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Ecology and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331606/responses-of-coral-reef-fishes-to-past-climate-changes-are-related-to-life-history-traits
#1
Eduardo Ottimofiore, Camille Albouy, Fabien Leprieur, Patrice Descombes, Michel Kulbicki, David Mouillot, Valeriano Parravicini, Loïc Pellissier
Coral reefs and their associated fauna are largely impacted by ongoing climate change. Unravelling species responses to past climatic variations might provide clues on the consequence of ongoing changes. Here, we tested the relationship between changes in sea surface temperature and sea levels during the Quaternary and present-day distributions of coral reef fish species. We investigated whether species-specific responses are associated with life-history traits. We collected a database of coral reef fish distribution together with life-history traits for the Indo-Pacific Ocean...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331605/diet-analysis-in-piscivorous-birds-what-can-the-addition-of-molecular-tools-offer
#2
Johannes Oehm, Bettina Thalinger, Stephanie Eisenkölbl, Michael Traugott
In trophic studies on piscivorous birds, it is vital to know which kind of dietary sample provides the information of interest and how the prey can be identified reliably and efficiently. Often, noninvasively obtained dietary samples such as regurgitated pellets, feces, and regurgitated fish samples are the preferred source of information. Fish prey has usually been identified via morphological analysis of undigested hard parts, but molecular approaches are being increasingly used for this purpose. What remains unknown, however, is which dietary sample type is best suited for molecular diet analysis and how the molecular results compare to those obtained by morphological analysis...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331604/re-establishing-the-pecking-order-niche-models-reliably-predict-suitable-habitats-for-the-reintroduction-of-red-billed-oxpeckers
#3
Riddhika Kalle, Leigh Combrink, Tharmalingam Ramesh, Colleen T Downs
Distributions of avian mutualists are affected by changes in biotic interactions and environmental conditions driven directly/indirectly by human actions. The range contraction of red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus) in South Africa is partly a result of the widespread use of acaracides (i.e., mainly cattle dips), toxic to both ticks and oxpeckers. We predicted the habitat suitability of red-billed oxpeckers in South Africa using ensemble models to assist the ongoing reintroduction efforts and to identify new reintroduction sites for population recovery...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331603/low-leopard-populations-in-protected-areas-of-maputaland-a-consequence-of-poaching-habitat-condition-abundance-of-prey-and-a-top-predator
#4
Tharmalingam Ramesh, Riddhika Kalle, Havard Rosenlund, Colleen T Downs
Identifying the primary causes affecting population densities and distribution of flagship species are necessary in developing sustainable management strategies for large carnivore conservation. We modeled drivers of spatial density of the common leopard (Panthera pardus) using a spatially explicit capture-recapture-Bayesian approach to understand their population dynamics in the Maputaland Conservation Unit, South Africa. We camera-trapped leopards in four protected areas (PAs) of varying sizes and disturbance levels covering 198 camera stations...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331602/positive-selection-of-il-33-in-adaptive-immunity-of-domestic-chinese-goats
#5
Akhtar Rasool Asif, Muhammad Awais, Sumayyah Qadri, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Xiaoyong Du
The identification of the candidate genes that play key role in phenotypic variation in livestock populations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. IL-33 (71954) (Interleukin) gene is associated with the increased nematode resistance in small ruminants; however, the role of IL-33 for the genetic control of different diseases in Chinese goat breeds is poorly described in scientific literature. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single-nucleotide polymorphism in IL-33 gene...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331601/methods-to-identify-the-prey-of-invertebrate-predators-in-terrestrial-field-studies
#6
REVIEW
Klaus Birkhofer, Helena Bylund, Peter Dalin, Olga Ferlian, Vesna Gagic, Peter A Hambäck, Maartje Klapwijk, Laia Mestre, Eve Roubinet, Martin Schroeder, Johan A Stenberg, Mario Porcel, Christer Björkman, Mattias Jonsson
Predation is an interaction during which an organism kills and feeds on another organism. Past and current interest in studying predation in terrestrial habitats has yielded a number of methods to assess invertebrate predation events in terrestrial ecosystems. We provide a decision tree to select appropriate methods for individual studies. For each method, we then present a short introduction, key examples for applications, advantages and disadvantages, and an outlook to future refinements. Video and, to a lesser extent, live observations are recommended in studies that address behavioral aspects of predator-prey interactions or focus on per capita predation rates...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331600/bacterial-cell-to-cell-signaling-promotes-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-parasitic-bacteriophages
#7
Pierre Moreau, Stephen P Diggle, Ville-Petri Friman
The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes. Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. We found that a QS-signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331599/species-distribution-modeling-and-molecular-markers-suggest-longitudinal-range-shifts-and-cryptic-northern-refugia-of-the-typical-calcareous-grassland-species-hippocrepis-comosa-horseshoe-vetch
