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Nutrition & Diabetes

Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Protein supplements, usually drinks rich in whey protein, are used widely for weight loss purposes in overweight adults. Information comparing the effects of whey protein on appetite and energy intake in men and women is limited. The objective was to compare the acute effects of whey-protein intake on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormones in healthy young men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min) were determined after ingestion of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavoured-water control drink (~2 kcal) in 8 healthy young men (25 ± 2 y, 72 ± 3 kg, 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and 8 women (23 ± 1 y, 64 ± 2 kg, 24 ± 0...
July 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Liang Zhao, Tiande Zou, Noe Alberto Gomez, Bo Wang, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
OBJECTIVE: Through dynamic means, etiological factors, including chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have the potential to perpetuate metabolic incidences such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Abatement of such syndromes can be achieved by complex mechanisms initiated through bioactive compounds such as polyphenols derived from fruits. Using a whole-fruit approach, the effects of dietary red raspberry, which is rich in polyphenols, on inflammatory responses and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscles of Mus musculus were studied along with the potential role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to act as a key mediator...
July 2, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Kristine Færch, Marjan Alssema, David J Mela, Rikke Borg, Dorte Vistisen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is substantial interest in dietary approaches to reducing postprandial glucose (PPG) responses, but the quantitative contribution of PPG to longer-term glycemic control (reflected in glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c ) in the general population is not known. This study quantified the associations of preprandial glucose exposure, PPG exposure, and glycemic variability with HbA1c and estimated the explained variance in HbA1c in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Ebenezer S Adjah Owusu, Mayukh Samanta, Jonathan E Shaw, Azeem Majeed, Kamlesh Khunti, Sanjoy K Paul
BACKGROUND: Undiagnosed comorbid diseases that independently lead to weight loss before type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis could explain the observed increased mortality risk in T2DM patients with normal weight. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of weight change patterns before the diagnosis of T2DM on the association between body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and mortality risk. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study using 145,058 patients from UK primary care, with newly diagnosed T2DM from January 2000...
June 1, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Philipp Glosse, Abul Fajol, Frank Hirche, Martina Feger, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Gabriele I Stangl, Michael Föller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that suppresses renal phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol (i.e., 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) formation together with its co-receptor Klotho. FGF23- or Klotho-deficient mice suffer from rapid aging with multiple age-associated diseases, at least in part due to massive calcification. FGF23 is considered as a disease biomarker since elevated plasma levels are observed early in patients with acute and chronic disorders including renal, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases...
May 29, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Jing Yu, Kim Loh, Zhi-Yuan Song, He-Qin Yang, Yi Zhang, Shu Lin
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo pathway of glycerolipid synthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA to lysophosphatidic acid. In mammals, four isoforms of GPATs have been identified based on subcellular localization, substrate preferences, and NEM sensitivity, and they have been classified into two groups, one including GPAT1 and GPAT2, which are localized in the mitochondrial outer membrane, and the other including GPAT3 and GPAT4, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Ekaterina Maslova, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Sjurdur F Olsen, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
Higher maternal and biomarker levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been associated with improved perinatal outcomes and may also influence offspring metabolic health. Past studies were not powered to examine metabolic outcomes and few have specifically targeted metabolically vulnerable populations. We examined the associations of prenatal n-3 LCPUFA status with markers of metabolic health in early and mid-childhood in the full population as well as stratified by maternal glucose tolerance...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Bárbara Angel, Lydia Lera, Carlos Márquez, Cecilia Albala
INTRODUCTION: Several polymorphisms have been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequencies of a genetic polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (FokI and BsmI) in patients with T2D. METHODS: The case-control study was conducted in 138 patients with T2D and 172 control subjects, men and women (60-79 years old). The genotype and allele frequency determination of VDR polymorphisms were determined in these subjects...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Elke A Trautwein, Wieneke P Koppenol, Arienne de Jong, Harry Hiemstra, Mario A Vermeer, Manny Noakes, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh
BACKGROUND: Managing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, e.g., dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is critically important as CVD is the most common cause of death in T2DM patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of plant sterols (PS) on lowering both elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 161 individuals at increased risk of and with established T2DM, consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (2 g/d) for 6 weeks after a 2-week run-in period...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Diana Barbosa Cunha, Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa, Gloria Valeria da Veiga, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rosely Sichieri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data of three consecutive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) were obtained from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) that aimed to assess changes in anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, and 1035 adolescents enrolled in the 1st year of high school from six schools (four private and two public) in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were included...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Marjo Tuomainen, Jaana Lindström, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Markku Peltonen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Vanessa D de Mello, Kati Hanhineva
