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Journal of Parkinson's Disease

Karlijn van Dijsseldonk, Ying Wang, Richard van Wezel, Bastiaan R Bloem, Jorik Nonnekes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Tobias M Axelsen, David P D Woldbye
The current mainstay treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) consists of dopamine replacement therapy which, in addition to causing several side effects, does not delay disease progression. The field of gene therapy offers a potential means to improve current therapy. The present review gives an update of the present status of gene therapy for PD. Both non-disease and disease modifying transgenes have been tested for PD gene therapy in animal and human studies. Non-disease modifying treatments targeting dopamine or GABA synthesis have been successful and promising at improving PD symptomatology in randomized clinical studies, but substantial testing remains before these can be implemented in the standard clinical treatment repertoire...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Craig F Ferris, Thomas R Morrison, Sade Iriah, Samantha Malmberg, Praveen Kulkarni, Jochen C Hartner, Malav Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Genetic models of Parkinson's disease (PD) coupled with advanced imaging techniques can elucidate neurobiological disease progression, and can help identify early biomarkers before clinical signs emerge. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) helps protect neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction, and a mutation in the associated gene is a risk factor for recessive familial PD. The PINK1 knockout (KO) rat is a novel model for familial PD that has not been neuroradiologically characterized for alterations in brain structure/function, alongside behavior, prior to 4 months of age...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Elliot Hogg, Kishore Athreya, Christina Basile, Echo E Tan, Jan Kaminski, Michele Tagliati
BACKGROUND: Reduced glucose tolerance has been long recognized as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), and increasing scrutiny is currently being placed on insulin resistance (IR) as a pathologic driver of neurodegeneration. However, the prevalence of IR in PD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine IR prevalence in non-diabetic patients with PD and to correlate IR with other metabolic indicators, motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD, and quality of life (QoL)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Daniel W Curry, Bernardo Stutz, Zane B Andrews, John D Elsworth
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates and the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. While no treatment strategy has been proven to slow or halt the progression of the disease, there is mounting evidence from preclinical PD models that activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may have broad neuroprotective effects. Numerous dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals (e...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Michela Balconi, Chiara Siri, Nicoletta Meucci, Gianni Pezzoli, Laura Angioletti
BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. METHODS: Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Hai-Yan Zhou, Pei Huang, Qian Sun, Juan-Juan Du, Shi-Shuang Cui, Yu-Yan Tan, Yun-Yun Hu, Wei-Wei Zhan, Ying Wang, Qin Xiao, Jun Liu, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND: It is debatable whether transcranial sonography (TCS) could be a biomarker for monitoring disease progression. Various phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be a major reason contributing to the inconsistency. OBJECTIVE: We classified PD patients into different subtypes and evaluated the correlation between SN echogenicity and disease progression. METHODS: A total of 411 PD patients were included in this study. TCS evaluations of the substantia nigra (SN) were performed, and motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by a series of rating scales in all PD patients...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Hamad Alzahrani, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms have a negative impact on patients' quality of life and daily living activities. This review will focus on published articles that investigated the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in PD. OBJECTIVES: To review the existing literature on the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in PD and highlight the most effective form of intervention to prevent cognitive decline...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Irene Katsaiti, John Nixon
BACKGROUND: A qualified consensus suggests that a combination of levodopa with a peripherally acting dopa decarboxylase inhibitor continues to present the gold standard treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, as the disease progresses the therapeutic window of levodopa becomes narrowed. Pharmacological strategies for motor fluctuations are focused on providing less pulsatile and more continuous dopaminergic stimulation. Peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition improves the bioavailability of levodopa and results in a prolonged response...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Sheikh Momin, Philipp Mahlknecht, Dejan Georgiev, Thomas Foltynie, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, Andre Zacharia, Patricia Limousin
BACKGROUND: Whilst changes in the frequency of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) have been proposed to improve control of tremor or axial motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about the effects of frequency changes on upper limb motor function, particularly bradykinesia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effects of various STN-DBS frequencies (40-160 Hz, 40 Hz intervals) on upper limb motor function. METHODS: We carried out a randomised, double-blind study on 20 PD patients with chronic STN-DBS using the Simple and Assembly components of the Purdue Pegboard (PP) test and a modified upper limb version of the UPDRS-III (UL-UPDRS-III)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Nicole K Polinski, Laura A Volpicelli-Daley, Caryl E Sortwell, Kelvin C Luk, Nunilo Cremades, Lindsey M Gottler, Jessica Froula, Megan F Duffy, Virginia M Y Lee, Terina N Martinez, Kuldip D Dave
