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Adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#1
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
December 28, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271697/loading-and-firing-the-brown-adipocyte
#2
Mohammed K Hankir
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to both store and expend chemical energy making it an ideal therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases. Fatty acids derived from lipid droplets within brown adipocytes acting on mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were long thought to be essential for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, the roles of white adipose tissue and the liver in the provision of fuel to BAT as part of a coordinated response to temperature and dietary challenges are described. UCP1-independent modes of brown adipocyte heat production are also highlighted...
December 22, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261404/hypothalamic-grp78-a-new-target-against-obesity
#3
Cristina Contreras, Marcos F Fondevila, Miguel López
The chaperone GRP78 (glucose related protein 78), also called BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) is a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We recently described that over-expression of GRP78 specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) releases hypothalamic ER stress in rodent obese models leading to weight loss, reduced hepatic steatosis and improved insulin and leptin sensitivity. The action of GRP78 is mediated by a feeding-independent mechanism involving increased sympathetic tone, augmented brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and induction browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
December 20, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#4
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205099/adiponectin-leptin-ratio-a-promising-index-to-estimate-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-relation-with-obesity-associated-cardiometabolic-risk
#5
Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi
Obesity is currently the most extended metabolic disturbance worldwide favoring the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are characterized by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a decrease in blood levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the adiponectin/leptin ratio has been suggested as a maker of adipose tissue dysfunction. This emerging biomarker correlates with insulin resistance better than adiponectin or leptin alone, or even HOMA and is decreased with increasing number of metabolic risk factors having been proposed as a predictive marker for the MS...
December 5, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172946/postprandial-gut-microbiota-driven-choline-metabolism-links-dietary-cues-to-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#6
Rebecca C Schugar, Belinda Willard, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown
The human body is an integrated circuit between microbial symbionts and our Homo sapien genome, which communicate bi-directionally to maintain homeostasis within the human meta-organism. There is now strong evidence that microbes resident in the human intestine can directly contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disorders. In fact, gut microbes represent a filter of our greatest environmental exposure - the foods we consume. It is now clear that we each experience a given meal differently, based on our unique gut microbial communities...
November 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095087/elucidating-the-role-of-adipose-tissue-secreted-factors-in-malignant-transformation
#7
Debrup Chakraborty, Vanessa Benham, Jamie J Bernard
Although there is a growing number of incidences of obesity and obesity-linked cancers, how excess adiposity actually causes cancer has not been fully explained. Our previous study showed that removal of visceral adipose tissue significantly reduced the number of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated, high-fat diet-promoted skin cancers. This commentary focuses on our recently published study (Chakraborty, et al., 2017) which demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) released from visceral adipose tissue is a key factor in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells...
October 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872940/itm2a-silencing-rescues-lamin-a-mediated-inhibition-of-3t3-l1-adipocyte-differentiation
#8
Stephanie J Davies, James Ryan, Patrick B F O'Connor, Elaine Kenny, Derek Morris, Pavel V Baranov, Rosemary O'Connor, Tommie V McCarthy
Dysregulation of adipose tissue metabolism is associated with multiple metabolic disorders. One such disease, known as Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD2) is characterized by defective fat metabolism and storage. FPLD2 is caused by a specific subset of mutations in the LMNA gene. The mechanisms by which LMNA mutations lead to the adipose specific FPLD2 phenotype have yet to be determined in detail. We used RNA-Seq analysis to assess the effects of wild-type (WT) and mutant (R482W) lamin A on the expression profile of differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes and identified Itm2a as a gene that was upregulated at 36 h post differentiation induction in these cells...
August 18, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792859/elucidating-the-role-of-plexin-d1-in-body-fat-distribution-and-susceptibility-to-metabolic-disease-using-a-zebrafish-model-system
#9
James E N Minchin, John F Rawls
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were responsible for 68% of all deaths worldwide in 2012. The regional distribution of lipid deposited within adipose tissue (AT) - so called body fat distribution (BFD) - is a strong risk factor for NCDs. BFD is highly heritable; however, the genetic basis of BFD is almost entirely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with BFD, including at Plexin D1 (PLXND1) - a gene known to modulate angiogenesis...
July 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792779/iodine-values-of-adipose-tissue-varied-among-breeds-of-pigs-and-were-correlated-with-pork-quality
#10
Eric D Testroet, Chad L Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew R O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Our objectives were to investigate fatty acid composition variation amongst adipose tissue sites, breed effects on fat quality, and the relationship of pork fat quality to fresh pork quality. Barrows and gilts (n = 347) of five purebred and one commercial crossbred line were fed commercial swine diets with DDGS inclusion at 30% (as fed) from 31.8 kg body weight until 30-d prior to harvest at 111.4 kg. Immediately after harvest, hot carcass weight was determined, adipose tissue was collected from the back, belly, and jowl, and meat samples were taken from the longissimus muscle for evaluation of pork quality...
