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Nutrition & Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092346/differential-hypothalamic-leptin-sensitivity-in-obese-rat-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-and-postnatal-intake-of-chocolate-and-soft-drink
#1
M Kjaergaard, C Nilsson, A Secher, J Kildegaard, T Skovgaard, M O Nielsen, K Grove, K Raun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092345/acute-effects-of-a-beverage-containing-bitter-melon-extract-carela-on-postprandial-glycemia-among-prediabetic-adults
#2
C H Boone, J R Stout, J A Gordon, M J Redd, D D Church, L P Oliveira, D H Fukuda, J R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Acute ingestion of bitter melon (BM) has been shown to suppress the postprandial glycemic response in diabetics, but its impact on glucose regulation among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance is unclear. Moreover, one's glucose tolerance level may influence the effectiveness of BM. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of a beverage containing BM extract on blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among prediabetics. METHODS: Ten prediabetic adults completed two OGTTs-glucose only (D2) and glucose+BM (D3)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067892/impact-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-celiac-disease-on-nutrition-and-quality-of-life
#3
J G Nunes-Silva, V S Nunes, R P Schwartz, S Mlss Trecco, D Evazian, M L Correa-Giannella, M Nery, M S Queiroz
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) are autoimmune diseases and have similar genetic patterns. T1DM treatment is based on diet, physical activity and insulin therapy, whereas CD depends on dietary changes with restriction of wheat, rye and barley. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of individuals with the association of T1DM and CD, to characterize their nutritional status and to compare it with those with only one disease and healthier controls...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067891/an-interactive-web-based-intervention-on-nutritional-status-physical-activity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patient-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial-the-red-ruby-study
#4
L Jahangiry, A Montazeri, M Najafi, M Yaseri, M A Farhangi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and unhealthy nutritional behaviors are recognized as the key factors in the cause and management of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effectiveness of interactive web-based interventions on dietary intakes, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with MetS is currently unknown. METHODS: The two-arm randomized-controlled trial was conducted for patients with MetS from June through December 2012 in Tehran, Iran...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067890/validity-of-visceral-adiposity-estimates-from-dxa-against-mri-in-kuwaiti-men-and-women
#5
A Mohammad, E De Lucia Rolfe, A Sleigh, T Kivisild, K Behbehani, N J Wareham, S Brage, T Mohammad
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the Middle East is among the highest in the world. Valid measures of abdominal adiposity are essential to understanding the metabolic consequences of obesity. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being utilised to assess body composition in population studies, and has recently been used to estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of DXA-derived VAT in a Middle Eastern population using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the criterion measure...
January 9, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941940/kefir-peptides-prevent-high-fructose-corn-syrup-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-murine-model-by-modulation-of-inflammation-and-the-jak2-signaling-pathway
#6
H L Chen, T C Tsai, Y C Tsai, J W Liao, C C Yen, C M Chen
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism...
December 12, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941939/testosterone-supplementation-improves-glucose-homeostasis-despite-increasing-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-male-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
M Pal, S Gupta
Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output...
December 12, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941938/effects-of-exendin-4-on-human-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-ecm-remodelling
#8
E Pastel, S Joshi, B Knight, N Liversedge, R Ward, K Kos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Subjects with type-2 diabetes are typically obese with dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are routinely used to improve glycaemia. Although, they also aid weight loss that improves AT function, their direct effect on AT function is unclear. To explore GLP-1 analogues' influence on human AT's cytokine and extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, we therefore obtained and treated omental (OMAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) AT samples with Exendin-4, an agonist of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
December 12, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892935/the-link-between-soda-intake-and-asthma-science-points-to-the-high-fructose-corn-syrup-not-the-preservatives-a-commentary
#9
L R DeChristopher, J Uribarri, K L Tucker
Recent research conducted by investigators at the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion-a division of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-found that 'Regular-Soda Intake, Independent of Weight Status, is Associated with Asthma among US High School Students.' On the basis of their review of prior studies, researchers hypothesized that the association may be due to high intake of sodium benzoate, a commonly used preservative in US soft drinks. But a closer look at these prior research studies suggests that there is no strong scientific evidence that the preservatives in US soft drinks are associated with asthma...
November 28, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892934/treatment-with-fgfr2-iiic-monoclonal-antibody-suppresses-weight-gain-and-adiposity-in-kka-y-mice
#10
K Nonogaki, T Kaji, T Yamazaki, Mari Murakami
Expression of β-Kotho, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1c and 2c, which bind FGF21, is decreased in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of FGFR2c in the development of obesity and diabetes in KKA(y) mice. Treatment with mouse monoclonal FGFR2-IIIc antibody (0.5 mg kg(-1)) significantly suppressed body weight gain and epididymal white adipose tissue weight in individually housed KKA(y) mice while having no effect on daily food intake. In addition, treatment with FGFR2-IIIc antibody significantly increased plasma-free fatty acid levels while having no effect on blood glucose or plasma FGF21 levels...
