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AIP Advances

Wenjie Cheng, Wei Li, Ling Xiao, Ming Li, Yongsheng Tian, Yanhua Sun, Lie Yu
Aiming at the ultra high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) supported by gas foil bearings (GFBs), this paper calculates the transient line starting of the motor. Firstly, the start effect of the rotor composed of cylindrical PM and stainless steel sleeve is studied. Then, in order to enhance the start torque, copper ring, nickel ring and copper squirrel-cage are introduced in the rotor and their start effect are analysed, respectively. It can be found that the rotor including nickel ring can be accelerated to set speed, but all the other rotors are failed due to the higher PM and braking torques...
May 2017: AIP Advances
Constantinos C Roussos, Jonathan Swingler
The electrical contact is an important phenomenon that should be given into consideration to achieve better performance and long term reliability for the design of devices. Based upon this importance, the electrical contact interface has been visualized as a ''3D Contact Map'' and used in order to investigate the contact asperities. The contact asperities describe the structures above and below the contact spots (the contact spots define the 3D contact map) to the two conductors which make the contact system...
January 2017: AIP Advances
Zhao Ya-Ru, Zhang Hai-Rong, Zhang Gang-Tai, Wei Qun, Yuan Yu-Quan
The elastic anisotropy and thermodynamic properties of the recently synthesized Pnnm-CN have been investigated using first-principles calculations under high temperature and high pressure. The calculated equilibrium crystal parameters and normalized volume dependence of the resulting pressure agree with available experimental and theoretical results. Within the considered pressure range of 0-90 GPa, the dependences of the bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and shear modulus on the crystal orientation for Pnnm-CN have been systematically studied...
December 2016: AIP Advances
P Graziosi, A Gambardella, M Calbucci, K O'Shea, D A MacLaren, A Riminucci, I Bergenti, S Fugattini, M Prezioso, N Homonnay, G Schmidt, D Pullini, D Busquets-Mataix, V Dediu
We introduce an innovative approach to the simultaneous control of growth mode and magnetotransport properties of manganite thin films, based on an easy-to-implement film/substrate interface engineering. The deposition of a manganite seed layer and the optimization of the substrate temperature allows a persistent bi-dimensional epitaxy and robust ferromagnetic properties at the same time. Structural measurements confirm that in such interface-engineered films, the optimal properties are related to improved epitaxy...
August 2016: AIP Advances
Canute I Vaz, Changze Liu, Jason P Campbell, Jason T Ryan, Richard G Southwick, David Gundlach, Anthony S Oates, Ru Huang, Kin P Cheung
Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low...
June 2016: AIP Advances
Yunlong Jin, Wenyong Zhang, Parashu R Kharel, Shah R Valloppilly, Ralph Skomski, David J Sellmyer
The role of B on the microstructure and magnetism of Zr16Co82.5-x Mo1.5B x ribbons prepared by arc melting and melt spinning is investigated. Microstructure analysis show that the ribbons consist of a hard-magnetic rhombohedral Zr2Co11 phase and a minor amount of soft-magnetic Co. We show that the addition of B increases the amount of hard-magnetic phase, reduces the amount of soft-magnetic Co and coarsens the grain size from about 35 nm to 110 nm. There is a monotonic increase in the volume of the rhombohedral Zr2Co11 unit cell with increasing B concentration...
May 2016: AIP Advances
Daniel S Choi, Manpreet Singh, Hebing Zhou, Marissa Milchak, Brian Monahan, Jong-In Hahm
We investigate the interaction of visible light with the solid matters of semiconducting oxide nanorods (NRs) of zinc oxide (ZnO), indium tin oxide (ITO), and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) at the single nanomaterial level. We subsequently identify an intriguing, material-dependent phenomenon of optical rotation in the electric field oscillation direction of the scattered light by systematically controlling the wavelength and polarization direction of the incident light, the NR tilt angle, and the analyzer angle. This polarization rotation effect in the scattered light is repeatedly observed from the chemically pure and highly crystalline ZnO NRs, but absent on the chemically doped NR variants of ITO and ZTO under all measurement circumstances...
April 2016: AIP Advances
Benpeng Zhu, Jiong Xu, Ying Li, Tian Wang, Ke Xiong, Changyang Lee, Xiaofei Yang, Michihisa Shiiba, Shinichi Takeuchi, Qifa Zhou, K Kirk Shung
Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT), used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51) was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9), demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water...
March 2016: AIP Advances
I Zeylikovich, M Xu
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space...
February 2016: AIP Advances
Daniel Ahmed, Xiaolei Peng, Adem Ozcelik, Yuebing Zheng, Tony Jun Huang
We acoustically modulated the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of metal nanostructures integrated within microfluidic systems. An acoustically driven micromixing device based on bubble microstreaming quickly and homogeneously mixes multiple laminar flows of different refractive indices. The altered refractive index of the mixed fluids enables rapid modulation of the LSPRs of gold nanodisk arrays embedded within the microfluidic channel. The device features fast response for dynamic operation, and the refractive index within the channel is tailorable...
September 2015: AIP Advances
David Emin, Massoud Akhtari, B M Ellingson, G W Mathern
We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions' transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm...