July 20, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700319/adamts1-responds-to-systemic-cues-and-gates-adipogenesis
#11
Janica C Wong, Brian J Feldman
Intuitively, excess caloric intake causes adipose tissue expansion. However, the signals and mechanisms by which this systemic trigger directs a local response in the adipose tissue are incompletely understood. Both hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and the generation of new adipocytes through differentiation of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), contribute to adipose tissue expansion in response to changes in the diet. Ex vivo studies of this process elucidated an elegant network of mostly transcription factors that drive APCs through the differentiation (adipogenesis) process...
July 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020529/adipose-stem-cells
#12
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949833/fifty-shades-of-white-understanding-heterogeneity-in-white-adipose-stem-cells
#13
Louise Cleal, Teodora Aldea, You-Ying Chau
The excessive expansion of white adipose tissue underlies the global obesity epidemic. However, not all fat is equal, and the impact of heterogeneity on the development and expansion of different adipose depots is becoming increasingly apparent. Two mechanisms are responsible for the growth of adipose tissue: hyperplasia (increasing adipocyte number) and hypertrophy (increasing adipocyte size). The former relies on the differentiation of adipocyte stem cells, which reside within the adipose stromal vascular fraction...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872979/bone-marrow-adipocytes
#14
REVIEW
Mark C Horowitz, Ryan Berry, Brandon Holtrup, Zachary Sebo, Tracy Nelson, Jackie A Fretz, Dieter Lindskog, Jennifer L Kaplan, Gene Ables, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes were identified in human bone marrow more than a century ago, yet until recently little has been known about their origin, development, function or interactions with other cells in the bone marrow. Little functional significance has been attributed to these cells, a paradigm that still persists today. However, we now know that marrow adipose tissue increases with age and in response to a variety of physiologic induction signals. Bone marrow adipocytes have recently been shown to influence other cell populations within the marrow and can affect whole body metabolism by the secretion of a defined set of adipokines...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792785/puberty-is-an-important-developmental-period-for-the-establishment-of-adipose-tissue-mass-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#15
Brandon Holtrup, Christopher D Church, Ryan Berry, Laura Colman, Elise Jeffery, Jeremy Bober, Matthew S Rodeheffer
Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792783/intracellular-lipid-droplets-support-osteoblast-function
#16
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Anyonya R Guntur, Clifford J Rosen
Bone formation is an osteoblast-specific process characterized by high energy demands due to the secretion of matrix proteins and mineralization vesicles. While glucose has been reported as the principle fuel source for osteoblasts, recent evidence supports the tenet that osteoblasts can utilize fatty acids as well. Although the ability to accumulate lipid droplets has been demonstrated in many cell types, there has been little evidence that osteoblasts possess this characteristic. The current study provides evidence that osteoblastogenesis is associated with lipid droplet accumulation capable of supplying energy substrates (fatty acids) required for the differentiation process...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441086/hematopoietic-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-fabricated-fibrin-matrices
#17
Kathleen M Gavin, Susan M Majka, Wendy M Kohrt, Heidi L Miller, Timothy M Sullivan, Dwight J Klemm
Some bona fide adult adipocytes arise de novo from a bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage. These studies further demonstrate that adipose tissue stroma contains a resident population of myeloid cells capable of adipocyte and multilineage mesenchymal differentiation. These resident myeloid cells lack hematopoietic markers and express mesenchymal and progenitor cell markers. Because bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells have not been shown to enter the circulation, we hypothesized that myeloid cells acquire mesenchymal differentiation capacity in adipose tissue...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#18
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425847/form-ul-ation-of-adipocytes-by-lipids
#19
Kfir Lapid, Jonathan M Graff
Lipids have the potential to serve as bio-markers, which allow us to analyze and to identify cells under various experimental settings, and to serve as a clinical diagnostic tool. For example, diagnosis according to specific lipids that are associated with diabetes and obesity. The rapid development of mass-spectrometry techniques enables identification and profiling of multiple types of lipid species. Together, lipid profiling and data interpretation forge the new field of lipidomics. Lipidomics can be used to characterize physiologic and pathophysiological processes in adipocytes, since lipid metabolism is at the core of adipocyte physiology and energy homeostasis...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410000/properties-of-porcine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-applications-in-preclinical-models
#20
Julien H Arrizabalaga, Matthias U Nollert
Adipose-derived stem cells represent a reliable adult stem cell source thanks to their abundance, straightforward isolation, and broad differentiation abilities. Consequently, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used in vitro for several innovative cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. However, the translation of a novel technology from the laboratory to the clinic requires first to evaluate its safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy through preclinical studies in animals...
July 3, 2017: Adipocyte
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