November 28, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669176/relative-validity-of-a-web-based-food-frequency-questionnaire-for-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-in-denmark
#11
S M R Bentzen, V K Knudsen, T Christiensen, B Ewers
BACKGROUND: Diet has an important role in the management of diabetes. However, little is known about dietary intake in Danish diabetes patients. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) focusing on most relevant nutrients in diabetes including carbohydrates, dietary fibres and simple sugars was developed and validated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative validity of nutrients calculated by a web-based food frequency questionnaire for patients with diabetes. DESIGN: The FFQ was validated against a 4-day pre-coded food diary (FD)...
September 26, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643726/improving-diet-activity-and-wellness-in-adults-at-risk-of-diabetes-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
G Block, K M J Azar, R J Romanelli, T J Block, L P Palaniappan, M Dolginsky, C H Block
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis is to examine the effect of an algorithm-driven online diabetes prevention program on changes in eating habits, physical activity and wellness/productivity factors. METHODS: The intervention, Alive-PD, used small-step individually tailored goal setting and other features to promote changes in diet and physical activity. A 6-month randomized controlled trial was conducted among patients from a healthcare delivery system who had confirmed prediabetes (n =339)...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643725/short-term-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet-interventional-weight-loss-program-versus-hypocaloric-diet-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
A Goday, D Bellido, I Sajoux, A B Crujeiras, B Burguera, P P García-Luna, A Oleaga, B Moreno, F F Casanueva
UNLABELLED: Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571249/long-term-treatment-with-metformin-in-obese-insulin-resistant-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
M P van der Aa, M A J Elst, E M W van de Garde, E G A H van Mil, C A J Knibbe, M M J van der Vorst
BACKGROUND: As adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance may be refractory to lifestyle intervention therapy alone, additional off-label metformin therapy is often used. In this study, the long-term efficacy and safety of metformin versus placebo in adolescents with obesity and insulin resistance is studied. METHODS: In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded trial, 62 adolescents with obesity aged 10-16 years old with insulin resistance received 2000 mg of metformin or placebo daily and physical training twice weekly over 18 months...
August 29, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525820/associations-between-sleep-characteristics-and-weight-gain-in-an-older-population-results-of-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#15
B Kowall, A-T Lehnich, R Erbel, S Moebus, K-H Jöckel, A Stang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sleep duration influences weight change in children and young adults, but there is less evidence in middle-aged, and, in particular, older adults. We assessed associations between sleep duration, daytime napping and sleep disturbances, respectively, with change of weight and waist circumference in older subjects. Contrary to previous studies, we also used two points in time to assess sleep characteristics. METHODS: We used data from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, a cohort study in Germany with a baseline and two follow-up visits (age 45-74 years, median follow-up 5...
August 15, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376698/the-effect-of-consuming-low-versus-high-glycemic-index-meals-after-exercise-on-postprandial-blood-lipid-response-following-a-next-day-high-fat-meal
#16
M Kaviani, P D Chilibeck, P Yee, G A Zello
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal...
July 4, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214655/calorie-induced-er-stress-suppresses-uroguanylin-satiety-signaling-in-diet-induced-obesity
#17
G W Kim, J E Lin, A E Snook, A S Aing, D J Merlino, P Li, S A Waldman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress...
May 23, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214654/the-longitudinal-effect-of-the-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-2-allele-on-the-risk-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
K Oniki, K Morita, T Watanabe, A Kajiwara, K Otake, K Nakagawa, Y Sasaki, Y Ogata, J Saruwatari
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies toxic aldehydes and has a key role in protecting the liver. An elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level is related to oxidative stress and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We herein investigated the association between inactive ALDH2*2 allele (rs671) and the risk of NAFLD, including the relationship to the GGT level. A retrospective follow-up study (mean 5.4±1.1 years) was conducted among 341 Japanese health screening program participants. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the GGT level predicted the development of NAFLD (area under the curve: 0...
May 23, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136447/comparative-evaluation-of-the-therapeutic-effect-of-metformin-monotherapy-with-metformin-and-acupuncture-combined-therapy-on-weight-loss-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-patients
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Firouzjaei, G-C Li, N Wang, W-X Liu, B-M Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity induces insulin resistance (IR), the key etiologic defect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, an incidence of obesity-induced diabetes is expected to decrease if obesity is controlled. Although Metformin is currently one of the main treatment options for T2DM in obese patients, resulting in an average of 5% weight loss, adequate weight control in all patients cannot be achieved with Metformin alone. Thus, additional therapies with a weight loss effect, such as acupuncture, may improve the effectiveness of Metformin...
May 2, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110686/proteasome-inhibitors-including-curcumin-improve-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-mice
#20
S Weisberg, R Leibel, D V Tortoriello
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes stems from obesity-associated insulin resistance, and in the genetically susceptible, concomitant pancreatic β-cell failure can occur, which further exacerbates hyperglycemia. Recent work by our group and others has shown that the natural polyphenol curcumin attenuates the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in mouse models of hyperinsulinemic or compensated type 2 diabetes. Although several potential downstream molecular targets of curcumin exist, it is now recognized to be a direct inhibitor of proteasome activity...
April 25, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
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