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Prostate Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891254/prostate-cancer-epigenetic-alterations-risk-factors-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Asgar A Kalla, Muhammed M Islam, Mike Sathekge, Razia Moorad
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525121/advances-in-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-treatment
#2
Tarun Podder, Daniel Song, Timothy Showalter, Luc Beaulieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340567/the-single-knot-running-vesicourethral-anastomosis-after-minimally-invasive-prostatectomy-review-of-the-technique-and-its-modifications-tips-and-pitfalls
#3
REVIEW
Simone Albisinni, Fouad Aoun, Alexandre Peltier, Roland van Velthoven
The vesicourethral anastomosis represents a step of major difficulty at the end of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. Over 10 years ago, we have devised the single-knot running vesicourethral anastomosis, which has been widely adopted in urologic departments worldwide. Aim of the current paper is to review the technique, its adaptability in complex situations, its complications, and possible modifications, including the use of barbed sutures.
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313896/evolving-paradigm-of-radiotherapy-for-high-risk-prostate-cancer-current-consensus-and-continuing-controversies
#4
REVIEW
Aditya Juloori, Chirag Shah, Kevin Stephans, Andrew Vassil, Rahul Tendulkar
High-risk prostate cancer is an aggressive form of the disease with an increased risk of distant metastasis and subsequent mortality. Multiple randomized trials have established that the combination of radiation therapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy improves overall survival compared to either treatment alone. Standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer in the modern setting is dose-escalated radiotherapy along with 2-3 years of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There are research efforts directed towards assessing the efficacy of shorter ADT duration...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293899/systematic-review-of-focal-prostate-brachytherapy-and-the-future-implementation-of-image-guided-prostate-hdr-brachytherapy-using-mr-ultrasound-fusion
#5
REVIEW
M Sean Peach, Daniel M Trifiletti, Bruce Libby
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy found in North American and European men and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Since the practice of PSA screening has become common the disease is most often found early and can have a long indolent course. Current definitive therapy treats the whole gland but has considerable long-term side effects. Focal therapies may be able to target the cancer while decreasing dose to organs at risk. Our objective was to determine if focal prostate brachytherapy could meet target objectives while permitting a decrease in dose to organs at risk in a way that would allow future salvage treatments...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293898/assessment-of-the-performance-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-ultrasound-fusion-guided-prostate-biopsy-against-a-combined-targeted-plus-systematic-biopsy-approach-using-24-core-transperineal-template-saturation-mapping-prostate-biopsy
#6
Francis Ting, Pim J Van Leeuwen, James Thompson, Ron Shnier, Daniel Moses, Warick Delprado, Phillip D Stricker
Objective. To compare the performance of multiparametric resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy (MRI/US-TBx) to a combined biopsy strategy (MRI/US-TBx plus 24-core transperineal template saturation mapping biopsy (TTMB)). Methods. Between May 2012 and October 2015, all patients undergoing MRI/US-TBx at our institution were included for analysis. Patients underwent MRI/US-TBx of suspicious lesions detected on multiparametric MRI +/- simultaneous TTMB. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous MRI/US-TBx + TTMB...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148459/predicting-low-risk-prostate-cancer-from-transperineal-saturation-biopsies
#7
Pim J van Leeuwen, Amila Siriwardana, Monique Roobol, Francis Ting, Daan Nieboer, James Thompson, Warick Delprado, Anne-Marie Haynes, Phillip Brenner, Phillip Stricker
Introduction. To assess the performance of five previously described clinicopathological definitions of low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods. Men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinical stage ≤T2, PSA <10 ng/mL, Gleason score <8 PC, diagnosed by transperineal template-guided saturation biopsy were included. The performance of five previously described criteria (i.e., criteria 1-5, criterion 1 stringent (Gleason score 6 + ≤5 mm total max core length PC + ≤3 mm max per core length PC) up to criterion 5 less stringent (Gleason score 6-7 with ≤5% Gleason grade 4) was analysed to assess ability of each to predict insignificant disease in RP specimens (defined as Gleason score ≤6 and total tumour volume <2...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092279/salvage-brachytherapy-for-biochemically-recurrent-prostate-cancer-following-primary-brachytherapy
#8
John M Lacy, William A Wilson, Raevti Bole, Li Chen, Ali S Meigooni, Randall G Rowland, William H St Clair
Purpose. In this study, we evaluated our experience with salvage brachytherapy after discovery of biochemical recurrence after a prior brachytherapy procedure. Methods and Materials. From 2001 through 2012 twenty-one patients treated by brachytherapy within University of Kentucky or from outside centers developed biochemical failure and had no evidence of metastases. Computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated; patients who had an underseeded portion of their prostate were considered for reimplantation. Results...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051534/pelvic-radiotherapy-versus-radical-prostatectomy-with-limited-lymph-node-sampling-for-high-grade-prostate-adenocarcinoma
#9
Christopher B Baker, Andrew M McDonald, Eddy S Yang, Rojymon Jacob, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Jeffrey W Nix, John B Fiveash
