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Nutrition & Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30201981/breath-acetone-as-a-marker-of-energy-balance-an-exploratory-study-in-healthy-humans
#1
Fabian Bovey, Jérémy Cros, Béla Tuzson, Kevin Seyssel, Philippe Schneiter, Lukas Emmenegger, Luc Tappy
An exploratory study was performed on eight healthy volunteers to assess how short-term changes in energy balance and dietary carbohydrate content impact breath acetone concentrations. Participants were studied on three occasions: on each occasion, they remained fasted and in resting conditions during the first 2 h to assess basal breath acetone and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB). During the next 6 h, they remained fasted on one occasion (F), or were fed hourly high carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) meals to induce a positive energy balance on the other two occasions...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197416/long-term-metformin-treatment-in-adolescents-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-results-of-an-open-label-extension-study
#2
Y E Lentferink, M P van der Aa, E G A H van Mill, C A J Knibbe, M M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Off-label metformin is nowadays frequently used for the treatment of obesity in adolescents. However, studies on long-term metformin treatment in adolescents with obesity are scarce. Therefore, an 18 month open label extension study following an 18 months randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of metformin in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance was performed. SUBJECTS/METHODS: After completion of the RCT, metformin was offered to all participants with a body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-sds) > 2...
September 10, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190526/diabetes-knowledge-and-its-association-with-the-weight-status-among-residents-of-jeddah-city-saudi-arabia
#3
Hebah A Kutbi, Hala H Mosli, Ahmed H Alhasan, Rana H Mosli
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of weight status with level of diabetes knowledge (symptoms and complications) among residents of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and health characteristics and knowledge about diabetes and its symptoms and complications was utilized. Data of 3978 adults, 18 years of age or older, were collected from public mall sites in Jeddah city and surrounding areas...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190473/reduced-expression-of-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-but-not-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2-or-4-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Kálmán Bódis, Sabine Kahl, Marie-Christine Simon, Zhou Zhou, Henrike Sell, Birgit Knebel, Andrea Tura, Klaus Strassburger, Volker Burkart, Karsten Müssig, Daniel Markgraf, Hadi Al-Hasani, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), higher stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) expression has been related to improved insulin sensitivity in thiazolidinedione-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In animal models, deficiency of the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 2 associated with higher and FFAR4-deficiency with lower insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that increased FFAR2 expression and reductions in FFAR4 and SCD1 expression in SAT of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients associate positively with insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190452/body-composition-during-early-infancy-and-its-relation-with-body-composition-at-4-years-of-age-in-jimma-an-ethiopian-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Bitiya Admassu, Jonathan C K Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Tefera Belachew, Christian Ritz, Victor Owino, Mubarek Abera, Rasmus Wibaek, Kim F Michaelsen, Pernille Kæstel, Henrik Friis, Gregers S Andersen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low and high birth weight and rapid weight gain during infancy are associated with childhood obesity. Associations of birth and infancy body composition (BC) growth with childhood BC remain unknown in low-income countries. We aimed to investigate the associations of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth and its accretion during early infancy with FM and FFM at the age of 4 years. METHODS: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) cohort, BC was assessed at six consecutive time points from birth to 6 months and at 4 years of age by air displacement plethysmography...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158516/very-high-protein-and-low-carbohydrate-enteral-nutrition-formula-and-plasma-glucose-control-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#6
Maureen B Huhmann, Shinobu Yamamoto, Joel M Neutel, Sarah S Cohen, Juan B Ochoa Gautier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Standard enteral nutrition (EN) formulas can  worsen hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that altering the proportion of macronutrients in a formula; increasing protein while decreasing carbohydrate concentrations would improve glycemic response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an EN formula containing a very high concentration of protein (in the form of whey peptides) and low concentration of carbohydrate provide better control of postprandial blood glucose relative to a very high-protein/higher-carbohydrate formula...
