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Ecology and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428875/genetic-relationships-among-eriobotrya-species-revealed-by-genome-wide-rad-sequence-data
#1
Xianghui Yang, Samaneh Kazemiani Najafabadi, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Zhike Zhang, Yi Jing, Weiling Wei, Jingcheng Wu, Yongshun Gao, Shunquan Lin
Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to illuminate the genetic relationships among Eriobotrya species. The raw data were filtered, and 221 million clean reads were used for further analysis. A total of 1,983,332 SNPs were obtained from 23 Eriobotrya species and two relative genera. We obtained similar results by neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees. All Eriobotrya plants grouped together into a big clade, and two out-groups clustered together into a single or separate clade...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428874/population-assessment-using-multivariate-time-series-analysis-a-case-study-of-rockfishes-in-puget-sound
#2
Nick Tolimieri, Elizabeth E Holmes, Gregory D Williams, Robert Pacunski, Dayv Lowry
Estimating a population's growth rate and year-to-year variance is a key component of population viability analysis (PVA). However, standard PVA methods require time series of counts obtained using consistent survey methods over many years. In addition, it can be difficult to separate observation and process variance, which is critical for PVA. Time-series analysis performed with multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models is a flexible statistical framework that allows one to address many of these limitations...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428873/a-maize-landrace-that-emits-defense-volatiles-in-response-to%C3%A2-herbivore-eggs-possesses-a-strongly-inducible-terpene-synthase-gene
#3
Amanuel Tamiru, Toby J A Bruce, Annett Richter, Christine M Woodcock, Charles A O Midega, Jörg Degenhardt, Segenet Kelemu, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 possessing stemborer Chilo partellus egg inducible defense trait, in comparison with the European maize line Delprim and North American inbred line B73...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428872/are-whooping-cranes-destined-for-extinction-climate-change-imperils-recruitment-and-population-growth
#4
Matthew J Butler, Kristine L Metzger, Grant M Harris
Identifying climatic drivers of an animal population's vital rates and locating where they operate steers conservation efforts to optimize species recovery. The population growth of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) hinges on juvenile recruitment. Therefore, we identify climatic drivers (solar activity [sunspots] and weather) of whooping crane recruitment throughout the species' life cycle (breeding, migration, wintering). Our method uses a repeated cross-validated absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach to identify drivers of recruitment...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428871/does-wintering-north-or-south-of-the-sahara-correlate-with-timing-and-breeding-performance-in-black-tailed-godwits
#5
Rosemarie Kentie, Rocío Marquez-Ferrando, Jordi Figuerola, Laura Gangoso, Jos C E W Hooijmeijer, A H Jelle Loonstra, Frédéric Robin, Mathieu Sarasa, Nathan Senner, Haije Valkema, Mo A Verhoeven, Theunis Piersma
Migrating long distances requires time and energy, and may interact with an individual's performance during breeding. These seasonal interactions in migratory animals are best described in populations with disjunct nonbreeding distributions. The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa limosa), which breeds in agricultural grasslands in Western Europe, has such a disjunct nonbreeding distribution: The majority spend the nonbreeding season in West Africa, while a growing number winters north of the Sahara on the Iberian Peninsula...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428870/gene-expression-profiling-during-the-embryo-to-larva-transition-in-the-giant-red-sea-urchin-mesocentrotus-franciscanus
#6
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Gretchen E Hofmann
In echinoderms, major morphological transitions during early development are attributed to different genetic interactions and changes in global expression patterns that shape the regulatory program for the specification of embryonic territories. In order more thoroughly to understand these biological and molecular processes, we examined the transcriptome structure and expression profiles during the embryo-to-larva transition of a keystone species, the giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus. Using a de novo assembly approach, we obtained 176,885 transcripts from which 60,439 (34%) had significant alignments to known proteins...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428869/rapid-maximum-likelihood-ancestral-state-reconstruction-of-continuous-characters-a-rerooting-free-algorithm
#7
Eric W Goolsby
Ancestral state reconstruction is a method used to study the evolutionary trajectories of quantitative characters on phylogenies. Although efficient methods for univariate ancestral state reconstruction under a Brownian motion model have been described for at least 25 years, to date no generalization has been described to allow more complex evolutionary models, such as multivariate trait evolution, non-Brownian models, missing data, and within-species variation. Furthermore, even for simple univariate Brownian motion models, most phylogenetic comparative R packages compute ancestral states via inefficient tree rerooting and full tree traversals at each tree node, making ancestral state reconstruction extremely time-consuming for large phylogenies...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428868/metapopulation-patterns-of-additive-and-nonadditive-genetic-variance-in-the-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#8
