Read by QxMD icon Read

Ecology and Evolution

Aneta Dorota Pacyna, Marek Ruman, Jan Mazerski, Żaneta Polkowska
Environmental pollution, for example with metals, can significantly affect the ecosystem balance leading to severe changes. Biologically active pigments are relevant for the appearance and condition of birds. Melanin and carotenoid particles are the most frequently deposited pigments in avian integument. They are responsible for the majority of colors of bird plumage. The phenotypic expression can be affected by metal contamination. It can be manifested as color bleaching or differences in the size of plumage badges...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yeisson Gutiérrez, David Ott, Mareike Töpperwien, Tim Salditt, Christoph Scherber
Imaging techniques are a cornerstone of contemporary biology. Over the last decades, advances in microscale imaging techniques have allowed fascinating new insights into cell and tissue morphology and internal anatomy of organisms across kingdoms. However, most studies so far provided snapshots of given reference taxa, describing organs and tissues under "idealized" conditions. Surprisingly, there is an almost complete lack of studies investigating how an organism's internal morphology changes in response to environmental drivers...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Aura Raulo, Ben Dantzer
The causes and consequences of individual differences in animal behavior and stress physiology are increasingly studied in wild animals, yet the possibility that stress physiology underlies individual variation in social behavior has received less attention. In this review, we bring together these study areas and focus on understanding how the activity of the vertebrate neuroendocrine stress axis (HPA-axis) may underlie individual differences in social behavior in wild animals. We first describe a continuum of vertebrate social behaviors spanning from initial social tendencies (proactive behavior) to social behavior occurring in reproductive contexts (parental care, sexual pair-bonding) and lastly to social behavior occurring in nonreproductive contexts (nonsexual bonding, group-level cooperation)...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Laura F Galloway, Ray H B Watson, Holly R Prendeville
Flowering and germination time are components of phenology, a complex phenotype that incorporates a number of traits. In natural populations, selection is likely to occur on multiple components of phenology at once. However, we have little knowledge of how joint selection on several phenological traits influences evolutionary response. We conducted one generation of artificial selection for all combinations of early and late germination and flowering on replicated lines within two independent base populations in the herb Campanula americana ...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Christopher Jenkins, Jacqueline Eggleton, Jon Barry, Joey O'Connor
Standardized and repeatable data acquisition and analyses are required to enable the mapping and condition monitoring of reefs within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Changes in habitat condition must be reliably identified and reported to best support evidence-based management. Biogenic reefs in temperate waters, that is, hard matter created by living organisms and raised above the seabed, provide food and shelter for many plant and animal species. This article explores the feasibility of habitat mapping, using remote sensing datasets, as well as metrics for repeatable and suitable assessment of areas of Sabellaria spinulosa for their status as biogenic reef...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ernani V Rodrigues, Júlia R Riguette, Henrique R C Pereira, Juliétty A Tesch, Ary G Silva
The buzzing foraging behavior of female bees for pollen harvesting called the attention of early pollination biologists. Flower types that demand this buzzing behavior comprise about 20,000 species of different and phylogenetically unrelated plant taxa, suggesting that it had independently evolved many times among the flowering plants. Between the late 1970s and early 1980s, theoretical papers had modeled the energetics of buzz pollination, but, up to this moment, no hypothesis was experimentally tested concerning the theoretical basis of the energetics of buzz pollination...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Daniela H Palmer, Yue Qian Tan, Susan D Finkbeiner, Adriana D Briscoe, Antónia Monteiro, Marcus R Kronforst
The swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes is known for its striking resemblance in wing pattern to the toxic butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae and is a focal system for the study of mimicry evolution. Papilio polytes females are polymorphic in wing pattern, with mimetic and nonmimetic forms, while males are monomorphic and nonmimetic. Past work invokes selection for mimicry as the driving force behind wing pattern evolution in P. polytes . However, the mimetic relationship between P. polytes and P. aristolochiae is not well understood...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Brandon T Barton, Mariah E Hodge, Cori J Speights, Anna M Autrey, Marcus A Lashley, Vincent P Klink