August 30, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026514/the-effects-of-jerusalem-artichoke-and-fermented-soybean-powder-mixture-supplementation-on-blood-glucose-and-oxidative-stress-in-subjects-with-prediabetes-or-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#7
Hyeon Yeong Ahn, Minjoo Kim, Cho Rong Seo, Hye Jin Yoo, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with a Jerusalem artichoke and fermented soybean powder mixture on blood glucose and oxidative stress levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The subjects were randomly assigned to either a group that ingested 40 g of a Jerusalem artichoke and fermented soybean powder mixture (19...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026488/hypothalamic-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-and-peripheral-glucose-homeostasis-in-sprague-dawley-rat-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-and-postnatal-chocolate-and-soft-drink
#8
Marina Kjaergaard, Cecilia Nilsson, Mette Olaf Nielsen, Kevin Grove, Kirsten Raun
BACKGROUND: Predisposition to obesity and type 2 diabetes can arise during foetal development and in early postnatal life caused by imbalances in maternal nutritional overload. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink on hypothalamic anti-oxidative stress markers, inflammation and peripheral glucose homeostasis. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplements (S)...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026463/genetic-variants-in-sec16b-are-associated-with-body-composition-in-black-south-africans
#9
Venesa Sahibdeen, Nigel J Crowther, Himla Soodyall, Liesl M Hendry, Richard J Munthali, Scott Hazelhurst, Ananyo Choudhury, Shane A Norris, Michèle Ramsay, Zané Lombard
OBJECTIVE: The latest genome-wide association studies of obesity-related traits have identified several genetic loci contributing to body composition (BC). These findings have not been robustly replicated in African populations, therefore, this study aimed to assess whether European BC-associated gene loci played a similar role in a South African black population. METHODS: A replication and fine-mapping study was performed in participants from the Birth to Twenty cohort (N = 1,926) using the Metabochip...
July 19, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006513/effect-of-gender-on-the-acute-effects-of-whey-protein-ingestion-on-energy-intake-appetite-gastric-emptying-and-gut-hormone-responses-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Protein supplements, usually drinks rich in whey protein, are used widely for weight loss purposes in overweight adults. Information comparing the effects of whey protein on appetite and energy intake in men and women is limited. The objective was to compare the acute effects of whey-protein intake on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormones in healthy young men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min) were determined after ingestion of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavoured-water control drink (~2 kcal) in 8 healthy young men (25 ± 2 y, 72 ± 3 kg, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and 8 women (23 ± 1 y, 64 ± 2 kg, 24 ± 0...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961765/raspberry-alleviates-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-through-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1
#11
Liang Zhao, Tiande Zou, Noe Alberto Gomez, Bo Wang, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
OBJECTIVE: Through dynamic means, etiological factors, including chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have the potential to perpetuate metabolic incidences such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Abatement of such syndromes can be achieved by complex mechanisms initiated through bioactive compounds such as polyphenols derived from fruits. Using a whole-fruit approach, the effects of dietary red raspberry, which is rich in polyphenols, on inflammatory responses and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of Mus musculus were studied along with the potential role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to act as a key mediator...
July 2, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855488/relative-contributions-of-preprandial-and-postprandial-glucose-exposures-glycemic-variability-and-non-glycemic-factors-to-hba-1c-in-individuals-with-and-without-diabetes
#12
Kristine Færch, Marjan Alssema, David J Mela, Rikke Borg, Dorte Vistisen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is substantial interest in dietary approaches to reducing postprandial glucose (PPG) responses, but the quantitative contribution of PPG to longer-term glycemic control (reflected in glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c ) in the general population is not known. This study quantified the associations of preprandial glucose exposure, PPG exposure, and glycemic variability with HbA1c and estimated the explained variance in HbA1c in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855473/weight-loss-and-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-different-adiposity-at-diagnosis-of-type-2-diabetes-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#13
Ebenezer S Adjah Owusu, Mayukh Samanta, Jonathan E Shaw, Azeem Majeed, Kamlesh Khunti, Sanjoy K Paul
BACKGROUND: Undiagnosed comorbid diseases that independently lead to weight loss before type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis could explain the observed increased mortality risk in T2DM patients with normal weight. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of weight change patterns before the diagnosis of T2DM on the association between body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and mortality risk. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study using 145,058 patients from UK primary care, with newly diagnosed T2DM from January 2000...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807981/a-high-fat-diet-stimulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-formation-in-mice-through-tnf%C3%AE-upregulation
#14
Philipp Glosse, Abul Fajol, Frank Hirche, Martina Feger, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Gabriele I Stangl, Michael Föller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that suppresses renal phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol (i.e., 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) formation together with its co-receptor Klotho. FGF23- or Klotho-deficient mice suffer from rapid aging with multiple age-associated diseases, at least in part due to massive calcification. FGF23 is considered as a disease biomarker since elevated plasma levels are observed early in patients with acute and chronic disorders including renal, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases...
