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Emergency Medicine International

Kemal Yildirgan, Edris Zahir, Siamak Sharafi, Sufian Ahmad, Benoit Schaller, Meret E Ricklin, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos
Mandibular fracture is a common occurrence in emergency medicine and belongs to the most frequent facial fractures. Historically road traffic injuries (RTIs) have played a prominent role as a cause for mandibular fractures. We extracted data from all patients between August 2012 and February 2015 with "lower jaw fracture" or "mandibular fracture" from the routine database from the emergency department. We conducted a descriptive analysis at a Swiss level one trauma centre. 144 patients were admitted with suspected mandibular fractures...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Christine M Van Dillen, Matthew R Tice, Archita D Patel, David A Meurer, Joseph A Tyndall, Marie Carmelle Elie, Jonathan J Shuster
Introduction. Limited evidence is available on simulation training of prehospital care providers, specifically the use of tourniquets and needle decompression. This study focused on whether the confidence level of prehospital personnel performing these skills improved through simulation training. Methods. Prehospital personnel from Alachua County Fire Rescue were enrolled in the study over a 2- to 3-week period based on their availability. Two scenarios were presented to them: a motorcycle crash resulting in a leg amputation requiring a tourniquet and an intoxicated patient with a stab wound, who experienced tension pneumothorax requiring needle decompression...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Jiraporn Sri-On, Adisak Nithimathachoke, Gregory Philip Tirrell, Sataporn Surawongwattana, Shan Woo Liu
Objective. Emergency department (ED) revisits are a common ED quality measure. This study was undertaken to ascertain the contributing factors of revisits within 48 hours to a Thai ED and to explore physician-related, illness-related, and patient-related factors behind those revisits. Methods. This study was a chart review from one tertiary care, urban Thai hospital from October 1, 2009, to September 31, 2010. We identified patients who returned to the ED within 48 hours for the same or related complaints after their initial discharge...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Nina Thakkar Rivera, Shari L Kumar, Rohit K Bhandari, Sunil D Kumar
The American Heart Association reports the annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrests (OHCA) is greater than 300,000 with a survival rate of 9.5%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) saves one life for every 30, with a 10% decrease in survival associated with every minute of delay in CPR initiation. Bystander CPR and training vary widely by region. We conducted a retrospective study of 320 persons who suffered OHCA in South Florida over 25 months. Increased survival, overall and with bystander CPR, was seen with increasing income (p = 0...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
W Frank Peacock, Zubaid Rafique, Adam J Singer
Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF-) related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Amy Sue Biondich, Jeremy David Joslin
Coca leaf products are an integral part of the lives of the Andean peoples from both a cultural and traditional medicine perspective. Coca is also the whole plant from which cocaine is derived. Coca products are thought to be a panacea for health troubles in regions of South America. This review will examine the toxicology of whole coca and will also look at medicinal applications of this plant, past, present, and future.
2016: Emergency Medicine International
M Mäkinen, M Castrén, J Nurmi, L Niemi-Murola
Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree)...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Jeremy D Joslin, David Goldberger, Loretta Johnson, D Paul Waltz
Objectives. Violence in the Emergency Department (ED) has been a long-standing issue complicated by deficiencies in staff training, ease of weapons access, and response availability of public safety officers. The Vocera Badge is being used by our staff to request public safety assistance in lieu of a formal phone call to the University Police Communications Center. We sought to learn if use of this technology improved officer response times to the ED. Methods. Mean response times were reviewed and descriptive statistics analyzed to determine if the use of the Vocera Badge improved public safety officer response times to the ED...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Alan Campbell, Matt Ellington
The importance of early access to prehospital care has been demonstrated in many medical emergencies. This work aims to describe the potential time benefit of implementing a student Community First Responder scheme to support ambulance services in an inner-city setting in the United Kingdom. Twenty final and penultimate year medical students in the UK were trained in the "First Person on Scene" Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualification. Over 12 months, they attended 89 emergency calls in an inner-city setting as Community First Responders (CFRs), alongside the West Midlands Ambulance Service, UK...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Robert S Green, Andrew H Travers, Edward Cain, Samuel G Campbell, Jan L Jensen, David A Petrie, Mete Erdogan, Gredi Patrick, Ward Patrick
Background. Patients with sepsis benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Accurate paramedic recognition of sepsis is important to initiate care promptly for patients who arrive by Emergency Medical Services. Methods. Prospective observational study of adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) transported by paramedics to the emergency department (ED) of a Canadian tertiary hospital. Paramedic identification of sepsis was assessed using a novel prehospital sepsis screening tool developed by the study team and compared to blind, independent documentation of ED diagnoses by attending emergency physicians (EPs)...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Kazuhide Maetani, Jun Namiki, Shokei Matsumoto, Katsutoshi Matsunami, Atsushi Narumi, Toshimi Tsuneyoshi, Masanobu Kishikawa
Background. Images of head CT for the supratentorial compartment are sometimes recommended to be reconstructed with a thickness of 8-10 mm to achieve lesion conspicuity. However, additional images of a thin slice may not be routinely provided for patients with trauma in the emergency room (ER). We investigated the diagnostic sensitivity of a head CT, where axial images were 10 mm thick slices, in cases of linear skull fractures. Methods. Two trauma surgeons retrospectively reviewed head CT with 10 mm slices and skull X-rays of patients admitted to the ER that were diagnosed with a linear skull fracture...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Aya Saeb, Karen H Hagglund, Christine T Cigolle
Background. Angioedema (AE) is a common condition which can be complicated by laryngeal edema, having up to 40% mortality. Although sporadic case reports attest to the benefits of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in treating severe acute bouts of AE, little evidence-based support for this practice is available at present. Study Objectives. To compare the frequency, duration of intubation, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in patients with acute airway AE, with and without the use of FFP. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, investigating adults admitted to large community hospital ICU with a diagnosis of AE during the years of 2007-2012...
