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Nutrition & Diabetes

Effie Viguiliouk, Alexandra L Jenkins, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Cyril W C Kendall
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of dried fruit in modifying postprandial glycemia, we assessed the ability of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) to decrease postprandial glycemia through three mechanisms: a glycemic index (GI) effect, displacement effect, or 'catalytic' fructose effect. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted an acute randomized, multiple-crossover trial in an outpatient setting in 10 healthy adults. Participants received 3 white bread control meals and 12 dried fruit test meals in random order...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Hana Kahleova, Rebecca Fleeman, Adela Hlozkova, Richard Holubkov, Neal D Barnard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A plant-based diet is an effective strategy in the treatment of obesity. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the effect of a plant-based diet on body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated the role of plant protein on these outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Overweight participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a plant-based (n = 38) or a control diet (n = 37). Dual X-ray Absorptiometry assessed body composition, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance, and a linear regression model was used to test the relationship between protein intake, body composition, and insulin resistance...
November 2, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Arun Prakash Mishra, Komala Yedella, Jyothi B Lakshmi, Archana B Siva
Type I diabetes, though contributes to only 5-10% of total diabetes cases, is a rising concern in today's world. Our previous studies have shown that the absence of WDR13 in mouse results in pancreatic β-cell hyper-proliferation. Also, amelioration of the diabetic phenotype on introgression of Wdr13-null (Wdr13-/0 ) mutation in genetically diabetic mice (Leprdb/db ) [type II diabetes] was observed. It was thus, interesting to see the role of WDR13 in streptozotocin-mediated diabetes in mice, a model for type I diabetes...
October 29, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Sarah Nowlin, Charles M Cleland, Niyati Parekh, Holly Hagan, Gail Melkus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes (T2D) outcomes exist, and could be explained by nutrition- and inflammation-related differences. The objective of this study is to identify associations between race/ethnicity and glucose control among participants from NHANES 2007-2010, as influenced by diet quality, body mass, and inflammation and grouped by T2D status. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The following is a cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of two NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2010...
October 22, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Stefan G Pierzynowski, Peter C Gregory, Rafał Filip, Jarosław Woliński, Kateryna Goncharova Pierzynowska
Studies have highlighted the existence of two intra-pancreatic axes of communication: one involved in the regulation of enzyme production by insulin-the insular-acinar axis; and another involved in the regulation of insulin release by pancreatic enzymes-the acini-insular axis. Previous studies by our laboratory show that pancreatic enzymes can affect blood glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion independently of their digestive functions, both from the gut lumen and probably from the blood. As a result we would like to introduce here the concept of acini-islet-acinar (AIA) axis communication (feedback), which could play an important role in the development of obesity and diabetes type 2...
October 8, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Majed S Alokail, Sobhy Yakout, Amal Alenad, Diana J Garay-Baquero, Miltiadis Fotopoulos, Jie Teng, Omar Al-Attas, Yousef Al-Saleh, Shaun Sabico, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with low vitamin D levels are at risk of cardiometabolic disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel serological markers linking vitamin D status with cardiometabolic profile in non-diabetic adults with obesity. METHODS: For the discovery phase, we used quantitative serum proteomics in sex-matched, age-matched and BMI-matched subjects with obesity [BMI: 25-35 kg/m2 ] and low [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] vs. high vitamin D status [25(OH)D > 50 nmol/L] (n = 16)...
October 4, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Yongning Sun, Chenxi Jin, Xiaoying Zhang, Weiping Jia, Jiamei Le, Jianping Ye
OBJECTIVE: L-cell dysfunction is reported for GLP-1 reduction in type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we examined mitochondrial function in the mechanistic study in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. SUBJECTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to establish the DIO model for GLP-1 reduction. The mice were then treated with berberine (BBR) (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks to test the impact on GLP-1 expression...
September 24, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Simona Bo, Roberto Gambino, Valentina Ponzo, Iolanda Cioffi, Ilaria Goitre, Andrea Evangelista, Giovannino Ciccone, Maurizio Cassader, Massimo Procopio
OBJECTIVES: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at increased fracture risk. Resveratrol has shown beneficial effects on bone health in few studies. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on bone mineral density (BMD) and on calcium metabolism biomarkers in T2DM patients. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial 192 T2DM outpatients were randomized to receive resveratrol 500 mg/day (Resv500 arm), resveratrol 40 mg/day (Resv40 arm) or placebo for 6 months...
September 20, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Taddese A Zerfu, Elisabete Pinto, Kaleab Baye
BACKGROUND: Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a leading modifiable risk factor associated with risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). Nevertheless, there is paucity of evidence if consumption of some food groups is associated with lower risk of APO, particularly in low-income settings. We aimed to determine whether consumption of some food groups is associated with lower risk of APOs such as: preterm birth (PTB), low-birth weight (LBW), and stillbirth in rural Central Ethiopia...
