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Ecology and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515899/corrigendum
#1
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1910.].
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515898/fungal-host-diversity-among-mycoheterotrophic-plants-increases-proportionally-to-their-fungal-host-overlap
#2
Sofia I F Gomes, Vincent S F T Merckx, Serguei Saavedra
The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515897/exploitation-promotes-earlier-sex-change-in-a-protandrous-patellid-limpet-patella-aspera-r%C3%A3-ding-1798
#3
Gustavo M Martins, Carla D G Borges, Maria Vale, Pedro A Ribeiro, Rogério R Ferraz, Helen R Martins, Ricardo S Santos, Stephen J Hawkins
Exploitation of organisms can prompt the reduction in the number and size of target populations consequently affecting reproductive output and replenishment. Here, we investigated the effects of exploitation on the population structure of a protandrous patellid limpet, Patella aspera, an overexploited Macaronesian endemic. Timed dives were used to collect animals across eleven islands of Macaronesia. Individuals were inspected for sex, size, and gonad stage. Using catch effort (time per person) per island coastal perimeter as a surrogate for exploitation intensity, we found that limpet abundance (CPUE) and mean size tended to decrease with exploitation intensity...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515896/a-worldwide-phylogeography-of-the-whiteworm-lichens-thamnolia-reveals-three-lineages-with-distinct-habitats-and-evolutionary-histories
#4
Ioana Onuţ-Brännström, Leif Tibell, Hanna Johannesson
Thamnolia is a lichenized fungus with an extremely wide distribution, being encountered in arctic and alpine environments in most continents. In this study, we used molecular markers to investigate the population structure of the fungal symbiont and the associated photosynthetic partner of Thamnolia. By analyzing molecular, morphological, and chemical variation among 253 specimens covering the species distribution range, we revealed the existence of three mycobiont lineages. One lineage (Lineage A) is confined to the tundra region of Siberia and the Aleutian Islands, a second (Lineage B) is found in the high alpine region of the Alps and the Carpathians Mountains, and a third (Lineage C) has a worldwide distribution and covers both the aforementioned ecosystems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515895/disruptive-natural-selection-predicts-divergence-between-the-sexes-during-adaptive-radiation
#5
Stephen P De Lisle, Locke Rowe
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515894/reproductive-ecology-of-interior-least-tern-and-piping-plover-in-relation-to-platte-river-hydrology-and-sandbar-dynamics
#6
Jason M Farnsworth, David M Baasch, Chadwin B Smith, Kevin L Werbylo
Investigations of breeding ecology of interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus) in the Platte River basin in Nebraska, USA, have embraced the idea that these species are physiologically adapted to begin nesting concurrent with the cessation of spring floods. Low use and productivity on contemporary Platte River sandbars have been attributed to anthropomorphically driven changes in basin hydrology and channel morphology or to unusually late annual runoff events...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515893/evolutionary-stability-and-the-rarity-of-grandmothering
#7
Jared M Field, Michael B Bonsall
The provision of intergenerational care, via the Grandmother Hypothesis, has been implicated in the evolution of postfertile longevity, particularly in humans. However, if grandmothering does provide fitness benefits, a key question is why has it evolved so infrequently? We investigate this question with a combination of life-history and evolutionary game theory. We derive simple eligibility and stability thresholds, both of which must be satisfied if intergenerational care is first to evolve and then to persist in a population...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515892/timing-and-body-condition-of-dichromatic-black-redstarts-during-autumn-migration
#8
Tobias Roth, Elias Bader, Patrick Frara, Lorenz Heer, Heinz Flück, Thomas Lüthi, Barbara Schlup, Thomas Schwaller
Individual variation in postjuvenile molt in male Black Redstart is pronounced with about 90% of young males retaining female-like coloration (cairei plumage type) and about 10% acquiring adult male-like feathers (paradoxus plumage type). We examined whether autumn migration timing and body condition differed between individuals of the two plumage types. We used the data of 10,977 Black Redstarts captured during autumn at a ringing site in northern Switzerland where a protocol to record plumage types of captures has been applied since 1980...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515891/longevity-is-associated-with-relative-brain-size-in-birds
#9
Piotr Minias, Patrycja Podlaszczuk
