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Agostino Pozzi, Mustapha A El Lakis, Jad Chamieh, Beatriz Barberà Carbonell, Fabio Villa
Congenital malformations of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and underreported. They can be a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as a result of inadequate venous drainage of the lower extremities through collateral circulation. The significant number of cases reported in the literature highlights their importance, warranting investigating their existence in younger individuals with idiopathic DVT of the lower extremities and pelvic veins. In this systematic review, we depict the typical presentation of IVC malformations, their management, and the management of their associated DVT...
2016: Thrombosis
Caitriona Logan, Niamh O'Connell, John Kavanagh, Niall McEniff, Mark Ryan, Michael Guiney, Orla Seery, James O'Donnell, Kevin Ryan, Barry White
Insertion of an IVC filter can be a safe and effective way to avoid PE in thrombosis patients who cannot be anticoagulated. If temporary filters are not promptly removed they can become difficult to remove, causing avoidable complications and often requiring lifelong warfarin. In this study, two sequential audits of retrieval of temporary IVC filters were conducted before and after the implementation of a coordinated management strategy for IVC filter follow-up. 33 filter placements were examined over a 15-month period (Group A)...
2016: Thrombosis
Nurul Huda Mohd Nor, Fauziah Othman, Eusni Rahayu Mohd Tohit, Sabariah Md Noor
Coronary atherothrombotic diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure are the serious concerns of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstones of the management of these diseases. To prevent the recurrence of these diseases, double antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin and clopidogrel has been the standard management in most hospitals. However, aspirin resistance and clopidogrel inefficient effects due to noncompliance with double drugs regimen can cause a sinister effect on patients...
2016: Thrombosis
Amy Leung, Clare Heal, Jennifer Banks, Breanna Abraham, Gian Capati, Casper Pretorius
Background. Central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters are well established risk factors for upper limb deep vein thrombosis. There is limited literature on the thrombosis rates in patients with peripheral catheters. A prospective observational study was conducted to determine the incidence of peripheral catheter-related thrombosis in surgical patients. Methods. Patients deemed high risk for venous thrombosis with a peripheral catheter were considered eligible for the study. An ultrasound was performed on enrolment into the study and at discharge from hospital...
2016: Thrombosis
Kirsten M Roberts, Tamara B Knight, Eimeira Padilla-Tolentino, Manasa Murthy, Evan J Peterson
Background. Trials have shown that novel oral anticoagulants may decrease length of stay versus warfarin. A comparison of length of stay in the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) has not been performed outside post hoc analysis of a large clinical trial. Objective. To evaluate if rivaroxaban decreases length of stay compared to warfarin plus enoxaparin in the treatment of PE. Methods. This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. Patients were identified based on discharge diagnosis of PE and were excluded if they received anticoagulants prior to admission and had additional indications for anticoagulation or reduced creatinine clearance...
2015: Thrombosis
Priyank Shah, Sharad Bajaj, Hartaj Virk, Mahesh Bikkina, Fayez Shamoon
Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis...
2015: Thrombosis
Dany Gaspard, Karen Vito, Christa Schorr, Krystal Hunter, David Gerber
Background. Thromboembolic events are major causes of morbidity, and prevention is important. We aimed to compare chemical prophylaxis (CP) and mechanical prophylaxis (MP) as methods of prevention in nonsurgical patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to the Cooper University Hospital ICU between 2002 and 2010. Patients on one modality of prophylaxis throughout their stay were included. The CP group comprised 329 patients and the MP group 419 patients...
2015: Thrombosis
Hani N Mufti, Roger J F Baskett, Rakesh C Arora, Jean-Francois Légaré
Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in patients undergoing surgery. However, VTE prophylaxis practices in cardiac surgery are based on noncardiac surgical literature. The objective of our study was to extract current patterns of VTE prophylaxis practices in cardiac surgery patients. We also aimed to identify health care professionals knowledge of available evidence supporting VTE prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery patients. Methods. A web-based survey was developed and sent to all Canadian cardiac surgery centers with the intent to have the survey distributed to all personnel involved in the perioperative care of adult cardiac surgery patients...
