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Ecology and Evolution

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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1879.].
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Reiji Suzuki, Shiho Matsubayashi, Fumiyuki Saito, Tatsuyoshi Murate, Tomohisa Masuda, Koichi Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kojima, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Hiroshi G Okuno
Acoustic interactions are important for understanding intra- and interspecific communication in songbird communities from the viewpoint of soundscape ecology. It has been suggested that birds may divide up sound space to increase communication efficiency in such a manner that they tend to avoid overlap with other birds when they sing. We are interested in clarifying the dynamics underlying the process as an example of complex systems based on short-term behavioral plasticity. However, it is very problematic to manually collect spatiotemporal patterns of acoustic events in natural habitats using data derived from a standard single-channel recording of several species singing simultaneously...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jeremy C Andersen, Nicholas J Mills
Coevolution may be an important component of the sustainability of importation biological control, but how frequently introduced natural enemies coevolve with their target pests is unclear. Here we explore whether comparative population genetics of the invasive walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola, and its introduced parasitoid, Trioxys pallidus, provide insights into the localized breakdown of biological control services in walnut orchards in California. We found that sampled populations of C. juglandicola exhibited higher estimates of genetic differentiation (FST) than co-occurring populations of T...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Patrick L McDermott, Christopher K Wikle, Joshua Millspaugh
Analog forecasting is a mechanism-free nonlinear method that forecasts a system forward in time by examining how past states deemed similar to the current state moved forward. Previous applications of analog forecasting has been successful at producing robust forecasts for a variety of ecological and physical processes, but it has typically been presented in an empirical or heuristic procedure, rather than as a formal statistical model. The methodology presented here extends the model-based analog method of McDermott and Wikle (Environmetrics, 27, 2016, 70) by placing analog forecasting within a fully hierarchical statistical framework that can accommodate count observations...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Karen M Cogliati, Julia R Unrein, Heather A Stewart, Carl B Schreck, David L G Noakes
Variation in early life history traits often leads to differentially expressed morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We investigated whether variation in egg size and emergence timing influence subsequent morphology associated with migration timing in juvenile spring Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Based on evidence for a positive relationship between growth rate and migration timing, we predicted that fish from small eggs and fish that emerged earlier would have similar morphology to fall migrants, while fish from large eggs and individuals that emerged later would be more similar to older spring yearling migrants...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Trevor D S Bloom, Aquila Flower, Eric G DeChaine
Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are widely used to understand environmental controls on species' ranges and to forecast species range shifts in response to climatic changes. The quality of input data is crucial determinant of the model's accuracy. While museum records can be useful sources of presence data for many species, they do not always include accurate geographic coordinates. Therefore, actual locations must be verified through the process of georeferencing. We present a practical, standardized manual georeferencing method (the Spatial Analysis Georeferencing Accuracy (SAGA) protocol) to classify the spatial resolution of museum records specifically for building improved SDMs...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Anne-Kari Holm, Abdelhameed Elameen, Benedikte W Oliver, Lars O Brandsæter, Inger S Fløistad, May B Brurberg
Knowledge about the reproduction strategies of invasive species is fundamental for effective control. The invasive Fallopia taxa (Japanese knotweed s.l.) reproduce mainly clonally in Europe, and preventing spread of vegetative fragments is the most important control measure. However, high levels of genetic variation within the hybrid F. × bohemica indicate that hybridization and seed dispersal could be important. In Norway in northern Europe, it is assumed that these taxa do not reproduce sexually due to low temperatures in the autumn when the plants are flowering...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xuedong Chen, Ming Tang, Xinlu Zhang, Chantal Hamel, Wei Li, Min Sheng
To identify why tree growth differs by afforestation type is a matter of prime concern in forestry. A study was conducted to determine why oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) grows better in the presence of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) than in monoculture. Different types of stands (i.e., monocultures and mixture of black locust and oriental arborvitae, and native grassland as a control) were selected in the Loess Plateau, China. The height and diameter at breast height of each tree species were measured, and soil, shoot, and root samples were sampled...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
David S L Ramsey, Candida Barclay, Catriona D Campbell, Elise Dewar, Anna J MacDonald, Elodie Modave, Sumaiya Quasim, Stephen D Sarre
The ability to detect the incursion of an invasive species or destroy the last individuals during an eradication program are some of the most difficult aspects of invasive species management. The presence of foxes in Tasmania is a contentious issue with recent structured monitoring efforts, involving collection of carnivore scats and testing for fox DNA, failing to detect any evidence of foxes. Understanding the likelihood that monitoring efforts would detect fox presence, given at least one is present, is therefore critical for understanding the role of scat monitoring for informing the response to an incursion...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Emmanuel C Nwankwo, Chryso Th Pallari, Louis Hadjioannou, Andreas Ioannou, Ronald K Mulwa, Alexander N G Kirschel
The criteria for species delimitation in birds have long been debated, and several recent studies have proposed new methods for such delimitation. On one side, there is a large consensus of investigators who believe that the only evidence that can be used to delimit species is molecular phylogenetics, and with increasing numbers of markers to gain better support, whereas on the other, there are investigators adopting alternative approaches based largely on phenotypic differences, including in morphology and communication signals...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Christopher J Lortie, Eva Gruber, Alex Filazzola, Taylor Noble, Michael Westphal
