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Nutrition & Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343817/associations-between-body-mass-index-and-the-risk-of-renal-events-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Kamel Mohammedi, John Chalmers, William Herrington, Qiang Li, Giuseppe Mancia, Michel Marre, Neil Poulter, Anthony Rodgers, Bryan Williams, Vlado Perkovic, Josef Coresh, Mark Woodward
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and the risk of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were divided into six baseline BMI categories: <18.5 (underweight, n = 58); ≥18.5 to <25 (normal, n = 2894); ≥25 to <30 (overweight, n = 4340); ≥30 to <35 (obesity grade 1, n = 2265); ≥35 to <40 (obesity grade 2, n = 744); and ≥40 kg/m2 (obesity grade 3, n = 294); those underweight were excluded...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343706/caloric-restriction-lowers-endocannabinoid-tonus-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Huub J van Eyk, Linda D van Schinkel, Vasudev Kantae, Charlotte E A Dronkers, Jos J M Westenberg, Albert de Roos, Hildo J Lamb, J Wouter Jukema, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Mario van der Stelt, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Johannes W A Smit
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are associated with obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, both of which play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of prolonged caloric restriction on ECs in relation to fat distribution and cardiac function is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate this relationship in obese T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a prospective intervention study, obese T2D patients with CAD (n = 27) followed a 16 week very low calorie diet (VLCD; 450-1000 kcal/day)...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339795/lipidized-prolactin-releasing-peptide-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-metabolic-syndrome-koletsky-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-study
#3
Barbora Mikulášková, Martina Holubová, Veronika Pražienková, Jana Zemenová, Lucie Hrubá, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) has a potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but is ineffective after peripheral administration. We have previously shown that our novel lipidized analogs PrRP enhances its stability in the circulation and enables its central effect after peripheral application. The purpose of this study was to explore if sub-chronic administration of novel PrRP analog palmitoylated in position 11 (palm11-PrRP31) to Koletsky-spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB) could lower body weight and glucose intolerance as well as other metabolic parameters...
January 16, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335447/exposure-to-famine-in-early-life-and-chronic-kidney-diseases-in-adulthood
#4
Ningjian Wang, Zhiyuan Ning, Fangzhen Xia, Chi Chen, Jing Cheng, Yi Chen, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing contributor to the global disease burden. Previous findings indicated that exposure to famine in early life was associated with various metabolic diseases and urinary protein levels. We aimed to assess whether the exposure to China's Great Famine 1959-1962 during fetal or childhood period was associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and risk of CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SPECT-China was a population-based observational study in 2014-2015...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335416/lack-of-pronounced-changes-in-the-expression-of-fatty-acid-handling-proteins-in-adipose-tissue-and-plasma%C3%A2-of-morbidly-obese-humans
#5
Ewa Anna Grzegorczyk, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Bartlomiej Lukaszuk, Dorota Harasiuk, Barbara Choromanska, Piotr Mysliwiec, Malgorzata Zendzian-Piotrowska, Adrian Chabowski
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid handling proteins are involved in the process of accumulation of lipids in different fat tissue depots. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the expression of both fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of patients with morbid obesity without metabolic syndrome, as well as the plasma concentrations of these transporters. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (Real-time PCR) expression of selected fatty acid handling proteins was assessed in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 30 patients with morbid obesity...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330446/effect-of-puerarin-in-promoting-fatty-acid-oxidation-by-increasing-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-biogenesis-in-skeletal-muscle-in-diabetic-rats
#7
Xiu-Fang Chen, Lei Wang, Yong-Zheng Wu, Shi-Yu Song, Hai-Yan Min, Yan Yang, Xuan He, Qiao Liang, Long Yi, Yong Wang, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by dyslipidemia and the accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissue, including skeletal muscle. Puerarin, which is a natural isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata, has been shown to have antidiabetic activity. However, the lipid-reducing effect of puerarin, in particular in skeletal muscle, has not yet been addressed. METHODS: We examined the effect of puerarin on mitochondrial function and the oxidation of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269872/the-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-oleate-is-the-major-physiological-toxic-free-fatty-acid-for-human-beta-cells
#8
T Plötz, B Krümmel, A Laporte, A Pingitore, S J Persaud, A Jörns, M Elsner, I Mehmeti, S Lenzen
Free fatty acids (FFAs) can cause glucose intolerance and diabetes. Lipotoxicity to the pancreatic beta cells is considered to be a major underlying cause for this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to analyse the toxicity profile of FFAs in the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line and to compare the results with isolated rat and human islets with special reference to the physiologically most prevalent FFAs palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). Toxicity after a 2-day incubation with the different FFAs was analysed by the caspase-3 assay and confirmed by the propidium iodide and annexin V staining tests...