2015: Thrombosis
Sarah Yentz, Oluwatoyosi A Onwuemene, Brady L Stein, Elizabeth H Cull, Brandon McMahon
Introduction. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is preferred for malignancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). Many providers monitor LMWH with anti-Xa levels, despite little validation on correspondence with patient outcome. Methods. This is a retrospective, single institution study of anti-Xa measurement in malignancy-associated thrombosis. Cases were identified using the Electronic Data Warehouse, and inclusion was confirmed by two independent reviewers. Malignancy type, thrombotic history, measurement rationale and accuracy, clinical context, and management changes were evaluated...
2015: Thrombosis
Ali Shafiq, Hamza Lodhi, Zaheer Ahmed, Ata Bajwa
Background. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score can risk-stratify patients with PE but its widespread use is uncertain. With the PESI, we compared length of hospital stay between low, moderate, and high risk PE patients and determined the number of low risk PE patients who were discharged early. Methods. PE patients admitted to St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital from January 2005 to August 2010 were screened. PESI score stratified acute PE patients into low (<85), moderate (86-105), and high (>105) risk categories and their length of hospital stay was compared...
2015: Thrombosis
H Asadi, B Yan, R Dowling, S Wong, P Mitchell
Urgent reperfusion of the ischaemic brain is the aim of stroke treatment and there has been ongoing research to find a drug that can promote vessel recanalisation more completely and with less side effects. In this review article, the major studies which have validated the use and safety of tPA are discussed. The safety and efficacy of other thrombolytic and anticoagulative agents such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, ancrod, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, and argatroban are also reviewed. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are both plasminogen activators with higher fibrin affinity and longer half-life compared to alteplase...
2014: Thrombosis
Brittany M Gouse, Amelia K Boehme, Dominique J Monlezun, James E Siegler, Alex J George, Katherine Brag, Karen C Albright, T Mark Beasley, Cindy Leissinger, Ramy El Khoury, Sheryl Martin-Schild
Background. Heightened levels of Factor VIII (FVIII) have been associated with both arterial and venous thrombosis. While elevated FVIII is common during acute ischemic stroke (AIS), whether elevated FVIII confers an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events (RTEs) following AIS has not been previously explored. Methods. Consecutive AIS patients who presented to our center between July 2008 and September 2013 and had FVIII measured during admission were identified from our stroke registry. Baseline characteristics and the occurrence of RTE (recurrent or progressive ischemic stroke, DVT/PE, and MI) were compared in patients with and without elevated FVIII levels...
2014: Thrombosis
Anahita Dua, Jennifer A Heller, Bhavin Patel, Sapan S Desai
Introduction. This study aimed to compare management patterns of patients with SVT among healthcare practitioners based in North America versus those in the global community. Methods. A 17-question, multiple choice survey with questions regarding SVT diagnosis and management strategies was provided to practitioners who attended the American Venous Forum (AVF) meeting in 2011. Results. There were 487 practitioners surveyed with 365 classified as North American (US or Canada) and 122 (56 Europe, 25 Asia, 11 South America, and 7 Africa) representing the global community...
2014: Thrombosis
Luiz Carlos Porcello Marrone, João Pedro Farina Brunelli, Ricardo Lutzky Saute, Gustavo Henrique Tomasi, Bianca Cecchele Madeira, William Alves Martins, Robson Dupont Rohr, Ana Paula Heck, Luiz Ricardo Botton, Marilia Martins de Castro, Rodrigo Bodanese, Luiz Carlos Bodanese, Antônio Carlos Huf Marrone, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Background. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil and around the world. Cardioembolism is responsible for nearly 30% of the origins of ischemic stroke. Methods. We analyzed data of 256 patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke (according to TOAST classification) who were admitted into the Hospital São Lucas-PUCRS from October 2011 to January 2014. The cardioembolic subtype was divided into six subgroups: arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, septal abnormalities, and intracardiac injuries...