May 29, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799006/update-on-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferases-the-roles-in-the-development-of-insulin-resistance
#15
REVIEW
Jing Yu, Kim Loh, Zhi-Yuan Song, He-Qin Yang, Yi Zhang, Shu Lin
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo pathway of glycerolipid synthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA to lysophosphatidic acid. In mammals, four isoforms of GPATs have been identified based on subcellular localization, substrate preferences, and NEM sensitivity, and they have been classified into two groups, one including GPAT1 and GPAT2, which are localized in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and the other including GPAT3 and GPAT4, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795533/prenatal-n-3-long-chain-fatty-acid-status-and-offspring-metabolic-health-in-early-and-mid-childhood-results-from-project-viva
#16
Ekaterina Maslova, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Sjurdur F Olsen, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
Higher maternal and biomarker levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been associated with improved perinatal outcomes and may also influence offspring metabolic health. Past studies were not powered to examine metabolic outcomes and few have specifically targeted metabolically vulnerable populations. We examined the associations of prenatal n-3 LCPUFA status with markers of metabolic health in early and mid-childhood in the full population as well as stratified by maternal glucose tolerance...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795525/the-association-of-vdr-polymorphisms-and-type-2-diabetes-in-older-people-living-in-community-in-santiago-de-chile
#17
Bárbara Angel, Lydia Lera, Carlos Márquez, Cecilia Albala
INTRODUCTION: Several polymorphisms have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequencies of a genetic polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (FokI and BsmI) in patients with T2D. METHODS: The case-control study was conducted in 138 patients with T2D and 172 control subjects, men and women (60-79 years old). The genotype and allele frequency determination of VDR polymorphisms were determined in these subjects...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795368/plant-sterols-lower-ldl-cholesterol-and-triglycerides-in-dyslipidemic-individuals-with-or-at-risk-of-developing-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Elke A Trautwein, Wieneke P Koppenol, Arienne de Jong, Harry Hiemstra, Mario A Vermeer, Manny Noakes, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh
BACKGROUND: Managing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, e.g., dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is critically important as CVD is the most common cause of death in T2DM patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of plant sterols (PS) on lowering both elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 161 individuals at increased risk of and with established T2DM, consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (2 g/d) for 6 weeks after a 2-week run-in period...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795367/ultra-processed-food-consumption-and-adiposity-trajectories-in-a-brazilian-cohort-of-adolescents-elana-study
#19
Diana Barbosa Cunha, Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rosely Sichieri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data of three consecutive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) were obtained from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) that aimed to assess changes in anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, and 1035 adolescents enrolled in the 1st year of high school from six schools (four private and two public) in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were included...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795366/associations-of-serum-indolepropionic-acid-a-gut-microbiota-metabolite-with-type-2-diabetes-and-low-grade-inflammation-in-high-risk-individuals
#20
Marjo Tuomainen, Jaana Lindström, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Markku Peltonen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Vanessa D de Mello, Kati Hanhineva
We recently reported using non-targeted metabolic profiling that serum indolepropionic acid (IPA), a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, was associated with a lower likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the present study, we established a targeted quantitative method using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS) and measured the serum concentrations of IPA in all the participants from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), who had fasting serum samples available from the 1-year study follow-up (n = 209 lifestyle intervention and n = 206 control group)...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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