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Ecology and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152206/global-population-structure-and-adaptive-evolution-of-aflatoxin-producing-fungi
#1
Geromy G Moore, Rodrigo A Olarte, Bruce W Horn, Jacalyn L Elliott, Rakhi Singh, Carolyn J O'Neal, Ignazio Carbone
Aflatoxins produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi are a significant problem in agriculture and a continuous threat to human health. To provide insights into the biology and global population structure of species in section Flavi, a total of 1,304 isolates were sampled across six species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. caelatus, A. tamarii, and A. alliaceus) from single fields in major peanut-growing regions in Georgia (USA), Australia, Argentina, India, and Benin (Africa). We inferred maximum-likelihood phylogenies for six loci, both combined and separately, including two aflatoxin cluster regions (aflM/alfN and aflW/aflX) and four noncluster regions (amdS, trpC, mfs and MAT), to examine population structure and history...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152205/genetic-structure-and-demographic-history-of-lymantria-dispar-linnaeus-1758-lepidoptera-erebidae-in-its-area-of-origin-and-adjacent-areas
#2
Tae Hwa Kang, Sang Hoon Han, Heung Sik Lee
We analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history of 20 Lymantria dispar populations from Far East Asia using microsatellite loci and mitochondrial genes. In the microsatellite analysis, the genetic distances based on pairwise FST values ranged from 0.0087 to 0.1171. A NeighborNet network based on pairwise FST genetic distances showed that the 20 regional populations were divided into five groups. Bayesian clustering analysis (K = 3) demonstrated the same groupings. The populations in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent regions, in particular, showed a mixed genetic pattern...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152204/prozac-in-the-water-chronic-fluoxetine-exposure-and-predation-risk-interact-to-shape-behaviors-in-an-estuarine-crab
#3
Joseph R Peters, Elise F Granek, Catherine E de Rivera, Matthew Rollins
Predators exert considerable top-down pressure on ecosystems by directly consuming prey or indirectly influencing their foraging behaviors and habitat use. Prey is, therefore, forced to balance predation risk with resource reward. A growing list of anthropogenic stressors such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification has been shown to influence prey risk behaviors and subsequently alter important ecosystem processes. Yet, limited attention has been paid to the effects of chronic pharmaceutical exposure on risk behavior or as an ecological stressor, despite widespread detection and persistence of these contaminants in aquatic environments...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152203/pyric-carnivory-raptor-use-of-prescribed-fires
#4
Torre J Hovick, Devan A McGranahan, R Dwayne Elmore, John R Weir, Samuel D Fuhlendorf
Fire is a process that shaped and maintained most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Changes in land use and patterns of human settlement have altered fire regimes and led to fire suppression resulting in numerous undesirable consequences spanning individual species and entire ecosystems. Many obvious and direct consequences of fire suppression have been well studied, but several, albeit less obvious, costs of alteration to fire regimes on wildlife are unknown. One such phenomenon is the response of carnivores to fire events-something we refer to as pyric-carnivory...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152202/assessing-the-potential-of-translocating-vulnerable-forest-birds-by-searching-for-novel-and-enduring-climatic-ranges
#5
Lucas B Fortini, Lauren R Kaiser, Adam E Vorsino, Eben H Paxton, James D Jacobi
Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and project complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua'i endemics 'akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and 'akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensified conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152201/the-natural-selection-of-metabolism-and-mass-selects-lifeforms-from-viruses-to-multicellular-animals
#6
Lars Witting
I show that the natural selection of metabolism and mass can select for the major life-history and allometric transitions that define lifeforms from viruses, over prokaryotes and larger unicells, to multicellular animals. The proposed selection is driven by a mass-specific metabolism that is selected as the pace of the resource handling that generates net energy for self-replication. An initial selection of mass is given by a dependence of mass-specific metabolism on mass in replicators that are close to a lower size limit...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152200/resource-partitioning-facilitates-coexistence-in-sympatric-cetaceans-in-the-california-current
#7
Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Kelly M Zilliacus, John Calambokidis, Julia A Burrows, Jeremy A Goldbogen, James T Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A Croll
Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152199/effect-of-pollen-and-resource-limitation-on-reproduction-of-zygophyllum-xanthoxylum-in-fragmented-habitats
#8
Min Chen, Xue-Yong Zhao
Limitations on pollen and resources may significantly affect plant reproduction in fragmented habitats. In this study, phenology and pollinator frequency and activity were investigated to estimate the role of pollinators in Zygophyllum xanthoxylum reproduction, and this species is ecologically important in northwest China. In addition, the relative impact of restrictive amounts of pollen and resources on the seed set per flower was evaluated. It was found that adding pollen boosted the size of the seed set per flower, but had no significant effect on the number of flowers...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152198/trading-heat-and-hops-for-water-dehydration-effects-on-locomotor-performance-thermal-limits-and-thermoregulatory-behavior-of-a-terrestrial-toad
#9
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Denis V Andrade
Due to their highly permeable skin and ectothermy, terrestrial amphibians are challenged by compromises between water balance and body temperature regulation. The way in which such compromises are accommodated, under a range of temperatures and dehydration levels, impacts importantly the behavior and ecology of amphibians. Thus, using the terrestrial toad Rhinella schneideri as a model organism, the goals of this study were twofold. First, we determined how the thermal sensitivity of a centrally relevant trait-locomotion-was affected by dehydration...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152197/selection-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr-and-expression-analysis-of-high-altitude-related-genes-in-grassland-caterpillars-lepidoptera-erebidae-gynaephora-along-an-altitude-gradient
#10
Li Zhang, Qi-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Peng Li, Ming-Long Yuan
Changes in gene expression patterns can reflect the adaptation of organisms to divergent environments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important tool for ecological adaptation studies at the gene expression level. The quality of the results of qRT-PCR analysis largely depends on the availability of reliable reference genes (RGs). To date, reliable RGs have not been determined for adaptive evolution studies in insects using a standard approach. Here, we evaluated the reliability of 17 candidate RGs for five Gynaephora populations inhabiting various altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the deltaCt method) and one comprehensive (RefFinder) algorithms...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152196/influences-of-population-pressure-change-on-vegetation-greenness-in-china-s-mountainous-areas
#11
Wei Li, Xiubin Li, Minghong Tan, Yahui Wang
Mountainous areas in China account for two-thirds of the total land area. Due to rapid urbanization, rural population emigration in China's mountainous areas is very significant. This raises the question to which degree such population emigration influences the vegetation greenness in these areas. In this study, 9,753 sample areas (each sample measured about 64 square kilometers) were randomly selected, and the influences of population emigration (population pressure change) on vegetation greenness during 2000-2010 were quantitatively expressed by the multivariate linear regression (MLR) model, using census data under the condition of controlling the natural elements such as climatic and landform factors...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152195/microsite-and-elevation-zone-effects-on-seed-pilferage-germination-and-seedling-survival-during-early-whitebark-pine-recruitment
#12
Elizabeth R Pansing, Diana F Tomback, Michael B Wunder, Joshua P French, Aaron C Wagner
Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152194/seasonal-variation-in-daily-patterns-of-social-contacts-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles
#13
Matthew J Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C Steward, Richard J Delahay, Darren P Croft, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Robbie A McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152193/using-pentosidine-and-hydroxyproline-to-predict-age-and-sex-in-an-avian-species
#14
Brian S Dorr, Randal S Stahl, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Carol A Furcolow
All living organisms are subject to senescence accompanied by progressive and irreversible physiological changes. The error damage and cross-linking theories suggest that cells and tissues are damaged by an accumulation of cross-linked proteins, slowing down bodily processes and resulting in aging. A major category of these cross-linked proteins are compounds called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We investigated the relationship between accumulation of the AGE, pentosidine (Ps), and hydroxyproline (HYP) a post-translationally modified amino acid, with age, sex, and breeding status (breeder/nonbreeder) from skin samples of known age (i...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152192/close-and-distant-contrasting-the-metabolism-of-two-closely-related-subspecies-of-scots-pine-under-the-effects-of-folivory-and-summer-drought