August 2015: AIP Advances
Tobias Ehmke, Andreas Knebl, Stephan Reiss, Isaak R Fischinger, Theo G Seiler, Oliver Stachs, Alexander Heisterkamp
Multimodal nonlinear microscopy allows imaging of highly ordered biological tissue due to spectral separation of nonlinear signals. This requires certain knowledge about the spectral distribution of the different nonlinear signals. In contrast to several publications we demonstrate a factor of [Formula: see text] relating the full width at half maximum of a gaussian laser pulse spectrum to the corresponding second harmonic pulse spectrum in the spatial domain by using a simple theoretical model. Experiments on monopotassium phosphate crystals (KDP-crystals) and on porcine corneal tissue support our theoretical predictions...
August 2015: AIP Advances
Subhra Mandal, You Zhou, Annemarie Shibata, Christopher J Destache
In the last decade, confocal fluorescence microscopy has emerged as an ultra-sensitive tool for real-time study of nanoparticles (NPs) fate at the cellular-level. According to WHO 2007 report, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still one of the world's major health threats by claiming approximately 7,000 new infections daily worldwide. Although combination antiretroviral drugs (cARV) therapy has improved the life-expectancy of HIV-infected patients, routine use of high doses of cARV has serious health consequences and requires complete adherence to the regimen for success...
August 2015: AIP Advances
Jae Won Cha, Elijah Y S Yew, Daekeun Kim, Jaichandar Subramanian, Elly Nedivi, Peter T C So
Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) improves imaging speed over a point scanning approach by parallelizing the excitation process. Early versions of MMM relied on imaging detectors to record emission signals from multiple foci simultaneously. For many turbid biological specimens, the scattering of emission photons results in blurred images and degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We have recently demonstrated that a multianode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) placed in a descanned configuration can effectively collect scattered emission photons from each focus into their corresponding anodes significantly improving image SNR for highly scattering specimens...
August 2015: AIP Advances
C Berger, C Möller, P Hens, C Fuchs, W Stolz, S W Koch, A Ruiz Perez, J Hader, J V Moloney
The design and experimental realization of a type-II "W"-multiple quantum well heterostructure for emission in the λ > 1.2 μm range is presented. The experimental photoluminescence spectra for different excitation intensities are analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the good theory-experiment agreement, the gain properties of the system are computed using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Gain values comparable to those of type-I systems are obtained.
April 2015: AIP Advances
Sathiabama Thiru, Masaki Asakawa, Kazuki Honda, Atsushi Kawaharazuka, Atsushi Tackeuchi, Toshiki Makimoto, Yoshiji Horikoshi
In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observation and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on heterojunction interfaces of CuGaSe2/CnInSe2/CuGaSe2 grown on GaAs (001) using migration-enhanced epitaxy. The streaky RHEED pattern and persistent RHEED intensity oscillations caused by the alternate deposition of migration-enhanced epitaxy sequence are observed and the growths of smooth surfaces are confirmed. RHEED observation results also confirmed constituent material interdiffusion at the heterointerface...
February 2015: AIP Advances
Yan Lu, Freddie R Salsbury
ERG, an ETS-family transcription factor, acts as a regulator of differentiation of early hematopoietic cells. It contains an autoinhibitory domain, which negatively regulates DNA-binding. The mechanism of autoinhibitory is still illusive. To understand the mechanism, we study the dynamical properties of ERG protein by molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations suggest that DNA binding autoinhibition associates with the internal dynamics of ERG. Specifically, we find that (1), The N-C terminal correlation in the inhibited ERG is larger than that in uninhibited ERG that contributes to the autoinhibition of DNA-binding...
January 2015: AIP Advances
Kenneth R Rodriguez, Marvin A Malone, Warren A Nanney, Cassandra J A Maddux, James V Coe, Hernán L Martínez
The enthalpy and Gibbs free energy thermodynamical potentials of single walled carbon nanotubes were studied of all types (armchairs, zig-zags, chirals (n>m), and chiral (n<m)). Bulk values of these thermodynamic potentials were obtained using a previously demonstrated robust method based on semi-empirical PM3 calculations and an extrapolated cluster approach. Those values were used to study the relationship between the thermodynamic potentials and the diameter of the nanotube. Results of this study led to the proposal of a single equation for the thermodynamical potential of [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] (assembly of nanotubes from atoms) versus the chiral vector indexes n and m for any given nanotube...
December 2014: AIP Advances
Yasushi Kawashima
Electrical resistances of conductors obtained by bringing alkanes into contact with a graphite surface have been investigated at room temperatures. Ring current in a ring-shaped container into which n-octane-soaked thin graphite flakes were compressed did not decay for 50 days at room temperature. After two HOPG plates were immersed into n-heptane and n-octane at room temperature, changes in resistances of the two samples were measured by four terminal technique. The measurement showed that the resistances of these samples decrease to less than the smallest resistance that can be measured with a high resolution digital voltmeter (0...
May 2013: AIP Advances
Andrew Gomella, Eric W Martin, Susanna K Lynch, Nicole Y Morgan, Han Wen
Hard x-ray contact microscopy provides images of dense samples at resolutions of tens of nanometers. However, the required beam intensity can only be delivered by synchrotron sources. We report on the use of a gold photoelectric conversion layer to lower the exposure dose by a factor of 40 to 50, allowing hard x-ray contact microscopy to be performed with a compact x-ray tube. We demonstrate the method in imaging the transmission pattern of a type of hard x-ray grating that cannot be fitted into conventional x-ray microscopes due to its size and shape...
April 2013: AIP Advances
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