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Journal of Parkinson's Disease

Nicole K Polinski, Laura A Volpicelli-Daley, Caryl E Sortwell, Kelvin C Luk, Nunilo Cremades, Lindsey M Gottler, Jessica Froula, Megan F Duffy, Virginia M Lee, Terina N Martinez, Kuldip D Dave
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting approximately one-percent of the population over the age of sixty. Although many animal models have been developed to study this disease, each model presents its own advantages and caveats. A unique new model has arisen to study the role of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in the pathogenesis of PD. This model involves the conversion of recombinant monomeric aSyn protein to a fibrillar form-the aSyn pre-formed fibril (aSyn PFF)-which is then injected into the brain or introduced to the media in culture...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Annekatrin König, Hugo Vicente Miranda, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex etiology and variable pathology. While a subset of cases is associated with single-gene mutations, the majority originates from a combination of factors we do not fully understand. Thus, understanding the underlying causes of PD is indispensable for the development of novel therapeutics. Glycation, the non-enzymatic reaction between reactive dicarbonyls and amino groups, gives rise to a variety of different reaction products known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Vikas Kotagal, Roger L Albin, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen
BACKGROUND: Medical comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, influence disease progression in Parkinson disease (PD) and may be variably present in different clinical populations. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study of 29 Veterans with PD and 29 non-Veteran PD controls. The groups were matched for age, gender, and disease duration. Both groups underwent clinical and imaging testing as part of their participation in a larger cross-sectional PD observational study at our research center...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Jason F Cooper, Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective degeneration of neurons primarily in the substantia nigra. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is incompletely understood and there are no neuroprotective treatments available. Accurate animal models of PD provide the opportunity to elucidate disease mechanisms and identify therapeutic targets. This review focuses on C. elegans models of PD, including both genetic and toxicant models. This microscopic worm offers several advantages for the study of PD including ease of genetic manipulation, ability to complete experiments rapidly, low cost, and ability to perform large scale screens for disease modifiers...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Yang-Hyun Lee, Jee-Eun Lee, Dong-Woo Ryu, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung-Hoo Hong, Joong-Seok Kim
BACKGROUND: Urinary dysfunction is relatively common, however, is often underestimated and diagnosed by subjective questionnaires in patients with Parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between subjective urinary dysfunction and post-void residual urine volume in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to assess the relationship between clinical characteristics and subjective or objective urinary dysfunction...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Paola Ortelli, Davide Ferrazzoli, Rossana Bera, Luca Caremani, Nir Giladi, Roberto Maestri, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: Parkinsonian patients in advanced stages of disease suffer from many motor and non-motor symptoms, whose responsiveness to dopamine replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation is poor. It is necessary to find complementary strategies in order to improve the clinical conditions of patients in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) stages. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand whether an inpatient, motor-cognitive, multidisciplinary, aerobic, intensive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT), specifically designed for PD, is effective for patients in advanced stages of disease...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kelsey Lee, Khanh-Dung Nguyen, Chao Sun, Mei Liu, Faria Zafar, Jimmy Saetern, Adrian Flierl, James W Tetrud, J William Langston, Dennis Dickson, Birgitt Schüle
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are among the most common genetic causes of Lewy body Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 mutations can also lead to a variety of pathological phenotypes other than typical PD, including relatively pure nigrostriatal cell loss without alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies or Lewy neurites, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The mechanisms behind this remarkable pleomorphic pathology are currently unclear...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Raquel Bouça-Machado, Walter Maetzler, Joaquim J Ferreira
Although yet poorly defined and often misused, the concept of functional mobility has been used in research studies as a more global and ecological outcome of patients' health status. Functional mobility is a person's physiological ability to move independently and safely in a variety of environments in order to accomplish functional activities or tasks and to participate in the activities of daily living, at home, work and in the community. Parkinson's disease (PD) has a direct impact on patients' motor control and on mobility in general...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Sygrid van der Zee, Yannick Vermeiren, Erik Fransen, Debby Van Dam, Tony Aerts, Marleen J Gerritsen, Jacoba M Spikman, Teus van Laar, Peter P De Deyn
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are characterized by profound central and peripheral monoaminergic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether these alterations depend on dementia status, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum monoamine and metabolite levels across subgroups of the cognitive spectrum, and evaluated their marker potential afterwards...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Athina Simitsi, Christos Koros, Marina Moraitou, Nikos Papagiannakis, Roubina Antonellou, Maria Bozi, Efthalia Angelopoulou, Maria Stamelou, Helen Michelakakis, Leonidas Stefanis
We compared phenotypic characteristics in 35 Greek patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), carriers of GBA1 mutations (GBA-PD), with 35 Genetically Unidentified PD patients (GU-PD). We found a previously reported higher prevalence of cognitive impairment and a little appreciated more frequent bilateral onset of the disease in GBA-PD vs GU-PD. As far as the exposure to environmental factors, linked to PD, is concerned, our study hints to the possibility that pesticide exposure may be more common in GBA-PD patients, and possibly act synergistically with the mutation carrier status to trigger the disease...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Sneha Mantri, Michelle E Fullard, John E Duda, James F Morley