#15
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Jordi Sardans, José Antonio Hódar, Joan Garcia-Porta, Alex Guenther, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Michal Oravec, Otmar Urban, Josep Peñuelas
Metabolomes, as chemical phenotypes of organisms, are likely not only shaped by the environment but also by common ancestry. If this is the case, we expect that closely related species of pines will tend to reach similar metabolomic solutions to the same environmental stressors. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152191/the-effect-of-temperature-on-male-mating-signals-and-female-choice-in-the-red-mason-bee-osmia-bicornis-l
#16
Taina Conrad, Carina Stöcker, Manfred Ayasse
Climate change and the resulting changes in air temperature are known to have a major influence on most animals, especially poikilothermic insects, because they depend on the high enough temperatures to function. Previous studies have shown that various signals can be affected by changes in temperature. However, research into the effect of temperature on mating signals and subsequently communication between mates and on female choice is still rare. In the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, which emerges early in spring and is therefore subject to extensive temperature changes, females choose suitable males based on, among other criteria, their thorax vibrations and odor...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152190/sex-and-weaponry-the-distribution-of-toxin-storage-glands-on-the-bodies-of-male-and-female-cane-toads-rhinella-marina
#17
Wei Chen, Cameron M Hudson, Jayna L DeVore, Richard Shine
The parotoid macroglands of bufonid anurans store (and can expel) large volumes of toxic secretions and have attracted detailed research. However, toxins also are stored in smaller glands that are distributed on the limbs and dorsal surface of the body. Female and male cane toads (Rhinella marina) differ in the location of toxin-storage glands and the extent of glandular structures. Female toads store a larger proportion of their toxins in the parotoids than males as well as (to a lesser extent) in smaller glands on the forelimbs...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152189/intraspecific-trait-variation-can-weaken-interspecific-trait-correlations-when-assessing-the-whole-plant-economic-spectrum
#18
Daniel C Laughlin, Christopher H Lusk, Peter J Bellingham, David F R P Burslem, Angela H Simpson, Kris R Kramer-Walter
The worldwide plant economic spectrum hypothesis predicts that leaf, stem, and root traits are correlated across vascular plant species because carbon gain depends on leaves being adequately supplied with water and nutrients, and because construction of each organ involves a trade-off between performance and persistence. Despite its logical and intuitive appeal, this hypothesis has received mixed empirical support. If traits within species diverge in their responses to an environmental gradient, then interspecific trait correlations could be weakened when measured in natural ecosystems...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152188/prey-use-by-dingoes-in-a-contested-landscape-ecosystem-service-provider-or-biodiversity-threat
#19
Damian S Morrant, Christopher M Wurster, Christopher N Johnson, James R A Butler, Bradley C Congdon
In Australia, dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of a number of vertebrate species. The lowland Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia is a biologically rich area with many species of rainforest-restricted vertebrates that could be threatened by dingoes; however, the ecological impacts of dingoes in this region are poorly understood. We determined the potential threat posed by dingoes to native vertebrates in the lowland Wet Tropics using dingo scat/stomach content and stable isotope analyses of hair from dingoes and potential prey species...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152187/genetic-diversity-population-structure-and-traditional-culture-of-camellia-reticulata
#20
Tong Xin, Weijuan Huang, Jan De Riek, Shuang Zhang, Selena Ahmed, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Chunlin Long
Camellia reticulata is an arbor tree that has been cultivated in southwestern China by various sociolinguistic groups for esthetic purposes as well as to derive an edible seed oil. This study examined the influence of management, socio-economic factors, and religion on the genetic diversity patterns of Camellia reticulata utilizing a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches. Semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were carried out with local communities in China's Yunnan Province...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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