2014: Thrombosis
Babita Kumari, Swati Srivastava, Tathagat Chatterjee, Rig Vardhan, Tarun Tyagi, Neha Gupta, Anita Sahu, Khem Chandra, Mohammad Zahid Ashraf
The genetic variants linked with the susceptibility of individuals to VTE are well known; however, the studies explaining the ethnicity based difference in susceptibility to VTE are limited. Present study assesses mutations in six candidate genes contributing to the etiology of VTE in Indian subjects. The study comprised 93 VTE patients and 102 healthy controls. A PCR-RFLP based analysis was performed for nine mutations in the following genes associated with VTE: favtor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), fibrinogen-beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR)...
2014: Thrombosis
John Palios, Ioannis Paraskevaidis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for stroke. Anticoagulation therapy has a risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. The use of percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices is an alternative to anticoagulation therapy. Echocardiography has a leading role in LAA closure procedure in patient selection, during the procedure and during followup. A comprehensive echocardiography study is necessary preprocedural in order to identify all the lobes of the LAA, evaluate the size of the LAA ostium, look for thrombus or spontaneous echo contrast, and evaluate atrial anatomy, including atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale...
2014: Thrombosis
Joseph J Naoum, Nibal R Chamoun, Mitul S Patel, Tiffany K Street, Mazen Haydar, Jean Bismuth, Hosam F El-Sayed, Mark G Davies, Alan B Lumsden, Eric K Peden
Background. Hypercoagulable disorders can lead to deep vein thrombosis (DVT), arterial thrombosis or embolization, and early or recurrent bypass graft failure. The purpose of this study was to identify whether diabetes increased the likelihood of heparin-induced platelet factor 4 antibodies in at risk vascular patients. Methods. We reviewed clinical data on 300 consecutive patients. A hypercoagulable workup was performed if patients presented with (1) early bypass/graft thrombosis (<30 days), (2) multiple bypass/graft thrombosis, and (3) a history of DVT, pulmonary embolus (PE), or native vessel thrombosis...
2014: Thrombosis
Antonio Gómez-Outes, Ana Isabel Terleira-Fernández, Gonzalo Calvo-Rojas, M Luisa Suárez-Gea, Emilio Vargas-Castrillón
Background. New oral anticoagulants (NOAC; rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban) have become available as an alternative to warfarin anticoagulation in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods. MEDLINE and CENTRAL, regulatory agencies websites, clinical trials registers and conference proceedings were searched to identify randomised controlled trials of NOAC versus warfarin in NVAF. Two investigators reviewed all studies and extracted data on patient and study characteristics along with cardiovascular outcomes...
2013: Thrombosis
Pål O Borgen, Ola E Dahl, Olav Reikeras
Venous thrombosis is common in elective hip surgery, and prophylaxis is recommended. Clinical trials suggest that the drug dose and timing of initiating prophylaxis significantly influence antithrombotic effectiveness and safety. We studied the time course and gradient of plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis during total hip arthroplasty (THA) in twenty patients that were randomly assigned to have the first dose of 5000 IU dalteparin subcutaneously (sc) injected 12 hours before or 6 hours after surgery. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups...
2013: Thrombosis
Elisabeth M Battinelli, Ariela Marshall, Jean M Connors
Thrombotic disease is a major cause of peripartum morbidity and mortality worldwide. Development of thrombosis in pregnancy is multifactorial due to the physiologic changes of pregnancy-which induce a relative hypercoagulable state-as well as physical changes leading to increased stasis and also the effects of both the inherited and the acquired thrombophilias. In this review, we discuss the impact of each of these factors on the development of thrombosis as well as the evidence for the impact of pregnancy-associated thrombosis on pregnancy outcome...
2013: Thrombosis
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