Deserts are increasing in extent globally, but existing deserts are decreasing in health. The basic biology and ecology of foundation plant species in deserts are limited. This is a direct study that provides an estimate of the capacity for a locally dominant foundation shrub species in California to recover from damage. Desert shrubs are cleared and damaged by humans for many purposes including agriculture, oil and gas production, and sustainable energy developments; we need to know whether foundation species consistently facilitate the abundance and diversity of other plants in high-stress ecosystems and whether they can recover...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Elliot Capp, Andrea L Liebl, Alexandra G Cones, Andrew F Russell
Projecting population responses to climate change requires an understanding of climatic impacts on key components of reproduction. Here, we investigate the associations among breeding phenology, climate and incubation schedules in the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a 50 g passerine with female-only, intermittent incubation that typically breeds from late winter (July) to early summer (November). During daylight hours, breeding females spent an average of 33 min on the nest incubating (hereafter on-bouts) followed by 24-min foraging (hereafter off-bouts), leading to an average daytime nest attentiveness of 60%...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kelly E Williams, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Kurt C Vercauteren, Amy J Davis, Antoinette J Piaggio
Invasive Sus scrofa, a species commonly referred to as wild pig or feral swine, is a destructive invasive species with a rapidly expanding distribution across the United States. We used artificial wallows and small waterers to determine the minimum amount of time needed for pig eDNA to accumulate in the water source to a detectable level. We removed water from the artificial wallows and tested eDNA detection over the course of 2 weeks to understand eDNA persistence. We show that our method is sensitive enough to detect very low quantities of eDNA shed by a terrestrial mammal that has limited interaction with water...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Eric J Ankutowicz, Robert A Laird
Offspring quality decreases with parental age in many taxa, with offspring of older parents exhibiting reduced life span, reproductive capacity, and fitness, compared to offspring of younger parents. These "parental age effects," whose consequences arise in the next generation, can be considered as manifestations of parental senescence, in addition to the more familiar age-related declines in parent-generation survival and reproduction. Parental age effects are important because they may have feedback effects on the evolution of demographic trajectories and longevity...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Han Li, Matina Kalcounis-Rueppell
Many local scale studies have shown that bats respond to water quality degradation or urbanization in a species-specific manner. However, few have separated the effects of urbanization versus water quality degradation on bats, in single city or single watershed case studies. Across North Carolina, USA, we used the standardized North American Bat Monitoring Program mobile transect protocol to survey bat activity in 2015 and 2016 at 41 sites. We collected statewide water quality and urban land cover data to disentangle the effects of urbanization and water quality degradation on bats at the landscape scale...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Witold Wachowiak, Annika Perry, Kevin Donnelly, Stephen Cavers
Closely related taxa occupying different environments are valuable systems for studying evolution. In this study, we examined differences in early phenology (bud set, bud burst) and early growth in a common garden trial of closely related pine species: Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo, and P. uncinata. Seeds for the trial were sourced from populations across the ranges of each species in Europe. Over first 4 years of development, clear differences were observed between species, while the most significant intraspecific differentiation was observed among plants from P...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hong-Liang Lu, Chun-Xia Xu, Yuan-Ting Jin, Jean-Marc Hero, Wei-Guo Du
Body size is directly linked to key life history traits such as growth, fecundity, and survivorship. Identifying the causes of body size variation is a critical task in ecological and evolutionary research. Body size variation along altitudinal gradients has received considerable attention; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we compared the growth rate and age structure of toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) from two populations found at different elevations in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Gillian L Rapson
Leaf area index (LAI) was developed to describe the number of layers of foliage in a monoculture. Subsequent expansion into measurement by remote-sensing methods has resulted in misrepresentation of LAI. The new name foliage layer index (FLI) is applied to a more simply estimated version of Goodall's "cover repetition," that is, the number of layers of foliage a single species has, either within a community or in monoculture. The relationship of FLI with cover is demonstrated in model communities, and some potential relationships between FLI and species' habit are suggested...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lang Yang, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Xiaoqin Sun, Maolin Hou
Silicon (Si) uptake by Poaceae plants has beneficial effects on herbivore defense. Increased plant physical barrier and altered herbivorous feeding behaviors are documented to reduce herbivorous arthropod feeding and contribute to enhanced plant defense. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants contributes to reduced feeding in a phloem feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), through modulation of callose deposition. We associated the temporal dynamics of BPH feeding with callose deposition on sieve plates and further with callose synthase and hydrolase gene expression in plants amended with Si...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xu Wu, Yakun Tang, Yunming Chen, Jie Wen, Yuli Xie, Senbao Lu
As a major driving element of the structure and function of arid and semiarid ecosystems, rainfall is the essential factor limiting plant biological processes. To clarify the characteristics of transpiration and responses to summer rainfall, sap flow density (Fd) of Pinus tabulaeformis and Hippophae rhamnoides was monitored using thermal dissipation probes. In addition, midday leaf water potential (ψm) and leaf stomatal conductance (Gs) were also analyzed to determine water use strategies. The results indicated that the diurnal variation in the normalized Fd values exhibited a single-peak curve for P...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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