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Adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231671/cd24-is-required-for-regulating-gene-expression-but-not-glucose-uptake-during-adipogenesis
#1
Nicole C Smith, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Nikitha K Pallegar, Christopher Cordova, Sean C Buchanan, Sherri L Christian
Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and lipodystrophy results in major health complications such as heart disease and stroke, and is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. We have previously found that the cell surface receptor CD24 regulates adipogenesis as measured by lipid accumulation and gene expression in mature adipocytes. How CD24 regulates these processes remains unknown. To begin answering this question, we first determined that CD24 does not affect glucose uptake in differentiating adipocytes in vitro...
September 20, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059270/circulating-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-is-reduced-whereas-its-production-is-increased-in-a-fat-depot-specific-manner-in-cold-acclimated-rats
#2
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the effects of cold acclimation on circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels, as well as its production and signaling in classical brown and white adipose tissues. Male Wistar rats were cold (4°C) acclimatized for 7 days. Subsequently, liver, interscapular and aortic BAT (iBAT and aBAT), and the Sc Ing and epididymal (Epid) white adipose tissues were extracted. Cold acclimation significantly reduced circulating FGF21 and its liver expression. Conversely, FGF21 content increased in iBAT, aBAT and Sc Ing fat depots, along with the expressions of the Fgf21 receptor and the receptor co-factor β-klotho...
September 20, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230416/subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-accumulation-protects-systemic-glucose-tolerance-and-muscle-metabolism
#3
A D Booth, A M Magnuson, J Fouts, Y Wei, D Wang, M J Pagliassotti, M T Foster
The protective effects of lower body subcutaneous adiposity are linked to the depot functioning as a "metabolic sink" receiving and sequestering excess lipid. This postulate, however, is based on indirect evidence. Mechanisms that mediate this protection are unknown. Here we directly examined this with progressive subcutaneous adipose tissue removal. Ad libitum chow fed mice underwent sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral removal of inguinal adipose tissue or bilateral removal of both inguinal and dorsal adipose tissue...
September 19, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153756/a-context-specific-circadian-clock-in-adipocyte-precursor-cells-modulates-adipogenesis
#4
Yunshin Jung, Brian J Feldman
The circadian clock is an intricate molecular network that paces a variety of physiological process to ~ 24 hour day/night cycles. Whereas the central circadian clock in the brain is primarily entrained by light signals, peripheral circadian clocks, which are in most cells in the body, receive cues not only from the central pacemaker but also endocrine and other systemic and tissue-specific signals. Prior studies have connected peripheral circadian clocks to metabolism, primarily with studies focused on the robust clock in the liver that responds to feeding/fasting cycles...
September 13, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30161013/sglt6-a-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#5
Tamara Baader-Pagler, Matthias Eckhardt, Frank Himmelsbach, Achim Sauer, Birgit E Stierstorfer, Bradford S Hamilton
Despite increased knowledge of nutrient intake regulation and energy homeostasis, treatment options for obesity remain limited. Food reward consists of two branches: gustatory and post-ingestive nutritive information. Drosophila lacking dSLC5A11 (sodium/glucose cotransporter 6-SGLT6) prefer L-glucose over D-glucose independently of their state of satiety. Human SGLT6 is an active transporter of myo-inositol and D-glucose. We investigated expression of SGLT6 in human tissue and found a significant expression in the small intestine and brain...
August 30, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064293/role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-pro12ala-polymorphism-in-human-adipose-tissue-assessment-of-adipogenesis-and-adipocyte-glucose-and-lipid-turnover
#6
Prasad G Kamble, Maria J Pereira, Stefan Gustafsson, Per Lundkvist, Casimiro Castillejo-López, Tove Fall, Erik Ingelsson, Jan W Eriksson
The protective mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) Pro12Ala polymorphism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are unclear. We obtained subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) before and 3 h after oral glucose (OGTT) in carriers and non-carriers of the Ala allele (12 Pro/Pro, 15 Pro/Ala, and 13 Ala/Ala). Adipogenesis, adipocyte glucose uptake and lipolysis as well as PPARγ target gene expression were investigated and compared between the genotype groups. During fasting and post-OGTT, neither basal nor insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose uptake differed between genotypes...
