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Nutrition & Diabetes

A Goday, D Bellido, I Sajoux, A B Crujeiras, B Burguera, P P García-Luna, A Oleaga, B Moreno, F F Casanueva
UNLABELLED: Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
B Kowall, A-T Lehnich, R Erbel, S Moebus, K-H Jöckel, A Stang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep duration influences weight change in children and young adults, but there is less evidence in middle-aged, and, in particular, older adults. We assessed associations between sleep duration, daytime napping and sleep disturbances, respectively, with change of weight and waist circumference in older subjects. Contrary to previous studies, we also used two points in time to assess sleep characteristics. METHODS: We used data from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a cohort study in Germany with a baseline and two follow-up visits (age 45-74 years, median follow-up 5...
August 15, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
S M R Bentzen, V K Knudsen, T Christiensen, B Ewers
BACKGROUND: Diet has an important role in the management of diabetes. However, little is known about dietary intake in Danish diabetes patients. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) focusing on most relevant nutrients in diabetes including carbohydrates, dietary fibres and simple sugars was developed and validated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative validity of nutrients calculated by a web-based food frequency questionnaire for patients with diabetes. DESIGN: The FFQ was validated against a 4-day pre-coded food diary (FD)...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
G Block, K M J Azar, R J Romanelli, T J Block, L P Palaniappan, M Dolginsky, C H Block
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis is to examine the effect of an algorithm-driven online diabetes prevention program on changes in eating habits, physical activity and wellness/productivity factors. METHODS: The intervention, Alive-PD, used small-step individually tailored goal setting and other features to promote changes in diet and physical activity. A 6-month randomized controlled trial was conducted among patients from a healthcare delivery system who had confirmed prediabetes (n =339)...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
L R De Souza, H Berger, R Retnakaran, P A Vlachou, J L Maguire, A B Nathens, P W Connelly, J G Ray
Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
M P van der Aa, M A J Elst, E M W van de Garde, E G A H van Mil, C A J Knibbe, M M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND: As adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance may be refractory to lifestyle intervention therapy alone, additional off-label metformin therapy is often used. In this study, the long-term efficacy and safety of metformin versus placebo in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance is studied. METHODS: In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, 62 adolescents with obesity aged 10-16 years old with insulin resistance received 2000 mg of metformin or placebo daily and physical training twice weekly over 18 months...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
E Hagman, P Danielsson, L Brandt, A Ekbom, C Marcus
OBJECTIVES: In adults, impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate to which extent children with obesity develop T2DM during early adulthood, and to determine whether IFG and elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in obese children are risk markers for early development of T2DM. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 1620 subjects from the Swedish Childhood Obesity Treatment Registry - BORIS who were ⩾18 years at follow-up and 8046 individuals in a population-based comparison group, matched on gender age and living area, were included...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
D Tricò, E Filice, S Trifirò, A Natali
Lipid and protein ingested before carbohydrate reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. We tested feasibility, safety and clinical efficacy of manipulating the sequence of nutrient ingestion in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). After a 4-week run-in, 17 T2D patients were randomized to either a control diet (CD) or to an experimental diet (ED) allowing the consumption of high-carbohydrate foods only after high-protein and high-fat foods at each main meal (lunch+dinner). Both diets were accurately followed and neutral on arterial blood pressure, plasma lipids and indices of hepatic and kidney function...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
G Schofield, G Henderson, C Crofts, S Thornley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
S M Kumpulainen, K Heinonen, M K Salonen, S Andersson, D Wolke, E Kajantie, J G Eriksson, K Raikkonen
BACKGROUND: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. METHODS: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
A Soare, R Del Toro, Y M Khazrai, A Di Mauro, S Fallucca, S Angeletti, E Skrami, R Gesuita, D Tuccinardi, S Manfrini, F Fallucca, M Pianesi, P Pozzilli
BACKGROUND: In the MADIAB trial (a 21-day randomized, controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)), intervention with the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet resulted in significantly greater improvements in metabolic control compared with a standard recommended diet for patients with T2D. We report on a 6-month follow-up study, which investigated, whether these benefits extended beyond the 21-day intensive dietary intervention, in real-world conditions. SUBJECTS: At the end of the MADIAB trial (baseline of this follow-up study), all participants continued their assigned diet (Ma-Pi or control) for 6 months...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