#8
Martin Leipold, Simone Tausch, Peter Poschlod, Christoph Reisch
Calcareous grasslands belong to the most diverse, endangered habitats in Europe, but there is still insufficient information about the origin of the plant species related to these grasslands. In order to illuminate this question, we chose for our study the representative grassland species Hippocrepis comosa (Horseshoe vetch). Based on species distribution modeling and molecular markers, we identified the glacial refugia and the postglacial migration routes of the species to Central Europe. We clearly demonstrate that H...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331598/differential-expression-patterns-of-two-delta-9-acyl-coa-desaturases-in-thitarodes-pui-lepidoptera-hepialidae-during-different-seasons-and-cold-exposure
#9
Qiang Min, Shiyu Cheng, Jianfei Xi, Tianrong Xin, Bin Xia, Zhiwen Zou
Thitarodes pui larvae have a limited distribution in the Tibetan Plateau and are the host of a parasitic fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Low temperature is a main environmental stress. However, understanding of T. pui cold adaptation mechanisms is insufficient. Delta-9-acyl-CoA desaturase (D9D) is closely correlated with cold adaptation for many organisms. To further understand the cold adaptation processes in T. pui larvae, two D9Ds, TpdesatA and TpdesatB were sequenced, and expression patterns were investigated during different seasons and cold exposure (under 0°C) in the laboratory...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331597/pollinator-population-size-and-pollination-ecosystem-service-responses-to-enhancing-floral-and-nesting-resources
#10
Johanna Häussler, Ullrika Sahlin, Charlotte Baey, Henrik G Smith, Yann Clough
Modeling pollination ecosystem services requires a spatially explicit, process-based approach because they depend on both the behavioral responses of pollinators to the amount and spatial arrangement of habitat and on the within- and between-season dynamics of pollinator populations in response to land use. We describe a novel pollinator model predicting flower visitation rates by wild central-place foragers (e.g., nesting bees) in spatially explicit landscapes. The model goes beyond existing approaches by: (1) integrating preferential use of more rewarding floral and nesting resources; (2) considering population growth over time; (3) allowing different dispersal distances for workers and reproductives; (4) providing visitation rates for use in crop pollination models...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331596/credit-of-ecological-interactions-a-new-conceptual-framework-to-support-conservation-in-a-defaunated-world
#11
Luísa Genes, Bruno Cid, Fernando A S Fernandez, Alexandra S Pires
As defaunation spreads through the world, there is an urgent need for restoring ecological interactions, thus assuring ecosystem processes. Here, we define the new concept of credit of ecological interactions, as the number of interactions that can be restored in a focal area by species colonization or reintroduction. We also define rewiring time, as the time span until all the links that build the credit of ecological interactions of a focal area have become functional again. We expect that the credit will be gradually cashed following refaunation in rates that are proportional to (1) the abundance of the reintroduced species (that is expected to increase in time since release), (2) the abundance of the local species that interact with them, and (3) the traits of reintroduced species...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331595/context-dependent-functional-dispersion-across-similar-ranges-of-trait-space-covered-by-intertidal-rocky-shore-communities
#12
Nelson Valdivia, Viviana Segovia-Rivera, Eliseo Fica, César C Bonta, Moisés A Aguilera, Bernardo R Broitman
Functional diversity is intimately linked with community assembly processes, but its large-scale patterns of variation are often not well understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal changes in multiple trait dimensions ("trait space") along vertical intertidal environmental stress gradients and across a landscape scale. We predicted that the range of the trait space covered by local assemblages (i.e., functional richness) and the dispersion in trait abundances (i.e., functional dispersion) should increase from high- to low-intertidal elevations, due to the decreasing influence of environmental filtering...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331594/the-first-complete-mitogenome-of-the-south-china-deep-sea-giant-isopod-bathynomus-sp-crustacea-isopoda-cirolanidae-allows-insights-into-the-early-mitogenomic-evolution-of-isopods
#13
Yanjun Shen, Qi Kou, Zaixuan Zhong, Xinzheng Li, Lisheng He, Shunping He, Xiaoni Gan
In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the South China deep-sea giant isopod Bathynomus sp. was determined, and this study is the first to explore in detail the mt genome of a deep-sea member of the order Isopoda. This species belongs to the genus Bathynomus, the members of which are saprophagous residents of the deep-sea benthic environment; based on their large size, Bathynomus is included in the "supergiant group" of isopods. The mt genome of Bathynomus sp. is 14,965 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, only 18 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region 362 bp in length, which is the smallest control region discovered in Isopoda to date...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331593/immigration-ensures-population-survival-in-the-siberian-flying-squirrel
#14
Jon E Brommer, Ralf Wistbacka, Vesa Selonen