Brain size of vertebrates has long been recognized to evolve in close association with basic life-history traits, including lifespan. According to the cognitive buffer hypothesis, large brains facilitate the construction of behavioral responses against novel socioecological challenges through general cognitive processes, which should reduce mortality and increase lifespan. While the occurrence of brain size-lifespan correlation has been well documented in mammals, much less evidence exists for a robust link between brain size and longevity in birds...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515890/sex-dependent-infection-causes-nonadditive-effects-on-kissing-bug-fecundity
#10
Carezza Botto-Mahan, Verónica Campos, Rodrigo Medel
The influence of parasites on host reproduction has been widely studied in natural and experimental conditions. Most studies, however, have evaluated the parasite impact on female hosts only, neglecting the contribution of males for host reproduction. This omission is unfortunate as sex-dependent infection may have important implications for host-parasite associations. Here, we evaluate for the first time the independent and nonindependent effects of gender infection on host reproductive success using the kissing bug Mepraia spinolai and the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as model system...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515889/phenotypic-plasticity-in-female-mate-choice-behavior-is-mediated-by-an-interaction-of-direct-and-indirect-genetic-effects-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
David C S Filice, Tristan A F Long
Female mate choice is a complex decision-making process that involves many context-dependent factors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a model species for the study of sexual selection, indirect genetic effects (IGEs) of general social interactions can influence female mate choice behaviors, but the potential impacts of IGEs associated with mating experiences are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether the IGEs associated with a previous mating experience had an effect on subsequent female mate choice behaviors and quantified the degree of additive genetic variation associated with this effect...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515888/unpacking-brown-food-webs-animal-trophic-identity-reflects-rampant-microbivory
#12
Shawn A Steffan, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Prarthana S Dharampal, Jonathan N Pauli, Christelle Guédot, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Detritivory is the dominant trophic paradigm in most terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems, yet accurate measurement of consumer trophic position within detrital (="brown") food webs has remained unresolved. Measurement of detritivore trophic position is complicated by the fact that detritus is suffused with microbes, creating a detrital complex of living and nonliving biomass. Given that microbes and metazoans are trophic analogues of each other, animals feeding on detrital complexes are ingesting other detritivores (microbes), which should elevate metazoan trophic position and should be rampant within brown food webs...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515887/bottom-up-and-top-down-effects-of-tree-species-diversity-on-leaf-insect-herbivory
#13
Bastien Castagneyrol, Damien Bonal, Maxime Damien, Hervé Jactel, Céline Meredieu, Evalyne W Muiruri, Luc Barbaro
The diversity of plant neighbors commonly results in direct, bottom-up effects on herbivore ability to locate their host, and in indirect effects on herbivores involving changes in plant traits and a top-down control by their enemies. Yet, the relative contribution of bottom-up and top-down forces remains poorly understood. We also lack knowledge on the effect of abiotic constraints such as summer drought on the strength and direction of these effects. We measured leaf damage on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), alone or associated with birch, pine or both in a long-term tree diversity experiment (ORPHEE), where half of the plots were irrigated while the other half remained without irrigation and received only rainfall...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515886/aquatic-microfauna-alter-larval-food-resources-and-affect-development-and-biomass-of-west-nile-and-saint-louis-encephalitis-vector-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#14
Dagne Duguma, Michael G Kaufman, Arthur B Simas Domingos
Ciliate protists and rotifers are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and can comprise a significant portion of the microbial food resources available to larval mosquitoes, often showing substantial declines in abundance in the presence of mosquito larvae. This top-down regulation of protists is reported to be strong for mosquitoes inhabiting small aquatic containers such as pitcher plants or tree holes, but the nature of these interactions with larval mosquitoes developing in other aquatic habitats is poorly understood...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515885/evaluating-morphometric-and-metabolic-markers-of-body-condition-in-a-small-cetacean-the-harbor-porpoise-phocoena-phocoena
#15
Joanna L Kershaw, Meredith Sherrill, Nicholas J Davison, Andrew Brownlow, Ailsa J Hall