We recently reported using non-targeted metabolic profiling that serum indolepropionic acid (IPA), a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, was associated with a lower likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the present study, we established a targeted quantitative method using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS) and measured the serum concentrations of IPA in all the participants from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), who had fasting serum samples available from the 1-year study follow-up (n = 209 lifestyle intervention and n = 206 control group)...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
William S Yancy, Pamela A Shaw, Lisa Wesby, Victoria Hilbert, Lin Yang, Jingsan Zhu, Andrea Troxel, David Huffman, Gary D Foster, Alexis C Wojtanowski, Kevin G Volpp
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Financial incentives can improve initial weight loss; we examined whether financial incentives can improve weight loss maintenance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants aged 30-80 years who lost at least 5 kg during the first 4-6 months in a nationally available commercial weight loss program were recruited via the internet into a three-arm randomized trial of two types of financial incentives versus active control during months 1-6 (Phase I) followed by passive monitoring during months 7-12 (Phase II)...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Leticia Goni, Marta García-Granero, Fermín I Milagro, Marta Cuervo, J Alfredo Martínez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting from the interactions among genetics, metabolic, behavioral, sociocultural and environmental factors. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to identify phenotype and genotype variables that could be relevant determinants of body mass index (BMI) variability. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the present study, a total of 1050 subjects (798 females; 76%) were included. Least angle regression (LARS) analysis was used as regression model selection technique, where the dependent variable was BMI and the independent variables were age, sex, energy intake, physical activity level, and 16 polymorphisms previously related to obesity and lipid metabolism...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Houda Bouhajja, Noura Bougacha-Elleuch, Nicolas Lucas, Romain Legrand, Rim Marrakchi, Srini V Kaveri, Kamel Jamoussi, Hammadi Ayadi, Mohamed Abid, Mouna Mnif-Feki, Sergueï O Fetissov
Obese subjects display elevated plasma levels of leptin reflecting the phenomenon of leptin resistance. Here, we aimed to determine whether leptin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) are present in obese and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and whether their plasma levels and affinity kinetics may correlate with obesity and diabetes markers. We show that leptin levels are increased in obese patients with and without T2D. Although mean plasma levels of leptin-reactive IgG were similar between study groups, IgG in obese non-diabetic patients had increased dissociation rate and lower affinity (increased dissociation equilibrium constant value; KD)...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Christina M Gant, S Heleen Binnenmars, Manon Harmelink, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Stephan J L Bakker, Gerjan Navis, Gozewijn D Laverman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) in type 2 diabetes mellitus is of paramount importance in preventing cardiovascular disease. However, treatment targets for LDLc are often not reached. We studied the prevalence of LDLc target achievement in a real-life population of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in secondary care, and investigated whether in those not on target, there is room for intensifying pharmacological and lifestyle management according to current treatment guidelines...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Claudia Agnoli, Sabina Sieri, Fulvio Ricceri, Maria Teresa Giraudo, Giovanna Masala, Melania Assedi, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Rosario Tumino, Maria Concetta Giurdanella, Vittorio Krogh
Excessive calorie intake and physical inactivity are considered key determinants of the rapid worldwide increase in obesity prevalence, however the relationship between diet and weight gain is complex. We investigated associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in volunteers recruited to the Italian section of the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We investigated 32,119 cohort members who provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and updated information on recall a mean of 12 years later...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Jenifer Monks, David J Orlicky, Adrianne L Stefanski, Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Michael C Rudolph, Ginger C Johnson, Vanessa D Sherk, Matthew R Jackman, Kayla Williamson, Nichole E Carlson, Paul S MacLean, James L McManaman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The current obesity epidemic has spurred exploration of the developmental origin of adult heath and disease. A mother's dietary choices and health can affect both the early wellbeing and lifelong disease-risk of the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: To determine if changes in the mother's diet and adiposity have long-term effects on the baby's metabolism, independently from a prenatal insult, we utilized a mouse model of diet-induced-obesity and cross-fostering...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Jiyoung Jang, Min-Jeong Shin, Oh Yoen Kim, Kyong Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It remains unclear if high egg consumption has beneficial or adverse effects on cardiometabolic health. The present study prospectively evaluated the longitudinal association between egg-consumption levels and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 9248 Korean adults aged 40-69 years without CVD or cancer at the baseline from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, Ansung-Ansan cohort, South Korea...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Anna Cinkajzlová, Miloš Mráz, Zdeňka Lacinová, Jana Kloučková, Petra Kaválková, Helena Kratochvílová, Pavel Trachta, Jarmila Křížová, Denisa Haluzíková, Jan Škrha, Hana Papežová, Martin Haluzík
BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3 and 4 are circulating factors that participate in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We measured serum ANGPTL3 and 4 levels in 23 patients with obesity, 40 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 22 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 15 subjects undergoing 72-h fasting, and 12 patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS), and their changes after very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), bariatric surgery, partial realimentation, acute fasting, and parenteral nutrition in order to assess their possible role in metabolic regulations...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Franziska A Hägele, Franziska Büsing, Alessa Nas, Julian Aschoff, Lena Gnädinger, Ralf Schweiggert, Reinhold Carle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Sugar-containing beverages like orange juice can be a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes although the underlying mechanisms are less clear. We aimed to investigate if intake of orange juice with or in-between meals differently affects energy balance or metabolic risk. Twenty-six healthy adults (24.7 ± 3.2 y; BMI 23.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2 ) participated in a 4-week cross-over intervention and consumed orange juice (20% of energy requirement) either together with 3 meals/d (WM) or in-between 3 meals/d (BM) at ad libitum energy intake...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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