September 20, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Fabian Bovey, Jérémy Cros, Béla Tuzson, Kevin Seyssel, Philippe Schneiter, Lukas Emmenegger, Luc Tappy
An exploratory study was performed on eight healthy volunteers to assess how short-term changes in energy balance and dietary carbohydrate content impact breath acetone concentrations. Participants were studied on three occasions: on each occasion, they remained fasted and in resting conditions during the first 2 h to assess basal breath acetone and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB). During the next 6 h, they remained fasted on one occasion (F), or were fed hourly high carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) meals to induce a positive energy balance on the other two occasions...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Y E Lentferink, M P van der Aa, E G A H van Mill, C A J Knibbe, M M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Off-label metformin is nowadays frequently used for the treatment of obesity in adolescents. However, studies on long-term metformin treatment in adolescents with obesity are scarce. Therefore, an 18 month open label extension study following an 18 months randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of metformin in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance was performed. SUBJECTS/METHODS: After completion of the RCT, metformin was offered to all participants with a body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-sds) > 2...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Hebah A Kutbi, Hala H Mosli, Ahmed H Alhasan, Rana H Mosli
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of weight status with level of diabetes knowledge (symptoms and complications) among residents of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and health characteristics and knowledge about diabetes and its symptoms and complications was utilized. Data of 3978 adults, 18 years of age or older, were collected from public mall sites in Jeddah city and surrounding areas...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kálmán Bódis, Sabine Kahl, Marie-Christine Simon, Zhou Zhou, Henrike Sell, Birgit Knebel, Andrea Tura, Klaus Strassburger, Volker Burkart, Karsten Müssig, Daniel Markgraf, Hadi Al-Hasani, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), higher stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) expression has been related to improved insulin sensitivity in thiazolidinedione-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In animal models, deficiency of the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 2 associated with higher and FFAR4-deficiency with lower insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that increased FFAR2 expression and reductions in FFAR4 and SCD1 expression in SAT of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients associate positively with insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Bitiya Admassu, Jonathan C K Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Tefera Belachew, Christian Ritz, Victor Owino, Mubarek Abera, Rasmus Wibaek, Kim F Michaelsen, Pernille Kæstel, Henrik Friis, Gregers S Andersen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low and high birth weight and rapid weight gain during infancy are associated with childhood obesity. Associations of birth and infancy body composition (BC) growth with childhood BC remain unknown in low-income countries. We aimed to investigate the associations of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth and its accretion during early infancy with FM and FFM at the age of 4 years. METHODS: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) cohort, BC was assessed at six consecutive time points from birth to 6 months and at 4 years of age by air displacement plethysmography...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Maureen B Huhmann, Shinobu Yamamoto, Joel M Neutel, Sarah S Cohen, Juan B Ochoa Gautier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Standard enteral nutrition (EN) formulas can  worsen hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that altering the proportion of macronutrients in a formula; increasing protein while decreasing carbohydrate concentrations would improve glycemic response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an EN formula containing a very high concentration of protein (in the form of whey peptides) and low concentration of carbohydrate provide better control of postprandial blood glucose relative to a very high-protein/higher-carbohydrate formula...
August 30, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Hyeon Yeong Ahn, Minjoo Kim, Cho Rong Seo, Hye Jin Yoo, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with a Jerusalem artichoke and fermented soybean powder mixture on blood glucose and oxidative stress levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The subjects were randomly assigned to either a group that ingested 40 g of a Jerusalem artichoke and fermented soybean powder mixture (19...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Marina Kjaergaard, Cecilia Nilsson, Mette Olaf Nielsen, Kevin Grove, Kirsten Raun
BACKGROUND: Predisposition to obesity and type 2 diabetes can arise during foetal development and in early postnatal life caused by imbalances in maternal nutritional overload. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink on hypothalamic anti-oxidative stress markers, inflammation and peripheral glucose homeostasis. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplements (S)...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Venesa Sahibdeen, Nigel J Crowther, Himla Soodyall, Liesl M Hendry, Richard J Munthali, Scott Hazelhurst, Ananyo Choudhury, Shane A Norris, Michèle Ramsay, Zané Lombard
OBJECTIVE: The latest genome-wide association studies of obesity-related traits have identified several genetic loci contributing to body composition (BC). These findings have not been robustly replicated in African populations, therefore, this study aimed to assess whether European BC-associated gene loci played a similar role in a South African black population. METHODS: A replication and fine-mapping study was performed in participants from the Birth to Twenty cohort (N = 1,926) using the Metabochip...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Protein supplements, usually drinks rich in whey protein, are used widely for weight loss purposes in overweight adults. Information comparing the effects of whey protein on appetite and energy intake in men and women is limited. The objective was to compare the acute effects of whey-protein intake on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormones in healthy young men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min) were determined after ingestion of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavoured-water control drink (~2 kcal) in 8 healthy young men (25 ± 2 y, 72 ± 3 kg, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and 8 women (23 ± 1 y, 64 ± 2 kg, 24 ± 0...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Liang Zhao, Tiande Zou, Noe Alberto Gomez, Bo Wang, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
OBJECTIVE: Through dynamic means, etiological factors, including chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have the potential to perpetuate metabolic incidences such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Abatement of such syndromes can be achieved by complex mechanisms initiated through bioactive compounds such as polyphenols derived from fruits. Using a whole-fruit approach, the effects of dietary red raspberry, which is rich in polyphenols, on inflammatory responses and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of Mus musculus were studied along with the potential role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to act as a key mediator...
July 2, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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