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and exercise improve outcomes in Parkinson disease (PD), however little is known about activity levels in early PD patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We examined self-reported activity scores and examined associations with clinical characteristics in 383 PD subjects and 175 healthy controls from the Parkinson Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). RESULTS: Activity scores were 8% lower for PD subjects than HC (162...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Li-Jing Ma, Ling-Li Xu, Cheng-Jie Mao, Yun-Ting Fu, Xiao-Yan Ji, Yun Shen, Jing Chen, Ya-Ping Yang, Chun-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Many optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies have reported alterations in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether retinal alterations are a biomarker for PD is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential correlations between PD and morphological changes in retina using OCT and to determine its usefulness as a biomarker of disease progression in PD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on patients with PD (N = 37) and age-matched controls (N = 42), followed by a longitudinal study of the PD patients (N = 22) over approximately 2...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kristina Rosqvist, Malcolm Horne, Peter Hagell, Susanne Iwarsson, Maria H Nilsson, Per Odin
BACKGROUND: It is unclear to which degree Levodopa (L-dopa) remains effective also in the late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to which degree motor fluctuations and dyskinesias remain a problem. OBJECTIVE: To assess responsiveness of motor symptomatology to L-dopa in a group of patients with late stage PD. Moreover, to investigate the extent to which motor fluctuations and dyskinesias occur. METHODS: Thirty PD patients in Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages IV and V in "on" were included...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Lieneke van den Heuvel, Andrew S Lim, Naomi P Visanji, Jana Huang, Taneera Ghate, Tiago A Mestre, Amaal AlDakheel, Barbara S Connolly, Carmen Gasca-Salas, Drew S Kern, Jennifer Jain, Elizabeth J Slow, Margarita Pondal, Achinoam Faust-Socher, Ekaterina Rogaeva, George Tomlinson, Anthony E Lang, Connie Marras
BACKGROUND: With recent advances in the search for disease-modifying therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) the importance of identifying prodromal markers becomes greater. Non-manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers (NMC) are at risk for developing PD, and provide a population in which to identify possible markers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that NMC have differences in daily activity, fragmentation of sleep, arm swing asymmetry, and movement variability during walking, detectable by actigraphy, as compared to matched control subjects...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Gerhard A Coetzee, Steven Pierce
Genome-wide association studies of Parkinson's disease have revealed polymorphic variants associated with closely mapped genes of interest. We propose here that those genes may only represent the tip of an iceberg of regulatory effects and do not necessary reflect disease relevance. To usefully interpret a risk locus, one needs to consider 5 dimensions of information, which represent the three-dimensional structure of chromatin (dimensions #1- 3), which is locally variable across time (dimension #4), and, most importantly, dependent on cell type and context (dimension #5)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Bastiaan R Bloem, Jan H L Ypinga, Allison Willis, Colleen G Canning, Roger A Barker, Marten Munneke, Nienke M De Vries
The scientific evidence to support the value of a range of non-pharmacological interventions for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing. However, showing unequivocally that specific interventions are better than usual care is not straightforward because of generic drawbacks of clinical trials. Here, we address these challenges, specifically related to the context of evaluating complex non-pharmacological interventions for people with PD. Moreover, we discuss the potential merits of undertaking "real world" analyses using medical claims data...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Honglei Chen
Despite recent successes in understanding the genetics of Parkinson's disease (PD), the causes of late-onset sporadic PD remain elusive. Many of the epidemiologic findings on PD etiology have been challenged by alternative explanations such as reverse causation. This is mainly because PD often takes decades to develop before it can be diagnosed late in life. Convincing evidence shows that this prodromal stage of PD is characterized by various prodromal symptoms such as olfactory impairment and rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Christian Conradt, Dianlin Guo, Anca Miclea, Thomas Nisslein, Chaim Ismail, Krai Chatamra, Frank Andersohn
This study investigated whether patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) without previous exposure to antiparkinsonian drugs have higher prevalence of polyneuropathy than the general population. Using the UK General Practice Research Database, presence of polyneuropathy in the previous 3 years was assessed. Of 5089 PD patients and 19,897 controls, polyneuropathy was confirmed in 15 PD patients (0.29%) and 24 controls (0.12%). Polyneuropathy prevalence was 2.4-fold higher in PD patients than controls...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Dong-Woo Ryu, Si-Hoon Lee, Yoon-Sang Oh, Jae-Young An, Jeong-Wook Park, In-Uk Song, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent genetic and epidemiological studies have shown that there is a link between essential tremor and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is a lack of data about the clinical features of PD developed from essential tremor. OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe the clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease developed from essential tremor (ET-PD). METHODS: Twenty-five ET-PD patients and 124 IPD controls were enrolled according to each criterion...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kristen D Kelley, Guerry Peavy, Steven Edland, Whitney Rogers, David E Riley, Yvette Bordelon, David Standaert, Stephen G Reich, Irene Litvan
BACKGROUND: PSP, like Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a tauopathy. The etiopathogenesis of PSP is not well known and the role of stress has not yet been examined. Recent studies have shown that stress increases the risk for developing AD. This study investigates the role of stress as a risk factor for PSP. OBJECTIVE: B To examine the association between the development of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and self-reported life stressors. METHODS: 76 patients diagnosed with PSP according to the NINDS-SPSP criteria and 68 age-matched unrelated controls were administered a life stressor questionnaire...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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