Bruno Guinand, Marc Vandeputte, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Alain Vergnet, Pierrick Haffray, Hervé Chavanne, Béatrice Chatain
Describing and explaining the geographic within-species variation in phenotypes ("phenogeography") in the sea over a species distribution range is central to our understanding of a variety of eco-evolutionary topics. However, phenogeographic studies that have a large potential to investigate adaptive variation are overcome by phylogeographic studies, still mainly focusing on neutral markers. How genotypic and phenotypic data could covary over large geographic scales remains poorly understood in marine species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428867/adaptative-evolution-of-the-vkorc1-gene-in-mus-musculus-domesticus-is-influenced-by-the-selective-pressure-of-anticoagulant-rodenticides
#9
Joffrey Goulois, Véronique Lambert, Lionel Legros, Etienne Benoit, Virginie Lattard
Anticoagulant rodenticides are commonly used to control rodent pests worldwide. They specifically inhibit the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), which is an enzyme encoded by the Vkorc1 gene, involved in the recycling of vitamin K. Therefore, they prevent blood clotting. Numerous mutations of Vkorc1 gene were reported in rodents, and some are involved in the resistant to rodenticides phenotype. Two hundred and sixty-six mice tails were received from 65 different locations in France. Coding sequences of Vkorc1 gene were sequenced in order to detect mutations...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428866/capture-efficiency-and-trophic-adaptations-of-a-specialist-and-generalist-predator-a-comparison
#10
Ondřej Michálek, Lenka Petráková, Stano Pekár
Specialist true predators are expected to exhibit higher capture efficiencies for the capture of larger and dangerous prey than generalist predators due to their possession of specialized morphological and behavioral adaptations. We used an araneophagous spider (Lampona murina) and a generalist spider (Drassodes lapidosus) as phylogenetically related model species and investigated their realized and fundamental trophic niches and their efficacy with respect to prey capture and prey handling. The trophic niche of both species confirmed that Lampona had a narrow trophic niche with a predominance of spider prey (including conspecifics), while the niche of Drassodes was wide, without any preference...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428865/competition-and-facilitation-structure-plant-communities-under-nurse-tree-canopies-in-extremely-stressful-environments
#11
Ali A Al-Namazi, Magdy I El-Bana, Stephen P Bonser
Nurse plant facilitation in stressful environments can produce an environment with relatively low stress under its canopy. These nurse plants may produce the conditions promoting intense competition between coexisting species under the canopy, and canopies may establish stress gradients, where stress increases toward the edge of the canopy. Competition and facilitation on these stress gradients may control species distributions in the communities under canopies. We tested the following predictions: (1) interactions between understory species shift from competition to facilitation in habitats experiencing increasing stress from the center to the edge of canopy of a nurse plant, and (2) species distributions in understory communities are controlled by competitive interactions at the center of canopy, and facilitation at the edge of the canopy...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428864/integrating-biogeography-threat-and-evolutionary-data-to-explore-extinction-crisis-in-the-taxonomic-group-of-cycads
#12
Kowiyou Yessoufou, Barnabas H Daru, Respinah Tafirei, Hosam O Elansary, Isaac Rampedi
Will the ongoing extinction crisis cause a severe loss of evolutionary information accumulated over millions of years on the tree of life? This question has been largely explored, particularly for vertebrates and angiosperms. However, no equivalent effort has been devoted to gymnosperms. Here, we address this question focusing on cycads, the gymnosperm group exhibiting the highest proportion of threatened species in the plant kingdom. We assembled the first complete phylogeny of cycads and assessed how species loss under three scenarios would impact the cycad tree of life...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428863/switching-among-natal-and-auxiliary-hosts-increases-vulnerability-of-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-noctuidae-to-insecticides
#13
Qamar Saeed, Shafqat Saeed, Faheem Ahmad
The role of insecticidal application and host plant resistance in managing Spodoptera exigua has been well documented, but the effect of different host plants, on which the pest cycles its population in the field, has seldom been investigated. Therefore, we have studied the vulnerability of S. exigua against commonly used insecticides (cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron, and emamectin benzoate) with different mode of actions when it switches its generations from natal to auxiliary hosts and vice versa. Different field populations being established on different host plants including castor, cauliflower, cotton, okra, and spinach were collected and reared in the laboratory before insecticidal bioassays...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428862/environmental-heterogeneity-does-not-affect-levels-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-natural-populations-of-three-drosophila-species
