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Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion...
March 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Jae Bum Kim
Obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is regulated by various immune cells for innate and adaptive immunity. Among adipose tissue immune cells, it has been proposed that invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play crucial roles in anti-inflammatory responses in obesity. iNKT cells recognize 'lipid' antigens loaded on CD1d of antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses by secreting Th1 or Th2 type cytokines depending on species of lipid antigens, antigen presenting cell types, and environmental cytokine milieu...
March 6, 2018: Adipocyte
Chatchalit Rattarasarn
The prevalence of non-obese type 2 diabetes in Asians is up to 50%. This review aims to summarize the role of regional fat in the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes as well as the role of intra-pancreatic fat and β-cell dysfunction. The body fat content of non-obese Asian type 2 diabetic patients is not different from that of non-diabetic subjects but the proportion of intra-abdominal and intra-hepatic fat are greater. Visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in non-obese Asian type 2 diabetes...
February 7, 2018: Adipocyte
E C Martin, A T Qureshi, C B Llamas, M E Burow, A G King, O C Lee, V Dasa, M A Freitas, J A Forsberg, E A Elster, T A Davis, J M Gimble
Stromal/stem cell differentiation is controlled by a vast array of regulatory mechanisms. Included within these are methods of mRNA gene regulation that occur at the level of epigenetic, transcriptional, and/or posttranscriptional modifications. Current studies that evaluate the posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA demonstrate microRNAs (miRNAs) as key mediators of stem cell differentiation through the inhibition of mRNA translation. miRNA expression is enhanced during both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation; however, the mechanism by which miRNA expression is altered during stem cell differentiation is less understood...
February 7, 2018: Adipocyte
Qing Xu, Edwin C M Mariman, Nadia J T Roumans, Roel G Vink, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak, Johan W E Jocken
Adipose tissue autophagy (AT) is associated with human obesity and increased metabolic risk. Recent findings establish a role for autophagy in lipid metabolism. Here, we compared the expression of autophagy-related and lipolysis genes in human abdominal subcutaneous AT (SCAT) in overweight/obese subjects (n = 17) with or without impaired glucose tolerance in comparison with lean normal glucose tolerant individuals (n = 9), and investigated the association between AT autophagy and lipolysis. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (hMADS) were used to investigate the effect of pharmacological HSL inhibition on changes in the autophagic flux...
February 5, 2018: Adipocyte
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
December 28, 2017: Adipocyte
Mohammed K Hankir
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to both store and expend chemical energy making it an ideal therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases. Fatty acids derived from lipid droplets within brown adipocytes acting on mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were long thought to be essential for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, the roles of white adipose tissue and the liver in the provision of fuel to BAT as part of a coordinated response to temperature and dietary challenges are described. UCP1-independent modes of brown adipocyte heat production are also highlighted...
December 22, 2017: Adipocyte
Cristina Contreras, Marcos F Fondevila, Miguel López
The chaperone GRP78 (glucose related protein 78), also called BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) is a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We recently described that over-expression of GRP78 specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) releases hypothalamic ER stress in rodent obese models leading to weight loss, reduced hepatic steatosis and improved insulin and leptin sensitivity. The action of GRP78 is mediated by a feeding-independent mechanism involving increased sympathetic tone, augmented brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and induction browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
December 20, 2017: Adipocyte
Liang Xu, Tsuguhito Ota
Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation underlies insulin resistance and associated metabolic comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Excessive ectopic fat deposition in obesity causes disorders of energy homeostasis and low-grade chronic inflammation in metabolic tissues. In particular, obesity-induced recruitment and activation of adipose tissue macrophages play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D. Therefore, treatment options for energy metabolism and macrophage polarization in obese subjects are needed...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi
Obesity is currently the most extended metabolic disturbance worldwide favoring the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are characterized by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a decrease in blood levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the adiponectin/leptin ratio has been suggested as a maker of adipose tissue dysfunction. This emerging biomarker correlates with insulin resistance better than adiponectin or leptin alone, or even HOMA and is decreased with increasing number of metabolic risk factors having been proposed as a predictive marker for the MS...
