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Ecology and Evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168036/edge-responses-are-different-in-edges-under-natural-versus-anthropogenic-influence-a-meta-analysis-using-ground-beetles
#1
Tibor Magura, Gábor L Lövei, Béla Tóthmérész
Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168035/evaluating-the-responses-of-forest-ecosystems-to-climate-change-and-co2-using-dynamic-global-vegetation-models
#2
Xiang Song, Xiaodong Zeng
The climate has important influences on the distribution and structure of forest ecosystems, which may lead to vital feedback to climate change. However, much of the existing work focuses on the changes in carbon fluxes or water cycles due to climate change and/or atmospheric CO 2, and few studies have considered how and to what extent climate change and CO 2 influence the ecosystem structure (e.g., fractional coverage change) and the changes in the responses of ecosystems with different characteristics. In this work, two dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs): IAP-DGVM coupled with CLM3 and CLM4-CNDV, were used to investigate the response of the forest ecosystem structure to changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) and CO 2 concentration...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168034/tracing-the-history-and-ecological-context-of-wolbachia-double-infection-in-a-specialist-host-urophora-cardui-parasitoid-eurytoma-serratulae-system
#3
Jes Johannesen
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is the most widespread bacteria in insects, yet the ecology of novel acquisitions in natural host populations is poorly understood. Using temporal data separated by 12 years, I tested the hypothesis that immigration of a parasitoid wasp led to transmission of its Wolbachia strain to its dipteran host, resulting in double-strain infection, and I used geographic and community surveys to explore the history of transmission in fly and parasitoid. Double infection in the fly host was present before immigration of the parasitoid...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168033/invasive-termites-in-a-changing-climate-a-global-perspective
#4
Grzegorz Buczkowski, Cleo Bertelsmeier
Termites are ubiquitous insects in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions and play an important role in ecosystems. Several termite species are also significant economic pests, mainly in urban areas where they attack human-made structures, but also in natural forest habitats. Worldwide, approximately 28 termite species are considered invasive and have spread beyond their native ranges, often with significant economic consequences. We used predictive climate modeling to provide the first global risk assessment for 13 of the world's most invasive termites...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168032/no-inbreeding-depression-in-laboratory-reared-individuals-of-the-parasitoid-wasp-allotropa-burrelli
#5
Bastien Quaglietti, Lucie Tamisier, Géraldine Groussier, Alexandre Fleisch, Isabelle Le Goff, Nicolas Ris, Philippe Kreiter, Xavier Fauvergue, Thibaut Malausa
Inbreeding depression is a major concern in almost all human activities relating to plant and animal breeding. The biological control of pests with natural enemies is no exception, because populations of biocontrol agents experience a series of bottlenecks during importation, rearing, and introduction. A classical biological control program for the Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was initiated in France in 2008, based on the introduction of an exotic parasitoid, Allotropa burrelli Mues...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168031/growth-form-and-spatiality-driving-the-functional-difference-of-native-and-alien-aquatic-plants-in-europe
#6
Balázs A Lukács, Anna E Vojtkó, Attila Mesterházy, Attila Molnár V, Kristóf Süveges, Zsolt Végvári, Guido Brusa, Bruno E L Cerabolini
Trait-based approaches are widely used in community ecology and invasion biology to unravel underlying mechanisms of vegetation dynamics. Although fundamental trade-offs between specific traits and invasibility are well described among terrestrial plants, little is known about their role and function in aquatic plant species. In this study, we examine the functional differences of aquatic alien and native plants stating that alien and native species differ in selected leaf traits. Our investigation is based on 60 taxa (21 alien and 39 native) collected from 22 freshwater units of Hungarian and Italian lowlands and highlands...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168030/eggshell-coloration-and-its-importance-in-postmating-sexual-selection
#7
Miroslav Poláček, Matteo Griggio, Ivan Mikšík, Michaela Bartíková, Manfred Eckenfellner, Herbert Hoi
Avian eggshell color seems to fulfill multiple functions, some of them being structural and others signaling. In this study, we tested whether or not eggshell coloration may play a role in sexual selection of Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus). According to the "Sexually selected eggshell coloration" hypothesis, eggshell coloration signals female, egg or chick quality and males adjust parental investment according to this signal. Eggs of this species are covered with brown spots and patches, and variation between clutches is high...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168029/geographical-differentiation-of-the-euchiloglanis-fish-complex-teleostei-siluriformes-in-the-hengduan-mountain-region-china-phylogeographic-evidence-of-altered-drainage-patterns
#8
Yanping Li, Arne Ludwig, Zuogang Peng