August 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064292/adiposity-and-metabolic-health-in-mice-deficient-in-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase
#7
Ellen Vercalsteren, Christine Vranckx, H Roger Lijnen, Bianca Hemmeryckx, Ilse Scroyen
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase 3 (AKP3) is an enzyme that was reported to play a role in lipid metabolism and to prevent high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. To investigate a potential functional role of AKP3 in diet-induced adiposity and metabolic health, we have kept male and female wild-type or AKP3 deficient mice on a high fat diet for 15 weeks to induce obesity and compared those with mice kept on standard fat diet. Body weight as well as adipose tissue mass were statistically significantly higher upon high fat diet feeding for mice of both genders and genotypes...
August 10, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956579/3d-microct-spatial-and-temporal-characterization-of-thoracic-aorta-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-plaque-volumes-in-the-apoe-mouse-model
#8
Erin Faight, Kostas Verdelis, Joseph M Ahearn, Kelly J Shields
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) influences vascular function and pathology. We present a protocol using micro-computed tomography (microCT), a novel imaging technique typically used for hard biological tissue, to characterize the temporal and spatial development of aorta PVAT and luminal plaque soft tissue. Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE) and C57Bl/6J (control) mice were fed a high fat western diet up to 30 weeks. 3D microCT reconstructions were used to quantify: 1) vascular wall volume, a surrogate measure of remodeling, was greater in ApoE, 2) aorta PVAT volume was reduced in ApoE, 3) plaque volumes increased over time in ApoE, 4) plaque development co-localized with luminal ostia, origins of branching arteries, which traveled through areas of greatest PVAT volume, 5) qualitatively, the same arteries showed evidence of increased tortuosity in ApoE...
August 9, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898626/glucoraphanin-a-broccoli-sprout-extract-that-ameliorates-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Liang Xu, Naoto Nagata, Tsuguhito Ota
Obesity is a low-grade sustained inflammatory state that causes oxidative stress in different metabolic tissues, which leads to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Particularly, obesity-induced metabolic endotoxemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and inflammation. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator of antioxidant signaling that serves as a primary cellular defense against the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress...
August 9, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001663/the-role-of-adipocyte-specific-il-6-type-cytokine-signaling-in-ffa-and-leptin-release
#10
Stephan Wueest, Daniel Konrad
High secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 from white adipose tissue may contribute to metabolic complications in obesity. We have recently shown that IL-6-type cytokine signaling in adipocytes is involved in the development of obesity-associated hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. In addition, we revealed that adipocyte-specific IL-6 signaling ameliorates glucose metabolism in obesity via enhancing insulin secretion. Mechanistically, IL-6 induces the release of free fatty acid (FFA) and leptin from adipocytes thereby affecting liver metabolism and pancreatic β-cell function, respectively...
August 3, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912625/promotion-of-lipid-storage-rather-than-of-thermogenic-competence-by-fetal-versus-newborn-calf-serum-in-primary-cultures-of-brown-adipocytes
#11
Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
Much current understanding of brown adipocyte development comes from in-vitro cell models. Serum type may affect the behavior of cultured cells and thus conclusions drawn. Here, we investigate effects of serum type ("fetal bovine" versus "newborn calf") on responses to differentiation inducers (the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone or the neurotransmitter norepinephrine) in cultured primary brown adipocytes. Lipid storage was enhanced by fetal versus newborn serum. However, molecular adipose conversion (Pparg2 and Fabp4 expression) was not affected by serum type...
July 16, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927687/free-lipid-and-computerized-determination-of-adipocyte-size
#12
Henrik Svensson, Daniel Olausson, Agneta Holmäng, Eva Jennische, Staffan Edén, Malin Lönn
The size distribution of adipocytes in a suspension, after collagenase digestion of adipose tissue, can be determined by computerized image analysis. Free lipid, forming droplets, in such suspensions implicates a bias since droplets present in the images may be identified as adipocytes. This problem is not always adjusted for and some reports state that distinguishing droplets and cells is a considerable problem. In addition, if the droplets originate mainly from rupture of large adipocytes, as often described, this will also bias size analysis...