December 21, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269731/twelve-month-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial-of-a-moderate-carbohydrate-versus-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-overweight-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-or-prediabetes
#9
Laura R Saslow, Jennifer J Daubenmier, Judith T Moskowitz, Sarah Kim, Elizabeth J Murphy, Stephen D Phinney, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Veronica Goldman, Rachel M Cox, Ashley E Mason, Patricia Moran, Frederick M Hecht
Dietary treatment is important in management of type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, but uncertainty exists about the optimal diet. We randomized adults (n = 34) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 6.0% and elevated body weight (BMI > 25) to a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (LCK) diet (n = 16) or a moderate-carbohydrate, calorie-restricted, low-fat (MCCR) diet (n = 18). All participants were encouraged to be physically active, get sufficient sleep, and practice behavioral adherence strategies based on positive affect and mindful eating...
December 21, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259181/comparison-of-the-effect-of-omega-3-supplements-and-fresh-fish-on-lipid-profile-a-randomized-open-labeled-trial
#10
Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad, Maryam Ghavipisheh, Armin Attar, Amir Aslani
BACKGROUND: Dietary fish is a rich source of Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These compounds may have protective effect against cardiovascular events possibly by modifying lipid profiles. Consequently, fish oil supplements are produced commercially to complement low fish intake. It is not clear if both interventions have similar effects. The aim of this trial was to compare the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of omega3 fatty acid supplements with fresh fish. METHOD: A total of 106 patients with hyperlipidemia were randomized...
December 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259157/ethnic-differences-in-metabolite-signatures-and-type-2-diabetes-a-nested-case-control-analysis-among-people-of-south-asian-african-and-european-origin
#11
Irene G M van Valkengoed, Carmen Argmann, Karen Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, Johannes M F G Aerts, Lizzy M Brewster, R J G Peters, Frédéric M Vaz, Riekelt H Houtkooper
Accumulation of metabolites may mark or contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but there is a lack of data from ethnic groups at high risk. We examined sphingolipids, acylcarnitines and amino acids, and their association with T2D in a nested case-control study among 54 South Asian Surinamese, 54 African Surinamese and 44 Dutch in the Netherlands. Plasma metabolites were determined at baseline (2001-2003), and cumulative prevalence and incidence of T2D at follow-up (2011-2012). Weighted linear and logistic regression analyses were used to study associations...
December 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259155/central-igf1-improves-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice
#12
Hao Hong, Zhen-Zhong Cui, Lu Zhu, Shu-Ping Fu, Mario Rossi, Ying-Hong Cui, Bing-Mei Zhu
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a key factor for tissue growth and fuel metabolism. The potential function of central IGF1 remains unclear. We previously observed that IGF1 expression is increased in the hypothalamus of obese mice lacking STAT5 in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the potential metabolic function of central IGF1 by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IGF1, over-expression of central IGF1 by administering an adeno-associated virus (AAV), and ICV injection of an anti-IGF1 antibody...
December 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255175/effects-of-meal-timing-on-changes-in-circulating-epinephrine-norepinephrine-and-acylated-ghrelin-concentrations-a-pilot-study
#13
Simona Bo, Fabio Broglio, Fabio Settanni, Mirko Parasiliti Caprino, Alice Ianniello, Giulio Mengozzi, Antonella De Francesco, Maurizio Fadda, Debora Fedele, Alice Guggino, Ezio Ghigo, Mauro Maccario
BACKGROUND: Timing of food intake impacts on metabolic diseases. Few data are available about post-meal changes in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and acylated ghrelin (AG) at different times of the day. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This randomized cross-over trial investigated E/NE/AG concentrations after identical meals consumed at 0800 or 2000 hours in 20 healthy volunteers, by standardizing diet, exercise, duration of fast, and resting. Participants randomly received the test meal at 0800 or 2000 hours, and vice versa after 1 week...