Purpose. To compare oncologic outcomes for patients with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 8 prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) versus external beam radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation (RT + ADT). Methods. Between 2001 and 2014, 121 patients with GS ≥ 8 were treated at our institution via RT + ADT (n = 71) or RP (n = 50) with ≥ 1 year of biochemical follow-up. Endpoints included biochemical failure (BF), distant metastasis, and initiation of salvage ADT. Results. The RT + ADT group was older, had higher biopsy GS, and had greater risk of lymph node involvement...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27022486/prostate-radiotherapy-in-the-era-of-advanced-imaging-and-precision-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Caleb R Dulaney, Daniel O Osula, Eddy S Yang, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019751/hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-axis-as-a-target-for-prostate-cancer-therapeutics
#11
REVIEW
Mingzhe Liu, Lingyun Wu, Sabine Montaut, Guangdong Yang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was originally considered toxic at elevated levels; however just in the past decade H2S has been proposed to be an important gasotransmitter with various physiological and pathophysiological roles in the body. H2S can be generated endogenously from L-cysteine by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine gamma-lyase, cystathionine beta-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in combination with cysteine aminotransferase. Prostate cancer is a major health concern and no effective treatment for prostate cancers is available...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977321/fortifying-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-with-physical-activity
#12
REVIEW
Colin E Champ, Lanie Francis, Rainer J Klement, Roger Dickerman, Ryan P Smith
Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697225/systematic-review-of-the-relationship-between-acute-and-late-gastrointestinal-toxicity-after-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Matthew Sean Peach, Timothy N Showalter, Nitin Ohri
A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451257/atypical-small-acinar-proliferation-repeat-biopsy-and-detection-of-high-grade-prostate-cancer
#14
Andrew Leone, Katherine Rotker, Christi Butler, Anthony Mega, Jianhong Li, Ali Amin, Stephen F Schiff, Gyan Pareek, Dragan Golijanin, Joseph F Renzulli
Purpose. Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of prostate biopsies. 30-40% of patients with ASAP may be diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) on repeat biopsy. Our objective was to examine the association between ASAP and subsequent diagnosis of intermediate/high risk PCa. Materials and Methods. Ninety-six patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2000 to 2013 and were diagnosed with ASAP were identified. Clinicopathologic features were analyzed. Comparison was made between those with subsequent PCa on repeat biopsy and those with benign repeat pathology...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26357575/thioredoxin-1-in-prostate-tissue-is-associated-with-gleason-score-erythrocyte-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-and-dietary-antioxidants
#15
Terrence M Vance, Gissou Azabdaftari, Elena A Pop, Sang Gil Lee, L Joseph Su, Elizabeth T H Fontham, Jeannette T Bensen, Susan E Steck, Lenore Arab, James L Mohler, Ming-Hui Chen, Sung I Koo, Ock K Chun
Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher's exact test...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347821/analysis-of-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-variants-in-south-african-men-replicating-associations-on-chromosomes-8q24-and-10q11
#16
Pedro Fernandez, Muneeb Salie, Danielle du Toit, Andre van der Merwe
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 2p15, 6q25, 7p15.2, 7q21, 8q24, 10q11, 10q26, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, 19q13, and Xp11, with prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility and/or tumour aggressiveness, in populations of African, European, and Asian ancestry. The objective of this study was to confirm these associations in South African Mixed Ancestry and White men. We evaluated 17 prioritised GWAS SNPs in South African cases (331 Mixed Ancestry and 155 White) and controls (178 Mixed Ancestry and 145 White)...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246911/current-patterns-of-management-of-advanced-prostate-cancer-in-routine-clinical-practice-in-spain
#17
Maria José Ribal, Juan Ignacio Martínez-Salamanca, Camilo García Freire
Objective. To describe urologists' practice patterns when managing patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in Spain. Methods. This was an observational study conducted by 120 urologists using retrospective data of advanced PCa patients attending hospitals and outpatient centers. Results. Urologists evaluated a total of 375 patients (mean age: 75 years; ECOG 0-1: 77%; mean serum PSA levels at study entry: 50.5 ng/Ml). Approximately 50% of patients had bone metastases, and 60.6% experienced pain as the main symptom of progressive disease...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26146569/cellular-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis
#18
REVIEW
Dima Y Jadaan, Mutaz M Jadaan, John P McCabe
Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET), a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC) bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973276/prostate-cancer-patients-refusal-of-cancer-directed-surgery-a-statewide-analysis
#19
K M Islam, Jiajun Wen
Introduction. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in USA. The surgical outcomes of prostate cancer remain inconsistent. Barriers such as socioeconomic factors may play a role in patients' decision of refusing recommended cancer-directed surgery. Methods. The Nebraska Cancer Registry data was used to calculate the proportion of prostate cancer patients recommended the cancer-directed surgery and the surgery refusal rate. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the socioeconomic indicators that were related to the refusal of surgery...
2015: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25802762/phase-i-study-of-anti-cd3-x-anti-her2-bispecific-antibody-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#20
Ulka Vaishampayan, Archana Thakur, Ritesh Rathore, Nicola Kouttab, Lawrence G Lum
Background. New nontoxic targeted approaches are needed for patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our preclinical studies show that activated T cells (ATC) armed with anti-CD3 x anti-Her2 bispecific antibody (Her2Bi) kill prostate cancer cells lines, induce a Th1 cytokine pattern upon engagement of tumor cells, prevent the development of prostate tumors, and retard tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. These studies provided strong rationale for our phase I dose-escalation pilot study to test ATC armed with Her2Bi (aATC) for safety in men with CRPC...
2015: Prostate Cancer
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