July 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882687/gender-and-age-related-cell-compositional-differences-in-c57bl-6-murine-adipose-tissue-stromal-vascular-fraction
#13
Trivia Frazier, Stephen Lee, Annie Bowles, Julie Semon, Bruce Bunnell, Xiying Wu, Jeffrey Gimble
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a functional organ that contains cellular heterogeneity and diversity within anatomical depots. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose contains endothelial progenitors, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, pericytes, pre-adipocytes, and stromal/stem cells, among others. In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the influence of age and gender in the field of stem cell biology. Yet few studies have evaluated the influence of biological age or sex on either SVF cell heterogeneity or immunophenotype...
June 8, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775127/glycemic-control-and-its-associated-factors-among-diabetes-mellitus-patients-at-ayder-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-mekelle-ethiopia
#14
Seifu Mideksa, Sintayehu Ambachew, Belete Biadgo, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes
Diabetes is one of the largest health emergencies of the twenty-first century and it is increasing with alarming rate throughout the world. Glycemic Control in diabetes patients is an important issue in minimizing diabetes related complications and deaths. Institution based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017. Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and biochemical profiles were determined using Huma Meter A1c and ABX PENTRA 400 clinical chemistry analyzer. Independent t-test to compare groups, bivariate and multi variable logistic regression analysis were used...
May 18, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786471/the-effects-of-polyphenol-supplementation-on-adipose-tissue-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-overweight-and-obese-humans
#15
Jasper Most, Ines Warnke, Mark V Boekschoten, Johan W E Jocken, Philip de Groot, Angelika Friedel, Igor Bendik, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
Dietary polyphenols have beneficial effects on adipose tissue mass and function in rodents, but human studies are scarce. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 25 (10 women) overweight and obese humans received a combination of the polyphenols epigallocatechin-gallate and resveratrol (282 mg/d, 80 mg/d, respectively, EGCG+RES, n = 11) or placebo (PLA, n = 14) supplementation for 12 weeks. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were collected for assessment of adipocyte morphology and micro-array analysis...
May 1, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708458/use-of-14-c-glucose-by-primary-cultures-of-mature-rat-epididymal-adipocytes-marked-release-of-lactate-and-glycerol-but-limited-lipogenesis-in-the-absence-of-external-stimuli
#16
Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, José Antonio Fernández-López, Xavier Remesar, Marià Alemany
White adipose tissue can metabolize large amounts of glucose to glycerol and lactate. We quantitatively traced glucose label to lactate, glycerol and fats in primary cultures of mature rat epididymal adipocytes. Cells were incubated with 7/14 mM 14 C-glucose for 24/48 h. Medium metabolites and the label in them and in cells' components were measured. Gene expression analysis was done using parallel incubations. Glucose concentration did not affect lactate efflux and most parameters. Glycerol efflux increased after 24 h, coinciding with arrested lipogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#17
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676668/in-this-issue-of-adipocyte
#18
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400609/adipose-tissue-autophagy-related-gene-expression-is-associated-with-glucometabolic-status-in-human-obesity
#19
Qing Xu, Edwin C M Mariman, Nadia J T Roumans, Roel G Vink, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak, Johan W E Jocken
Adipose tissue autophagy (AT) is associated with human obesity and increased metabolic risk. Recent findings establish a role for autophagy in lipid metabolism. Here, we compared the expression of autophagy-related and lipolysis genes in human abdominal subcutaneous AT (SCAT) in overweight/obese subjects (n = 17) with or without impaired glucose tolerance in comparison with lean normal glucose tolerant individuals (n = 9), and investigated the association between AT autophagy and lipolysis. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (hMADS) were used to investigate the effect of pharmacological HSL inhibition on changes in the autophagic flux...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#20
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
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