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting approximately one-percent of the population over the age of sixty. Although many animal models have been developed to study this disease, each model presents its own advantages and caveats. A unique model has arisen to study the role of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in the pathogenesis of PD. This model involves the conversion of recombinant monomeric aSyn protein to a fibrillar form-the aSyn pre-formed fibril (aSyn PFF)-which is then injected into the brain or introduced to the media in culture...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Annekatrin König, Hugo Vicente Miranda, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with complex etiology and variable pathology. While a subset of cases is associated with single-gene mutations, the majority originates from a combination of factors we do not fully understand. Thus, understanding the underlying causes of PD is indispensable for the development of novel therapeutics. Glycation, the non-enzymatic reaction between reactive dicarbonyls and amino groups, gives rise to a variety of different reaction products known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Vikas Kotagal, Roger L Albin, Martijn L T M Müller, Nicolaas I Bohnen
BACKGROUND: Medical comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, influence disease progression in Parkinson disease (PD) and may be variably present in different clinical populations. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We conducted a retrospective nested case-control study of 29 Veterans with PD and 29 non-Veteran PD controls. The groups were matched for age, gender, and disease duration. Both groups underwent clinical and imaging testing as part of their participation in a larger cross-sectional PD observational study at our research center...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Jason F Cooper, Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective degeneration of neurons primarily in the substantia nigra. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is incompletely understood and there are no neuroprotective treatments available. Accurate animal models of PD provide the opportunity to elucidate disease mechanisms and identify therapeutic targets. This review focuses on C. elegans models of PD, including both genetic and toxicant models. This microscopic worm offers several advantages for the study of PD including ease of genetic manipulation, ability to complete experiments rapidly, low cost, and ability to perform large scale screens for disease modifiers...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Yang-Hyun Lee, Jee-Eun Lee, Dong-Woo Ryu, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung-Hoo Hong, Joong-Seok Kim
BACKGROUND: Urinary dysfunction is relatively common, however, is often underestimated and diagnosed by subjective questionnaires in patients with Parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between subjective urinary dysfunction and post-void residual urine volume in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to assess the relationship between clinical characteristics and subjective or objective urinary dysfunction...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Paola Ortelli, Davide Ferrazzoli, Rossana Bera, Luca Caremani, Nir Giladi, Roberto Maestri, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: Parkinsonian patients in advanced stages of disease suffer from many motor and non-motor symptoms, whose responsiveness to dopamine replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation is poor. It is necessary to find complementary strategies in order to improve the clinical conditions of patients in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) stages. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand whether an inpatient, motor-cognitive, multidisciplinary, aerobic, intensive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT), specifically designed for PD, is effective for patients in advanced stages of disease...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Kelsey Lee, Khanh-Dung Nguyen, Chao Sun, Mei Liu, Faria Zafar, Jimmy Saetern, Adrian Flierl, James W Tetrud, J William Langston, Dennis Dickson, Birgitt Schüle
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are among the most common genetic causes of Lewy body Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 mutations can also lead to a variety of pathological phenotypes other than typical PD, including relatively pure nigrostriatal cell loss without alpha-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies or Lewy neurites, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The mechanisms behind this remarkable pleomorphic pathology are currently unclear...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Raquel Bouça-Machado, Walter Maetzler, Joaquim J Ferreira
Although yet poorly defined and often misused, the concept of functional mobility has been used in research studies as a more global and ecological outcome of patients' health status. Functional mobility is a person's physiological ability to move independently and safely in a variety of environments in order to accomplish functional activities or tasks and to participate in the activities of daily living, at home, work and in the community. Parkinson's disease (PD) has a direct impact on patients' motor control and on mobility in general...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Sygrid van der Zee, Yannick Vermeiren, Erik Fransen, Debby Van Dam, Tony Aerts, Marleen J Gerritsen, Jacoba M Spikman, Teus van Laar, Peter P De Deyn
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are characterized by profound central and peripheral monoaminergic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether these alterations depend on dementia status, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum monoamine and metabolite levels across subgroups of the cognitive spectrum, and evaluated their marker potential afterwards...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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