December 18, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247207/a-rapid-review-examining-purchasing-changes-resulting-from-fiscal-measures-targeted-at-high-sugar-foods-and-sugar-sweetened-drinks
#14
Katharine E Roberts, Louisa J Ells, Victoria J McGowan, Theodora Machaira, Victoria C Targett, Rachel E Allen, Alison E Tedstone
To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10)...
December 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242622/assessment-of-disturbed-glucose-metabolism-and-surrogate-measures-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#15
Christian L Roth, Clinton Elfers, Christiane S Hampe
BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese children, it is becoming imperative to detect disturbed glucose metabolism as early as possible in order to prevent T2D development. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 92 obese children (median age 11.7 years, 51% female) and 7 lean children (median age 11.4 years, 57% female) who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a tertiary pediatric care center. Glucose tolerance was assessed and different indices for β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated...
December 14, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035384/effect-of-anthelmintic-treatment-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
D L Tahapary, K de Ruiter, I Martin, E A T Brienen, L van Lieshout, Y Djuardi, C C Djimandjaja, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Soewondo, E Sartono, T Supali, J W A Smit, M Yazdanbakhsh
Emerging evidence suggests that helminths might confer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the role of adipokines in mediating the effect of helminths on insulin resistance. Serum samples were obtained from a randomized-controlled trial of anthelmintic treatment in an area endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Flores Island, Indonesia. In STH-infected subjects, anthelmintic treatment significantly increased the ratio of leptin to adiponectin (treatment effect factor (95% confidence interval (CI)), P-value for interaction: 1...
October 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991222/nutrient-extraction-blender-preparation-reduces-postprandial-glucose-responses-from-fruit-juice-consumption
#17
K M Redfern, V L Cammack, N Sweet, L A Preston, M A Jarvis, G A Rees
Although whole-fruit consumption is regarded as protective against type 2 diabetes (T2DM), conventionally prepared fruit juice is associated with increased T2DM risk, and current public health advice recommends its restriction. 'Nutrient extractor' style blenders are increasing in popularity worldwide as an alternative means of juicing fruit, but little is known about their effect on postprandial glucose levels. The current study investigated the effect of nutrient extraction on postprandial blood glucose response and glycemic index (GI) compared with a glucose control for both mixed fruit and a high GI fruit (mango)...
October 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892039/metabolites-of-flavonoid-compounds-preserve-indices-of-endothelial-cell-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-under-glucotoxic-conditions
#18
Y Qian, P V A Babu, J D Symons, T Jalili
We hypothesized that metabolites of dietary flavonoids attenuate impairments in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability evoked by glucotoxic conditions mimicking Type 1 or 2 diabetes. To test this, human aortic endothelial cells were treated with either vehicle control, quercetin-3-O-glucoronide, piceatannol or 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionoic acid for 24 h. These are metabolites of quercetin, resveratrol and proanthocyanidin, respectively. Next, cells were exposed to control (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions for 48 h, followed by insulin treatment (100 nM, 10 min) to stimulate NO production...
September 11, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869586/alterations-in-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-response-to-obesity-surgery-combined-with-dietary-counseling
#19
P Walle, M Takkunen, V Männistö, M Vaittinen, P Käkelä, J Ågren, U Schwab, J Lindström, J Tuomilehto, M Uusitupa, J Pihlajamäki
BACKGROUND: The effects of obesity surgery on serum and adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) profile and FA metabolism may modify the risk of obesity-related diseases. METHODS: We measured serum (n=122) and adipose tissue (n=24) FA composition and adipose tissue mRNA expression of genes regulating FA metabolism (n=100) in participants of the Kuopio Obesity Surgery Study (KOBS, age 47.2±8.7 years, BMI 44.6±6.0, 40 men, 82 women) before and one year after obesity surgery...
September 4, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692020/comparative-effectiveness-of-a-portion-controlled-meal-replacement-program-for-weight-loss-in-adults-with-and-without-diabetes-high-blood-sugar
#20
C D Coleman, J R Kiel, A H Mitola, L M Arterburn
BACKGROUND: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (DM2) may be less successful at achieving therapeutic weight loss than their counterparts without diabetes. This study compares weight loss in a cohort of adults with DM2 or high blood sugar (D/HBS) to a cohort of adults without D/HBS. All were overweight/obese and following a reduced or low-calorie commercial weight-loss program incorporating meal replacements (MRs) and one-on-one behavioral support. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Demographic, weight, body composition, anthropometric, pulse and blood pressure data were collected as part of systematic retrospective chart review studies...
July 10, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
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