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Prostate Cancer

Dianne van Strijp, Christiane de Witz, Pieter C Vos, Eveline den Biezen-Timmermans, Anne van Brussel, Janneke Wrobel, George S Baillie, Pierre Tennstedt, Thorsten Schlomm, Birthe Heitkötter, Sebastian Huss, Martin Bögemann, Miles D Houslay, Chris Bangma, Axel Semjonow, Ralf Hoffmann
Purpose. To further validate the prognostic power of the biomarker PDE4D7, we investigated the correlation of PDE4D7 scores adjusted for presurgical clinical variables with longitudinal postsurgical biological outcomes. Methods. RNA was extracted from biopsy punches of resected tumors (550 patients; RP cohort) and diagnostic needle biopsies (168 patients; DB cohort). Cox regression and survival were applied to correlate PDE4D7 scores with patient outcomes. Logistic regression was used to combine the clinical CAPRA score with PDE4D7...
2018: Prostate Cancer
Pedro Leonel Almeida, Bruno Jorge Pereira
Background: Advances in technological, laboratorial, and imaging studies and new treatments available in the last decades significantly improved prostate cancer survival rates. However, this did not occur in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) at diagnosis which, in young and fit patients, will become invariably resistant to the established treatments. Progression will lead to an impairment in patients' quality of life and disease-related death. Methods: The authors intend to perform a literature review of the advantages of primary treatment of mPCa...
2018: Prostate Cancer
Mike Fang, Mary Nakazawa, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Chun Li
We examined the comparative efficacies of first-line abiraterone and enzalutamide in pre- and postdocetaxel settings in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through a trial level meta-analysis. A mixed method approach was applied to 19 unique studies containing 17 median overall survival (OS) estimates and 13 median radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) estimates. We employed a random-effects meta-analysis to compare efficacies of abiraterone and enzalutamide with respect to OS and PFS. In the predocetaxel setting, enzalutamide use was associated with an increase in median OS of 5...
2017: Prostate Cancer
Shahana Sarwar, Mohammed Abdul Majid Adil, Parveen Nyamath, Mohammed Ishaq
Prostatitis, BPH, and P.Ca are the most frequent pathologies of the prostate gland that are responsible for morbidity in men. Raised levels of PSA are seen in different pathological conditions involving the prostate. PAP levels are altered in inflammatory or infectious or abnormal growth of the prostate tissue. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were also found to be altered in prostate cancer and BPH. The present study was carried out to study the levels of PSA, PAP, calcium, and phosphorus in serum of patients with Prostatitis, BPH, or P...
2017: Prostate Cancer
Jaroslaw Szczyrba, Volker Jung, Michaela Beitzinger, Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, Martin Hart, Sandra Sapich, Marc Wiesehöfer, Helge Taubert, Gunther Wennemuth, Norbert Eichner, Thomas Stempfl, Bernd Wullich, Gunter Meister, Friedrich A Grässer
Posttranscriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the induction and maintenance of prostate carcinoma (PCa). To identify mRNAs enriched or removed from Ago2-containing RISC complexes, these complexes were immunoprecipitated from normal prostate fibroblasts (PNFs) and the PCa line DU145 and the bound mRNAs were quantified by microarray. The analysis of Ago complexes derived from PNFs or DU145 confirmed the enrichment or depletion of a variety of mRNAs already known from the literature to be deregulated...
2017: Prostate Cancer
Kari A Weber, Christopher M Heaphy, Sabine Rohrmann, Beverly Gonzalez, Jessica L Bienstock, Tanya Agurs-Collins, Elizabeth A Platz, Alan K Meeker
Background. Modifiable factors in adulthood that explain the racial disparity in prostate cancer have not been identified. Because racial differences in utero that may account for this disparity are understudied, we investigated the association of maternal and neonate factors with cord blood telomere length, as a cumulative marker of cell proliferation and oxidative damage, by race. Further, we evaluated whether cord blood telomere length differs by race. Methods. We measured venous umbilical cord blood leukocyte relative telomere length by qPCR in 38 black and 38 white full-term male neonates...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Asgar A Kalla, Muhammed M Islam, Mike Sathekge, Razia Moorad
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Tarun Podder, Daniel Song, Timothy Showalter, Luc Beaulieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Prostate Cancer
Simone Albisinni, Fouad Aoun, Alexandre Peltier, Roland van Velthoven
The vesicourethral anastomosis represents a step of major difficulty at the end of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. Over 10 years ago, we have devised the single-knot running vesicourethral anastomosis, which has been widely adopted in urologic departments worldwide. Aim of the current paper is to review the technique, its adaptability in complex situations, its complications, and possible modifications, including the use of barbed sutures.
2016: Prostate Cancer
Aditya Juloori, Chirag Shah, Kevin Stephans, Andrew Vassil, Rahul Tendulkar
High-risk prostate cancer is an aggressive form of the disease with an increased risk of distant metastasis and subsequent mortality. Multiple randomized trials have established that the combination of radiation therapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy improves overall survival compared to either treatment alone. Standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer in the modern setting is dose-escalated radiotherapy along with 2-3 years of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There are research efforts directed towards assessing the efficacy of shorter ADT duration...