2016: Emergency Medicine International
Hayder M Alkuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
Background. Serum omentin-1 level was low in the most types of ischemic heart disease compared to normal subjects; it also dependently correlated with coronary heart disease; thus, omentin-1 is regarded as a novel biomarker in IHD. Objective. The aim of the present study was to establish the links between omentin-1 and acute myocardial infarction in metformin patients. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed on eighty-five patients with type II DM and acute MI. They are divided as follows: Group I, 62 patients with type II DM who received metformin prior to onset of acute MI; Group II, 23 patients with type II DM who did not receive metformin prior to onset of acute MI; and Group III, 30 normal healthy controls...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
Hamid Kariman, Sepideh Harati, Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo, Mehdi Pishgahi
Introduction. Evaluation of Guidelines in Syncope Study (EGSYS) is designed to differentiate between cardiac and noncardiac causes of syncope. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of this predictive model. Methods. In this prospective cross-sectional study, screening performance characteristics of EGSYS-U (univariate) and EGSYS-M (multivariate) in prediction of cardiac syncope were calculated for syncope patients who were referred to the emergency department (ED). Results. 198 patients with mean age of 59...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
Tobias Lindner, Anna Slagman, Arthur Senkin, Martin Möckel, Julia Searle
Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
Thomas Carter, Chris Conrad, J Link Wilson, Godwin Dogbey
Objectives. Ultrasound (US) guidance is a safe and effective method for peripheral intravenous (IV) catheter placement. However, no studies have directly compared the success rate of emergency medicine (EM) residents and nurses at using this technique especially in community hospital settings. This prospective "noninferiority" study sought to demonstrate that nursing staff are at least as successful as EM residents at placing US guided IVs. Methods. A group of 5 EM residents and 11 nurse volunteers with at least two years' experience underwent training sessions in hands-on practice and didactic instruction with prospective follow-up...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
Hao Wang, Richard D Robinson, John S Garrett, Kellie Bunch, Charles A Huggins, Katherine Watson, Joni Daniels, Brett Banks, James P D'Etienne, Nestor R Zenarosa
Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
H R Sawe, J A Mfinanga, F H Ringo, V Mwafongo, T A Reynolds, M S Runyon
Background. Traditional uvulectomy is performed as a cultural ritual or purported medical remedy. We describe the associated emergency department (ED) presentations and outcomes. Methods. This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective review of all pediatric visits to our ED in 2012. Trained abstracters recorded demographics, clinical presentations, and outcomes. Results. Complete data were available for 5540/5774 (96%) visits and 56 (1.0%, 95% CI: 0.7-1.3%) were related to recent uvulectomy, median age 1...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
P Makobore, M Galukande, E Kalanzi, S C Kijjambu
Background. Hand injuries are common worldwide and lead to heavy financial losses in terms of treatment, job loss, and time off duty. There is paucity of data on hand injuries in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the burden and early outcomes of hand injuries at a tertiary hospital. Method. A descriptive prospective study. Eligible patients were recruited over 5 months and followed up for four weeks. Pain, nerve function, and gross functions of the hand were assessed. Results. In total 138 patients were enrolled out of 2940 trauma patients...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
Jasmina Kevric, Victor Aguirre, Kate Martin, Dinesh Varma, Mark Fitzgerald, Charles Pilgrim
Introduction. Management of haemodynamically stable patients with penetrating abdominal injuries varies from nonoperative to operative management. The aim was to investigate whether peritoneal breach when used as an indication for exploratory laparotomy appropriately identified patients with intra-abdominal visceral injury. Methods. We conducted retrospective cohort study of all patients presenting with PAI at a major trauma centre from January 2007 to December 2011. We measured the incidence of peritoneal breach and correlated this with intra-abdominal visceral injury diagnosed at surgery...
2015: Emergency Medicine International
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