December 5, 2017: Adipocyte
Rebecca C Schugar, Belinda Willard, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown
The human body is an integrated circuit between microbial symbionts and our Homo sapien genome, which communicate bi-directionally to maintain homeostasis within the human meta-organism. There is now strong evidence that microbes resident in the human intestine can directly contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disorders. In fact, gut microbes represent a filter of our greatest environmental exposure - the foods we consume. It is now clear that we each experience a given meal differently, based on our unique gut microbial communities...
November 27, 2017: Adipocyte
Debrup Chakraborty, Vanessa Benham, Jamie J Bernard
Although there is a growing number of incidences of obesity and obesity-linked cancers, how excess adiposity actually causes cancer has not been fully explained. Our previous study showed that removal of visceral adipose tissue significantly reduced the number of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated, high-fat diet-promoted skin cancers. This commentary focuses on our recently published study (Chakraborty, et al., 2017) which demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) released from visceral adipose tissue is a key factor in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells...
October 11, 2017: Adipocyte
Stephanie J Davies, James Ryan, Patrick B F O'Connor, Elaine Kenny, Derek Morris, Pavel V Baranov, Rosemary O'Connor, Tommie V McCarthy
Dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism is associated with multiple metabolic disorders. One such disease, known as Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2) is characterized by defective fat metabolism and storage. FPLD2 is caused by a specific subset of mutations in the LMNA gene. The mechanisms by which LMNA mutations lead to the adipose specific FPLD2 phenotype have yet to be determined in detail. We used RNA-Seq analysis to assess the effects of wild-type (WT) and mutant (R482W) lamin A on the expression profile of differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes and identified Itm2a as a gene that was upregulated at 36 h post differentiation induction in these cells...
August 18, 2017: Adipocyte
James E N Minchin, John F Rawls
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were responsible for 68% of all deaths worldwide in 2012. The regional distribution of lipid deposited within adipose tissue (AT) - so called body fat distribution (BFD) - is a strong risk factor for NCDs. BFD is highly heritable; however, the genetic basis of BFD is almost entirely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with BFD, including at Plexin D1 (PLXND1) - a gene known to modulate angiogenesis...
July 27, 2017: Adipocyte
Eric D Testroet, Chad L Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew R O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Our objectives were to investigate fatty acid composition variation amongst adipose tissue sites, breed effects on fat quality, and the relationship of pork fat quality to fresh pork quality. Barrows and gilts (n = 347) of five purebred and one commercial crossbred line were fed commercial swine diets with DDGS inclusion at 30% (as fed) from 31.8 kg body weight until 30-d prior to harvest at 111.4 kg. Immediately after harvest, hot carcass weight was determined, adipose tissue was collected from the back, belly, and jowl, and meat samples were taken from the longissimus muscle for evaluation of pork quality...
July 20, 2017: Adipocyte
Janica C Wong, Brian J Feldman
Intuitively, excess caloric intake causes adipose tissue expansion. However, the signals and mechanisms by which this systemic trigger directs a local response in the adipose tissue are incompletely understood. Both hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and the generation of new adipocytes through differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), contribute to adipose tissue expansion in response to changes in the diet. Ex vivo studies of this process elucidated an elegant network of mostly transcription factors that drive APCs through the differentiation (adipogenesis) process...
July 10, 2017: Adipocyte
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
Louise Cleal, Teodora Aldea, You-Ying Chau
The excessive expansion of white adipose tissue underlies the global obesity epidemic. However, not all fat is equal, and the impact of heterogeneity on the development and expansion of different adipose depots is becoming increasingly apparent. Two mechanisms are responsible for the growth of adipose tissue: hyperplasia (increasing adipocyte number) and hypertrophy (increasing adipocyte size). The former relies on the differentiation of adipocyte stem cells, which reside within the adipose stromal vascular fraction...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
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