humans, therefore the use of animal models is required. With the aim to determine morphological and molecular alterations to perivascular and organ-associated adipose tissues during inflammatory arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was established in male DBA/1 mice...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425845/nck2-an-unexpected-regulator-of-adipogenesis
#13
N Haider, J Dusseault, A Rudich, L Larose
The regulation of adipose tissue expansion by adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia is the topic of extensive investigations given the potential differential contribution of the 2 processes to the development of numerous chronic diseases associated with obesity. We recently discovered that the loss-of-function of the Src homology domain-containing protein Nck2 in mice promotes adiposity accompanied with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired function, and enhanced adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Moreover, in severely-obese human's adipose tissue, we found that Nck2 expression is markedly downregulated...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425844/the-role-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obesity
#14
Yoon Jeong Park, Sung Sik Choe, Jee Hyung Sohn, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity is closely associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. One hallmark characteristics of obesity is chronic inflammation that is coordinately controlled by complex signaling networks in adipose tissues. Compelling evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its related signaling pathways play crucial roles in the progression of chronic inflammation in obesity. The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is an anabolic pathway that utilizes the glucoses to generate molecular building blocks and reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425843/the-dual-role-of-bmp4-in-adipogenesis-and-metabolism
#15
Salvatore Modica, Christian Wolfrum
BMP4 has a well-established role in triggering commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic and adipogenic linage. We recently described an additional dual function in adipogenesis: after promoting the formation of both white and brown pre-adipocytes, Bmp4 drives terminal differentiation into mature white rather than brown fat cells. Besides this, Bmp4 seems to have a dual role in metabolism either promoting or repressing oxidative metabolism in a cell context dependent manner.
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425842/estradiol-does-not-directly-regulate-adipose-lipolysis
#16
Tara L MacDonald, Rebecca MacPherson, Laura Castellani, Daniel Cervone, Eoin Anderson, David C Wright, David J Dyck
The mechanisms by which estradiol modulates adipose lipolysis are poorly understood. We sought to measure basal and β3-stimulated indices of lipoysis (FFAs, glycerol) in vivo in E2 deficient or supplemented rats, and ex vivo with direct acute E2 exposure. For 2 weeks, ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX rats treated with a daily oral dose of E2 (OVX E2) were pairfed to SHAM controls (n = 12 per group). Adipocyte size was modestly (∼40%) increased in OVX rats, but did not reach significance (p = 0.2). After 2 weeks, half of the animals in each group received an in vivo injection of saline or 1 mg/kg of the β3 agonist CL 316, 243...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425841/adipocyte-hypertrophy-hyperplasia-balance-contributes-to-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#17
Lindsey A Muir, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Carmen G Flesher, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn M Geletka, Amir A Ghaferi, Jonathan F Finks, Kanakadurga Singer, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Predictors of weight loss responses are not well-defined. We hypothesized that adipose tissue phenotypic features related to remodeling would be associated with bariatric surgery weight loss responses. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues collected from patients during bariatric surgery were studied with flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and QRTPCR, and results correlated with weight loss outcomes. Age, male sex, and a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were associated with less weight loss. Adipocyte size was increased and preadipocyte frequency was decreased in visceral adipose tissue from diabetic subjects...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410000/properties-of-porcine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-applications-in-preclinical-models
#18
Julien H Arrizabalaga, Matthias U Nollert
Adipose-derived stem cells represent a reliable adult stem cell source thanks to their abundance, straightforward isolation, and broad differentiation abilities. Consequently, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used in vitro for several innovative cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. However, the translation of a novel technology from the laboratory to the clinic requires first to evaluate its safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy through preclinical studies in animals...
March 30, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#19
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425847/form-ul-ation-of-adipocytes-by-lipids
#20
Kfir Lapid, Jonathan M Graff
Lipids have the potential to serve as bio-markers, which allow us to analyze and to identify cells under various experimental settings, and to serve as a clinical diagnostic tool. For example, diagnosis according to specific lipids that are associated with diabetes and obesity. The rapid development of mass-spectrometry techniques enables identification and profiling of multiple types of lipid species. Together, lipid profiling and data interpretation forge the new field of lipidomics. Lipidomics can be used to characterize physiologic and pathophysiological processes in adipocytes, since lipid metabolism is at the core of adipocyte physiology and energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Adipocyte
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