I J Neeland, S M Grundy, X Li, B Adams-Huet, G L Vega
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass, a risk factor for cardiometabolic complications of obesity, is usually measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but this method is not practical in a clinical setting. In contrast, measurement of VAT by dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) appears to circumvent the limitations of MRI. In this study, we compared measurements of VAT mass by MRI and DXA in the large, multiethnic cohort of the Dallas Heart Study (DHS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: About 2689 DHS participants underwent paired measurement of VAT by MRI and DXA...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
D W L Ma, B M Arendt, L M Hillyer, S K Fung, I McGilvray, M Guindi, J P Allard
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with perturbations in liver lipid metabolism. Liver phospholipid and fatty acid composition have been shown to be altered in NAFLD. However, detailed profiles of circulating lipids in the pathogenesis of NAFLD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine circulating lipids and potential mechanisms related to hepatic gene expression between liver biopsy-proven simple steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy subjects...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
V Yiengprugsawan, B L Horta, J V S Motta, D Gigante, S-A Seubsman, A Sleigh
Increase in body size has appeared as an epidemic in Western countries and is now rapidly emerging in low- and middle-income countries, contributing to the rise in non-communicable diseases worldwide. Brazil and Thailand have gone through similar economic and health transitions, and this unique comparative study investigates changes in body size (body mass index) in relation to socioeconomic status in two cohorts of similar age followed from 2004/2005 to 2012/2013. At 20-24 years of age, Pelotas cohort members had a much higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (20...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
G Pounis, A Di Castelnuovo, S Costanzo, M Persichillo, M Bonaccio, A Bonanni, C Cerletti, M B Donati, G de Gaetano, L Iacoviello
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pasta as a traditional component of Mediterranean diet (MeD) in Italy has not been studied in detail in the management of body weight. This study aimed at evaluating the association of pasta intake with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio, in two large epidemiological datasets. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 14 402 participants aged ⩾35 years randomly recruited from the general population of the Molise region (Moli-sani cohort) and 8964 participants aged >18 years from all over Italy (Italian Nutrition & HEalth Survey, INHES) were separately analyzed...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
H Brath, P M Paldánius, G Bader, W M Kolaczynski, P M Nilsson
OBJECTIVE: This post-hoc analysis of the EDGE (Effectiveness of Diabetes control with vildaGliptin and vildagliptin/mEtformin) study assessed inter-regional differences in baseline characteristics and response to treatment intensification with dual oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with first-line monotherapy were assigned to receive a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, or comparator OADs as add-on dual therapy...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
M Kaviani, P D Chilibeck, P Yee, G A Zello
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
U Bachlechner, A Floegel, A Steffen, C Prehn, J Adamski, T Pischon, H Boeing
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The metabolic consequences of type of body shape need further exploration. Whereas accumulation of body mass in the abdominal area is a well-established metabolic risk factor, accumulation in the gluteofemoral area is controversially debated. We evaluated the associations of anthropometric markers of overall body mass and body shape with 127 serum metabolites within a sub-sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
N Cofnas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
M Morimoto, E-Y Lee, X Zhang, Y Inaba, H Inoue, M Ogawa, T Shirasawa, O Yokosuka, T Miki
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts pleiotropic effects on metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, but its effectiveness in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains controversial. METHODS: We examined the antidiabetic effect of EPA in insulin receptor mutant (Insr(P1195L/+)) mice that exhibit high-fat diet (HFD)-dependent hyperglycemia. RESULTS: EPA supplementation was found to alleviate hyperglycemia of Insr(P1195L/+) mice fed HFD (Insr(P1195L/+)/HFD mice), which was accompanied by amelioration of increased gluconeogenesis and impaired insulin signaling, as assessed by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) expression on refeeding and insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt in the liver, respectively...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
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