Anthropogenic sound is increasingly considered a major environmental issue, but its effects are relatively unstudied. Organisms may be directly affected by anthropogenic sound in many ways, including interference with their ability to detect mates, predators, or food, and disturbances that directly affect one organism may in turn have indirect effects on others. Thus, to fully appreciate the net effect of anthropogenic sound, it may be important to consider both direct and indirect effects. We report here on a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that anthropogenic sound can generate cascading indirect effects within a community...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaohua Dai, Chengpeng Long, Jiasheng Xu, Qingyun Guo, Wei Zhang, Zhihong Zhang, Bater
Dominant species significantly affect interspecific relationships, community structure, and ecosystem function. In the field, dominant species are often identified by their high importance values. Selective foraging on dominant species is a common phenomenon in ecology. Our hypothesis is that dominant plant groups with high importance values are more susceptible to leaf-mining insects at the regional level. Here, we used the Saihanwula National Nature Reserve as a case study to examine the presence-absence patterns of leaf-mining insects on different plants in a forest-grassland ecotone in Northeast China...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Jan Marcin Węsławski, Katarzyna Dragańska-Deja, Joanna Legeżyńska, Waldemar Walczowski
The recent (2008-2016) occurrence of a boreal intertidal amphipod Gammarus oceanicus along the Spitsbergen coast is compared with corresponding data from 1980 to 1994. We aimed to compare the pace of environmental changes in the area (ice retreat, temperature increase) with distribution change of G. oceanicus . Material for the study was collected from intertidal, at low water level from over 100 locations on Spitsbergen, the main island of Svalbard archipelago (expanding from 76 to 80°N). The west coast of the island has been exposed to a steady increase in sea surface and air temperature (2°C in 20 years), as well as a significant decrease in fast ice duration (from over 5 months to less than 1 per year)...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Britt Klaassen, Femke Broekhuis
Animals select habitats that will ultimately optimize their fitness through access to favorable resources, such as food, mates, and breeding sites. However, access to these resources may be limited by bottom-up effects, such as availability, and top-down effects, such as risk avoidance and competition, including that with humans. Competition between wildlife and people over resources, specifically over space, has played a significant role in the worldwide decrease in large carnivores. The goal of this study was to determine the habitat selection of cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in a human-wildlife landscape at multiple spatial scales...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Zenon J Czenze, J Leon Tucker, Elizabeth L Clare, Joanne E Littlefair, David Hemprich-Bennett, Hernani F M Oliveira, R Mark Brigham, Anthony J R Hickey, Stuart Parsons
Variation in the diet of generalist insectivores can be affected by site-specific traits including weather, habitat, and season, as well as demographic traits such as reproductive status and age. We used molecular methods to compare diets of three distinct New Zealand populations of lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata . Summer diets were compared between a southern cold-temperate (Eglinton) and a northern population (Puroera). Winter diets were compared between Pureora and a subtropical offshore island population (Hauturu)...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Juliette Poidatz, Karine Monceau, Olivier Bonnard, Denis Thiéry
In social insects, the activity rhythm of foragers and their action range determinate the activity of the colony. In vespids, which are mostly predators, the foraging range of workers determines their maximum predation pressure round the nest. One of these species, Vespa velutina , a recently invasive species introduced into Europe, exerts a strong predation on honeybees at the hive. Therefore, the definition of its activity rhythm and spatial range of predation is of primary importance. Using radio frequency identification tags (RFID), two experiments were carried out to (a) determine their return ability (called homing) in releasing 318 individuals at different distance from their colony and (b) monitor their foraging activity rhythm and the duration of their flights based on 71 individuals followed 24 hr/24 during 2 months...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Catherine E A Gresty, Elizabeth Clare, Dion S Devey, Robyn S Cowan, Laszlo Csiba, Panagiota Malakasi, Owen T Lewis, Katherine J Willis