The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused significant ecogeographical changes that had a major impact on the exchange and isolation of regional fauna and flora. Furthermore, Pleistocene glacial oscillations were linked to temporal large-scale landmass and drainage system reconfigurations near the Hengduan Mountain Region and might have facilitated speciation and promoted biodiversity in southwestern China. However, strong biotic evidence supporting this role is lacking. Here, we use the Euchiloglanis fish species complex as a model to demonstrate the compound effects of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and Pleistocene glacial oscillations on species formation in this region...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168028/sex-specific-responses-to-territorial-intrusions-in-a-communication-network-evidence-from-radio-tagged-great-tits
#9
Lysanne Snijders, Kees van Oers, Marc Naguib
Signals play a key role in the ecology and evolution of animal populations, influencing processes such as sexual selection and conflict resolution. In many species, sexually selected signals have a dual function: attracting mates and repelling rivals. Yet, to what extent males and females under natural conditions differentially respond to such signals remains poorly understood, due to a lack of field studies that simultaneously track both sexes. Using a novel spatial tracking system, we tested whether or not the spatial behavior of male and female great tits (Parus major) changes in relation to the vocal response of a territorial male neighbor to an intruder...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168027/the-interplay-between-natural-and-sexual-selection-in-the-evolution-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-sceloporus-lizards-squamata-phrynosomatidae
#10
Víctor H Jiménez-Arcos, Salomón Sanabria-Urbán, Raúl Cueva Del Castillo
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size is usually related to reproductive success through different pathways in females and males. Female body size is strongly correlated with fecundity, while in males, body size is correlated with mating success. In many lizard species, males are larger than females, whereas in others, females are the larger sex, suggesting that selection on fecundity has been stronger than sexual selection on males. As placental development or egg retention requires more space within the abdominal cavity, it has been suggested that females of viviparous lizards have larger abdomens or body size than their oviparous relatives...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168026/the-most-primitive-metazoan-animals-the-placozoans-show-high-sensitivity-to-increasing-ocean-temperatures-and-acidities
#11
Dáša Schleicherová, Katharina Dulias, Hans-Jűrgen Osigus, Omid Paknia, Heike Hadrys, Bernd Schierwater
The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) leads to rising temperatures and acidification in the oceans, which directly or indirectly affects all marine organisms, from bacteria to animals. We here ask whether the simplest-and possibly also the oldest-metazoan animals, the placozoans, are particularly sensitive to ocean warming and acidification. Placozoans are found in all warm and temperate oceans and are soft-bodied, microscopic invertebrates lacking any calcified structures, organs, or symmetry. We here show that placozoans respond highly sensitive to temperature and acidity stress...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168025/increased-juvenile-predation-is-not-associated-with-evolved-differences-in-adult-brain-size-in-trinidadian-killifish-rivulus-hartii
#12
Shannon M Beston, Whitnee Broyles, Matthew R Walsh
Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in brain size. The long-standing assumption is that this variation is driven by ecologically mediated selection. Recent work has shown that an increase in predator-induced mortality is associated with evolved increases and decreases in brain size. Thus, the manner in which predators induce shifts in brain size remains unclear. Increased predation early in life is a key driver of many adult traits, including life-history and behavioral traits. Such results foreshadow a connection between age-specific mortality and selection on adult brain size...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168024/effect-of-marker-choice-and-thermal-cycling-protocol-on-zooplankton-dna-metabarcoding-studies
#13
Laurence J Clarke, Jason M Beard, Kerrie M Swadling, Bruce E Deagle
DNA metabarcoding is a promising approach for rapidly surveying biodiversity and is likely to become an important tool for measuring ecosystem responses to environmental change. Metabarcoding markers need sufficient taxonomic coverage to detect groups of interest, sufficient sequence divergence to resolve species, and will ideally indicate relative abundance of taxa present. We characterized zooplankton assemblages with three different metabarcoding markers (nuclear 18S rDNA, mitochondrial COI, and mitochondrial 16S rDNA) to compare their performance in terms of taxonomic coverage, taxonomic resolution, and correspondence between morphology- and DNA-based identification...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168023/prevalence-dependence-in-model-goodness-measures-with-special-emphasis-on-true-skill-statistics
#14
Imelda Somodi, Nikolett Lepesi, Zoltán Botta-Dukát