Linking dispersal to population growth remains a challenging task and is a major knowledge gap, for example, for conservation management. We studied relative roles of different demographic rates behind population growth in Siberian flying squirrels in two nest-box breeding populations in western Finland. Adults and offspring were captured and individually identifiable. We constructed an integrated population model, which estimated all relevant annual demographic rates (birth, local [apparent] survival, and immigration) as well as population growth rates...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331592/host-sharing-by-the-honey-bee-parasites-lotmaria-passim-and-nosema-ceranae
#15
Manuel Tritschler, Gina Retschnig, Orlando Yañez, Geoffrey R Williams, Peter Neumann
The trypanosome Lotmaria passim and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae are common parasites of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, intestine, but the nature of interactions between them is unknown. Here, we took advantage of naturally occurring infections and quantified infection loads of individual workers (N = 408) originating from three apiaries (four colonies per apiary) using PCR to test for interactions between these two parasites. For that purpose, we measured the frequency of single and double infections, estimated the parasite loads of single and double infections, and determined the type of correlation between both parasites in double infections...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331591/synergistic-effects-of-floral-phytochemicals-against-a-bumble%C3%A2-bee-parasite
#16
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Floral landscapes comprise diverse phytochemical combinations. Individual phytochemicals in floral nectar and pollen can reduce infection in bees and directly inhibit trypanosome parasites. However, gut parasites of generalist pollinators, which consume nectar and pollen from many plant species, are exposed to phytochemical combinations. Interactions between phytochemicals could augment or decrease effects of single compounds on parasites. Using a matrix of 36 phytochemical treatment combinations, we assessed the combined effects of two floral phytochemicals, eugenol and thymol, against four strains of the bumblebee gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331590/when-perception-reflects-reality-non-native-grass-invasion-alters-small-mammal-risk-landscapes-and-survival
#17
Joseph P Ceradini, Anna D Chalfoun
Modification of habitat structure due to invasive plants can alter the risk landscape for wildlife by, for example, changing the quality or availability of refuge habitat. Whether perceived risk corresponds with actual fitness outcomes, however, remains an important open question. We simultaneously measured how habitat changes due to a common invasive grass (cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum) affected the perceived risk, habitat selection, and apparent survival of a small mammal, enabling us to assess how well perceived risk influenced important behaviors and reflected actual risk...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331589/complex-variation-in-habitat-selection-strategies-among-individuals-driven-by-extrinsic-factors
#18
Edward J Raynor, Hawthorne L Beyer, John M Briggs, Anthony Joern
Understanding behavioral strategies employed by animals to maximize fitness in the face of environmental heterogeneity, variability, and uncertainty is a central aim of animal ecology. Flexibility in behavior may be key to how animals respond to climate and environmental change. Using a mechanistic modeling framework for simultaneously quantifying the effects of habitat preference and intrinsic movement on space use at the landscape scale, we investigate how movement and habitat selection vary among individuals and years in response to forage quality-quantity tradeoffs, environmental conditions, and variable annual climate...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331588/why-the-short-face-developmental-disintegration-of-the-neurocranium-drives-convergent-evolution-in-neotropical-electric-fishes
#19
Kory M Evans, Brandon Waltz, Victor Tagliacollo, Prosanta Chakrabarty, James S Albert
Convergent evolution is widely viewed as strong evidence for the influence of natural selection on the origin of phenotypic design. However, the emerging evo-devo synthesis has highlighted other processes that may bias and direct phenotypic evolution in the presence of environmental and genetic variation. Developmental biases on the production of phenotypic variation may channel the evolution of convergent forms by limiting the range of phenotypes produced during ontogeny. Here, we study the evolution and convergence of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull shapes among 133 species of Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) and identify potential developmental biases on phenotypic evolution...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331587/a-simple-fast-and-repeatable-survey-method-for-underwater-visual-3d-benthic-mapping-and-monitoring
#20
Oscar Pizarro, Ariell Friedman, Mitch Bryson, Stefan B Williams, Joshua Madin
Visual 3D reconstruction techniques provide rich ecological and habitat structural information from underwater imagery. However, an unaided swimmer or diver struggles to navigate precisely over larger extents with consistent image overlap needed for visual reconstruction. While underwater robots have demonstrated systematic coverage of areas much larger than the footprint of a single image, access to suitable robotic systems is limited and requires specialized operators. Furthermore, robots are poor at navigating hydrodynamic habitats such as shallow coral reefs...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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