2016: Prostate Cancer
M Sean Peach, Daniel M Trifiletti, Bruce Libby
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy found in North American and European men and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Since the practice of PSA screening has become common the disease is most often found early and can have a long indolent course. Current definitive therapy treats the whole gland but has considerable long-term side effects. Focal therapies may be able to target the cancer while decreasing dose to organs at risk. Our objective was to determine if focal prostate brachytherapy could meet target objectives while permitting a decrease in dose to organs at risk in a way that would allow future salvage treatments...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Francis Ting, Pim J Van Leeuwen, James Thompson, Ron Shnier, Daniel Moses, Warick Delprado, Phillip D Stricker
Objective. To compare the performance of multiparametric resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy (MRI/US-TBx) to a combined biopsy strategy (MRI/US-TBx plus 24-core transperineal template saturation mapping biopsy (TTMB)). Methods. Between May 2012 and October 2015, all patients undergoing MRI/US-TBx at our institution were included for analysis. Patients underwent MRI/US-TBx of suspicious lesions detected on multiparametric MRI +/- simultaneous TTMB. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous MRI/US-TBx + TTMB...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Pim J van Leeuwen, Amila Siriwardana, Monique Roobol, Francis Ting, Daan Nieboer, James Thompson, Warick Delprado, Anne-Marie Haynes, Phillip Brenner, Phillip Stricker
Introduction. To assess the performance of five previously described clinicopathological definitions of low-risk prostate cancer (PC). Materials and Methods. Men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinical stage ≤T2, PSA <10 ng/mL, Gleason score <8 PC, diagnosed by transperineal template-guided saturation biopsy were included. The performance of five previously described criteria (i.e., criteria 1-5, criterion 1 stringent (Gleason score 6 + ≤5 mm total max core length PC + ≤3 mm max per core length PC) up to criterion 5 less stringent (Gleason score 6-7 with ≤5% Gleason grade 4) was analysed to assess ability of each to predict insignificant disease in RP specimens (defined as Gleason score ≤6 and total tumour volume <2...
2016: Prostate Cancer
John M Lacy, William A Wilson, Raevti Bole, Li Chen, Ali S Meigooni, Randall G Rowland, William H St Clair
Purpose. In this study, we evaluated our experience with salvage brachytherapy after discovery of biochemical recurrence after a prior brachytherapy procedure. Methods and Materials. From 2001 through 2012 twenty-one patients treated by brachytherapy within University of Kentucky or from outside centers developed biochemical failure and had no evidence of metastases. Computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated; patients who had an underseeded portion of their prostate were considered for reimplantation. Results...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Christopher B Baker, Andrew M McDonald, Eddy S Yang, Rojymon Jacob, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Jeffrey W Nix, John B Fiveash
Purpose. To compare oncologic outcomes for patients with Gleason score (GS) ≥ 8 prostate adenocarcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) versus external beam radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation (RT + ADT). Methods. Between 2001 and 2014, 121 patients with GS ≥ 8 were treated at our institution via RT + ADT (n = 71) or RP (n = 50) with ≥ 1 year of biochemical follow-up. Endpoints included biochemical failure (BF), distant metastasis, and initiation of salvage ADT. Results. The RT + ADT group was older, had higher biopsy GS, and had greater risk of lymph node involvement...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Caleb R Dulaney, Daniel O Osula, Eddy S Yang, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Mingzhe Liu, Lingyun Wu, Sabine Montaut, Guangdong Yang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was originally considered toxic at elevated levels; however just in the past decade H2S has been proposed to be an important gasotransmitter with various physiological and pathophysiological roles in the body. H2S can be generated endogenously from L-cysteine by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine gamma-lyase, cystathionine beta-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in combination with cysteine aminotransferase. Prostate cancer is a major health concern and no effective treatment for prostate cancers is available...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Colin E Champ, Lanie Francis, Rainer J Klement, Roger Dickerman, Ryan P Smith
Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels...
2016: Prostate Cancer
Matthew Sean Peach, Timothy N Showalter, Nitin Ohri
A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems...
2015: Prostate Cancer
Andrew Leone, Katherine Rotker, Christi Butler, Anthony Mega, Jianhong Li, Ali Amin, Stephen F Schiff, Gyan Pareek, Dragan Golijanin, Joseph F Renzulli
Purpose. Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of prostate biopsies. 30-40% of patients with ASAP may be diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) on repeat biopsy. Our objective was to examine the association between ASAP and subsequent diagnosis of intermediate/high risk PCa. Materials and Methods. Ninety-six patients who underwent prostate biopsy from 2000 to 2013 and were diagnosed with ASAP were identified. Clinicopathologic features were analyzed. Comparison was made between those with subsequent PCa on repeat biopsy and those with benign repeat pathology...
2015: Prostate Cancer
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