It has long been a concern that performance measures of species distribution models react to attributes of the modeled entity arising from the input data structure rather than to model performance. Thus, the study of Allouche et al. (Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 1223, 2006) identifying the true skill statistics (TSS) as being independent of prevalence had a great impact. However, empirical experience questioned the validity of the statement. We searched for technical reasons behind these observations. We explored possible sources of prevalence dependence in TSS including sampling constraints and species characteristics, which influence the calculation of TSS...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168022/links-between-soil-microbial-communities-and-plant-traits-in-a-species-rich-grassland-under-long-term-climate-change
#15
Emma J Sayer, Anna E Oliver, Jason D Fridley, Andrew P Askew, Robert T E Mills, J Philip Grime
Climate change can influence soil microorganisms directly by altering their growth and activity but also indirectly via effects on the vegetation, which modifies the availability of resources. Direct impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms can occur rapidly, whereas indirect effects mediated by shifts in plant community composition are not immediately apparent and likely to increase over time. We used molecular fingerprinting of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil to investigate the effects of 17 years of temperature and rainfall manipulations in a species-rich grassland near Buxton, UK...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168021/refuge-or-predation-risk-alternate-ways-to-perceive-hiker-disturbance-based-on-maternal-state-of-female-caribou
#16
Frédéric Lesmerises, Chris J Johnson, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Human presence in natural environments is often a source of stress that is perceived by large ungulates as an increased risk of predation. Alternatively, disturbance induced by hikers creates a relatively predator-free space that may serve as a refuge. We measured the behavioral responses of female caribou to disturbance associated with the presence of hikers during summer in the Gaspésie National Park. We used those data to determine whether caribou responded negatively to human activity (i.e., the predation risk hypothesis) or whether human activity resulted in a decrease in the magnitude of perceived risk (i...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168020/trait-based-approaches-to-analyze-links-between-the-drivers-of-change-and-ecosystem-services-synthesizing-existing-evidence-and-future-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Violeta Hevia, Berta Martín-López, Sara Palomo, Marina García-Llorente, Francesco de Bello, José A González
Understanding the responses of biodiversity to drivers of change and the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem properties and ecosystem services is a key challenge in the context of global environmental change. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the scientific literature linking direct drivers of change and ecosystem services via functional traits of three taxonomic groups (vegetation, invertebrates, and vertebrates) to: (1) uncover trends and research biases in this field; and (2) synthesize existing empirical evidence...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168019/time-restricted-flight-ability-influences-dispersal-and-colonization-rates-in-a-group-of-freshwater-beetles
#18
Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Riinu Rannap, Lars Briggs, Kaj Sand-Jensen
Variation in the ability to fly or not is a key mechanism for differences in local species occurrences. It is increasingly acknowledged that physiological or behavioral mechanisms rather than morphological differences may drive flight abilities. However, our knowledge on the seasonal variability and stressors creating nonmorphological differences in flight abilities and how it scales to local and regional occurrences is very limited particularly for small, short-lived species such as insects. Here, we examine how flight ability might vary across seasons and between two closely related genera of freshwater beetles with similar geographical ranges, life histories, and dispersal-related morphology...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168018/irbas-an-online-database-to-collate-analyze-and-synthesize-data-on-the-biodiversity-and-ecology-of-intermittent-rivers-worldwide
#19
Catherine Leigh, Baptiste Laporte, Núria Bonada, Ken Fritz, Hervé Pella, Eric Sauquet, Klement Tockner, Thibault Datry
Key questions dominating contemporary ecological research and management concern interactions between biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and ecosystem services provision in the face of global change. This is particularly salient for freshwater biodiversity and in the context of river drying and flow-regime change. Rivers that stop flowing and dry, herein intermittent rivers, are globally prevalent and dynamic ecosystems on which the body of research is expanding rapidly, consistent with the era of big data...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168017/out-of-africa-biogeography-and-diversification-of-the-pantropical-pond-skater-genus-limnogonus-st%C3%A3-l-1868-hemiptera-gerridae
#20
Zhen Ye, Yahui Zhen, Yanyan Zhou, Wenjun Bu
Gondwanan vicariance, long-distance dispersal (LDD), and boreotropical migration have been proposed as alternative hypotheses explaining the pantropical distribution pattern of organisms. In this study, the historical biogeography of the pond skater genus Limnogonus was reconstructed to evaluate the impact of biogeographical scenarios in shaping their modern transoceanic disjunction. We sampled almost 65% of recognized Limnogonus species. Four DNA fragments including 69 sequences were used to reconstruct a phylogram...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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