#14
Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke
Adaptation of natural populations to variable environmental conditions may occur by changes in trait means and/or in the levels of plasticity. Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity favors plasticity of adaptive traits. Here we investigated the performance in several traits of three sympatric Drosophila species freshly collected in two environments that differ in the heterogeneity of environmental conditions. Differences in trait means within species were found in several traits, indicating that populations differed in their evolutionary response to the environmental conditions of their origin...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#15
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428860/complex-trait-relationships-between-leaves-and-absorptive-roots-coordination-in-tissue-n-concentration-but-divergence-in-morphology
#16
Ruili Wang, Qiufeng Wang, Ning Zhao, Guirui Yu, Nianpeng He
Leaves and absorptive roots (i.e., first-order root) are above- and belowground plant organs related to resource acquisition; however, it is controversy over whether these two sets of functional traits vary in a coordinated manner. Here, we examined the relationships between analogous above- and belowground traits, including chemical (tissue C and N concentrations) and morphological traits (thickness and diameter, specific leaf area and root length, and tissue density) of 154 species sampling from eight subtropical and temperate forests...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428859/species-partitioning-in-a-temperate-mountain-chain-segregation-by-habitat-vs-interspecific-competition
#17
Giulia Bastianelli, Brendan A Wintle, Elizabeth H Martin, Javier Seoane, Paola Laiolo
Disentangling the relative influence of the environment and biotic interactions in determining species coexistence patterns is a major challenge in ecology. The zonation occurring along elevation gradients, or at bioclimatic contact zones, offers a good opportunity to improve such understanding because the small scale at which the partitioning occurs facilitates inference based on experiments and ecological modelling. We studied the influence of abiotic gradients, habitat types, and interspecific competition in determining the spatial turnover between two pipit and two bunting species in NW Spain...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428858/genetic-diversity-and-spatial-structure-of-the-rufous-throated-antbird-gymnopithys-rufigula-an-amazonian-obligate-army-ant-follower
#18
Juliana Menger, Klaus Henle, William E Magnusson, Antonella Soro, Martin Husemann, Martin Schlegel
Amazonian understory antbirds are thought to be relatively sedentary and to have limited dispersal ability; they avoid crossing forest gaps, and even narrow roads through a forest may limit their territories. However, most evidence for sedentariness in antbirds comes from field observations and plot-based recapture of adult individuals, which do not provide evidence for lack of genetic dispersal, as this often occurs through juveniles. In this study, we used microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control-region sequences to investigate contemporary and infer historical patterns of genetic diversity and structure of the Rufous-throated Antbird (Gymnopithys rufigula) within and between two large reserves in central Amazonia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428857/how-repeatable-is-the-environmental-impact-classification-of-alien-taxa-eicat-comparing-independent-global-impact-assessments-of-amphibians
#19
Sabrina Kumschick, G John Measey, Giovanni Vimercati, F Andre de Villiers, Mohlamatsane M Mokhatla, Sarah J Davies, Corey J Thorp, Alexander D Rebelo, Tim M Blackburn, Fred Kraus
The magnitude of impacts some alien species cause to native environments makes them targets for regulation and management. However, which species to target is not always clear, and comparisons of a wide variety of impacts are necessary. Impact scoring systems can aid management prioritization of alien species. For such tools to be objective, they need to be robust to assessor bias. Here, we assess the newly proposed Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) used for amphibians and test how outcomes differ between assessors...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428856/forage-plants-of-an-arctic-nesting-herbivore-show-larger-warming-response-in-breeding-than-wintering-grounds-potentially-disrupting-migration-phenology
#20
Thomas K Lameris, Femke Jochems, Alexandra J van der Graaf, Mattias Andersson, Juul Limpens, Bart A Nolet
During spring migration, herbivorous waterfowl breeding in the Arctic depend on peaks in the supply of nitrogen-rich forage plants, following a "green wave" of grass growth along their flyway to fuel migration and reproduction. The effects of climate warming on forage plant growth are expected to be larger at the Arctic breeding grounds than in temperate wintering grounds, potentially disrupting this green wave and causing waterfowl to mistime their arrival on the breeding grounds. We studied the potential effect of climate warming on timing of food peaks along the migratory flyway of the Russian population of barnacle geese using a warming experiment with open-top chambers...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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