Floral foraging resources are valuable for pollinator conservation on farmland, and their provision is encouraged by agri-environment schemes in many countries. Across Europe, wildflower seed mixtures are widely sown on farmland to encourage pollinators, but the extent to which key pollinator groups such as solitary bees exploit and benefit from these resources is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of 164 pollen samples extracted from the brood cells of six common cavity-nesting solitary bee species ( Osmia bicornis , Osmia caerulescens , Megachile versicolor , Megachile ligniseca , Megachile centuncularis and Hylaeus confusus ) which are widely distributed across the UK and Europe...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Yahya A Derua, Samuel C Kahindi, Franklin W Mosha, Eliningaya J Kweka, Harrysone E Atieli, Xiaoming Wang, Guofa Zhou, Ming-Chieh Lee, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
The microbial larvicides Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus have been used extensively for mosquito control and have been found to be effective and safe to non-target organisms cohabiting with mosquito larvae. Recently developed long lasting microbial larvicides (LLML), although evading the previous challenge of short duration of activity, increase the risk of persistence of toxins in the treated larval habitats. This study monitored the impact of LLML FourStar® and LL3 on non-target organisms cohabiting with mosquito larvae in an operational study to control malaria vectors in western Kenya highlands...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Evan H Campbell Grant, Adrianne B Brand, Stephan F J De Wekker, Temple R Lee, John E B Wofford
A frequent assumption in ecology is that biotic interactions are more important than abiotic factors in determining lower elevational range limits (i.e., the "warm edge" of a species distribution). However, for species with narrow environmental tolerances, theory suggests the presence of a strong environmental gradient can lead to persistence, even in the presence of competition. The relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors is rarely considered together, although understanding when one exerts a dominant influence on controlling range limits may be crucial to predicting extinction risk under future climate conditions...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Łukasz Ołdakowski, Jan R E Taylor
Reproduction is costly and life-history theory predicts that current parental investment will result in lower survival or decreased future reproduction. The physiological mechanisms mediating the link between reproduction and survival are still under debate and elevated oxidative damage during reproduction has been proposed as a plausible candidate. Previous studies of oxidative stress during reproduction in animals under natural conditions have been restricted to analyses of blood. Herein, we measured the level of oxidative damage to lipids (tiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances) and proteins (carbonyls) in the liver, kidneys, heart and skeletal muscles in free-living bank vole females from spring and autumn generations, before and after reproduction...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Leonie Enners, Philipp Schwemmer, Anna-Marie Corman, Christian C Voigt, Stefan Garthe
Herring gulls ( Larus argentatus ) are opportunistic predators that prefer to forage in the intertidal zone, but an increasing degree of terrestrial foraging has recently been observed. We therefore aimed to analyze the factors influencing foraging behavior and diet composition in the German Wadden Sea. Gulls from three breeding colonies on islands at different distances from the mainland were equipped with GPS data loggers during the incubation seasons in 2012-2015. Logger data were analyzed for 37 individuals, including 1,115 foraging trips...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ricardo Shohei Hattori, Seiya Tashiro, Yan Zhang, Naoya Kakuta, Masashi Yokota, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
The pejerrey possesses a genotypic sex determination system driven by the amhy gene and yet shows marked temperature-dependent sex determination. Sex-reversed XY females have been found in a naturally breeding population established in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. These females could mate with normal XY males and generate YY "supermale" individuals that, if viable and fertile, would sire only genotypic male offspring. This study was conducted to verify the viability, gender, and fertility of YY pejerrey and to develop a molecular method for their identification...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Richard B King, Kristin M Stanford, Peter C Jones
Snakes represent a sizable fraction of vertebrate biodiversity, but until recently, data on their demography have been sparse. Consequently, generalizations regarding patterns of variation are weak and the potential for population projections is limited. We address this information gap through an analysis of spatial and temporal variation in demography (population size, annual survival, and realized population growth) of the Lake Erie Watersnake, Nerodia sipedon insularum , and a review of snake survival more generally...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"