Mammalian body condition is an important individual fitness metric as it affects both survival and reproductive success. The ability to accurately measure condition has key implications for predicting individual and population health, and therefore monitoring the population-level effects of changing environments. No consensus currently exists on the best measure to quantitatively estimate body condition in many species, including cetaceans. Here, two measures of body condition were investigated in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515884/cooperative-breeding-shapes-post-fledging-survival-in-an-afrotropical-forest-bird
#16
Dries Van de Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens
For avian group living to be evolutionary stable, multiple fitness benefits are expected. Yet, the difficulty of tracking fledglings, and thus estimating their survival rates, limits our knowledge on how such benefits may manifest postfledging. We radio-tagged breeding females of the Afrotropical cooperatively breeding Placid greenbul (Phyllastrephus placidus) during nesting. Tracking these females after fledging permitted us to locate juvenile birds, their parents, and any helpers present and to build individual fledgling resighting datasets without incurring mortality costs or causing premature fledging due to handling or transmitter effects...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515883/correlating-species-and-spectral-diversities-using-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-in-early-successional-fields
#17
Itiya P Aneece, Howard Epstein, Manuel Lerdau
Advances in remote sensing technology can help estimate biodiversity at large spatial extents. To assess whether we could use hyperspectral visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectra to estimate species diversity, we examined the correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity in early-successional abandoned agricultural fields in the Ridge and Valley ecoregion of north-central Virginia at the Blandy Experimental Farm. We established plant community plots and collected vegetation surveys and ground-level hyperspectral data from 350 to 1,025 nm wavelengths...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515882/different-categories-of-biodiversity-explain-productivity-variation-after-fertilization-in-a-tibetan-alpine-meadow-community
#18
Xiaolong Zhou, Zhi Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Honglin Li, Chengjin Chu, Xilai Li, Guozhen Du
The relationship between productivity and biodiversity has long been an important issue in ecological research. However, in recent decades, most ecologists have primarily focused on species diversity while paying little attention to functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity (PD), especially in alpine meadow communities following fertilization. In this study, a fertilization experiment involving the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus, and a mixture of both was implemented in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515881/effect-of-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus-infection-on-leaf-photosynthetic-characteristics-and-resource-use-efficiency-of-pinus-massoniana
#19
Ruihe Gao, Zhuang Wang, Juan Shi, Youqing Luo
Pine wilt disease (PWD) is considered as the most destructive forest-invasive alien species in China. We measured gas exchange parameters and foliar carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of different infection phases of Masson pine in order to investigate the effect of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infection on photosynthetic responses and resource-use efficiency. The results showed that net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (T), stomatal conductance (gs), and internal CO 2 concentrations (Ci) decreased in the infested trees at photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) levels from 0 to 2,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) compared with controls...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515880/resistance-and-resilience-of-root-fungal-communities-to-water-limitation-in-a-temperate-agroecosystem
#20
Jessie R Furze, Adam R Martin, Joshua Nasielski, Naresh V Thevathasan, Andrew M Gordon, Marney E Isaac
Understanding crop resilience to environmental stress is critical in predicting the consequences of global climate change for agricultural systems worldwide, but to date studies addressing crop resiliency have focused primarily on plant physiological and molecular responses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with many crop species, and these relationships are key in mitigating the effects of abiotic stress in many agricultural systems. However, to date there is little research examining whether (1) fungal community structure in agroecosystems is resistant to changing environmental conditions, specifically water limitation and (2) resilience of fungal community structure is moderated by agricultural management systems, namely the integration of trees into cropping systems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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