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Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications

Ying Fei Li, Chengyue Zhang, Simon Zhou, Miao He, Huixia Zhang, Nianhang Chen, Feng Li, Xin Luan, Manjunath Pai, Hebao Yuan, Duxin Sun, Yan Li
Background: Paclitaxel (PTX) products currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration include Kolliphor EL-paclitaxel micelles (KoEL-paclitaxel, Taxol) and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ( nab -paclitaxel, Abraxane). Despite containing the same cytotoxic agent, different PTX formulations have distinct pharmacological responses and indications in patients with cancer. Several novel PTX delivery vehicles that have shown superior efficacy to Taxol in animal models failed to demonstrate efficacy in Phase II/III human clinical trials...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Charles Frost, Andrew Shenker, Stanford Jhee, Zhigang Yu, Jessie Wang, Alexander Bragat, Janice Pursley, Frank LaCreta
Purpose: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, intra-subject, dose-escalation study assessed single-dose safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of apixaban in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Subjects and methods: Sixteen healthy male Japanese and sixteen healthy male Caucasian subjects, matched for age, weight, and smoking status were randomized to receive four sequential single oral doses of either apixaban (2.5, 10, 25, and 50 mg) or matched placebo...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Simone Perna, Manuela Mainardi, Paolo Astrone, Carlotta Gozzer, Anna Biava, Ruben Bacchio, Daniele Spadaccini, Sebastiano Bruno Solerte, Mariangela Rondanelli
Aim: The aim of the present study is to examine the effects on cognitive performance, anthropometric measures, and metabolic markers in 2 different treatments: Incretins vs sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I). Materials and methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 39 elderly subjects (23 men and 16 women) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with a mean age of 77.21±8.07 years. Body mass index (BMI) of 29.92±4.31 kg/m2 and a cognitive status measured by a Mini Mental State Examination (scores >27 points)...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Maha S Al-Keilani, Karem H Alzoubi, Saied A Jaradat
Background: Chemotherapy resistance is the main cause of the marginal clinical benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thus, the identification of new therapeutic agents that can enhance the sensitivity of these drugs is of clinical importance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are emerging as new promising agents with strong antiproliferative effects against different types of cancers. This study investigates the synergistic potential of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) added on top of standard chemotherapy used against NSCLC...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Arthur G Roberts, Morgan E Gibbs
As a result of an increasing aging population, the number of individuals taking multiple medications simultaneously has grown considerably. For these individuals, taking multiple medications has increased the risk of undesirable drug-drug interactions (DDIs), which can cause serious and debilitating adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A comprehensive understanding of DDIs is needed to combat these deleterious outcomes. This review provides a synopsis of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) mechanisms that underlie DDIs...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Felix Oh, Deborah Todhunter, Elizabeth Taras, Daniel A Vallera, Antonella Borgatti
Purpose: Human sarcomas are rare and difficult to treat cancerous tumors typically arising from soft tissue or bone. Conversely, carcinomas are the most common cancer subtype in humans and the primary cause of mortality across all cancer patients. While conventional therapeutic modalities can prolong disease-free intervals and survival in some cases, treatment of refractory or recurrent solid tumors is challenging, and tumor-related mortality remains unacceptably high. The identification of overexpressed cell surface receptors on sarcoma and carcinoma cells has provided a valuable tool to develop targeted toxins as an alternative anticancer strategy...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Takashi Shigematsu, Ryutaro Shimazaki, Masafumi Fukagawa, Tadao Akizawa
Purpose: Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland and an effective treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, this agent has considerable side effects and dosage limitations, which impair effective treatment. Therefore, we investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the novel calcimimetic, evocalcet. Patients and methods: This was a multicenter, open-label study of single oral doses of 1, 4, and 12 mg evocalcet using an intrapatient dose escalation protocol in 29 Japanese secondary hyperparathyroidism patients receiving hemodialysis...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Yan Li, Liangang Liu, Lian Huang, Xiaomin Wang, Matthew Hoffmann, Josephine Reyes, Maria Palmisano, Simon Zhou
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of a pomalidomide oral liquid suspension relative to the commercial capsule formulation and to assess the food effect on the pomalidomide oral liquid suspension when administered as a single 4 mg dose. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, three-period, two-sequence crossover study in healthy subjects consisting of a screening phase, a baseline assessment phase, a treatment phase with three periods, and a follow-up phone call phase...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Kim Hanna, Maria Cristina Cruz, Elsa Mondou, Edward Corsi, Peter Vandeberg
Background: Rabies immune globulin (RIG) and vaccination series are necessary for postexposure prophylaxis. A new formulation of RIG (human) purified by caprylate/chromatography (RIG-C) was evaluated. Trial registration: identifier: NCT02139657. Materials and methods: This open-label, single-arm study in healthy subjects evaluated neutralizing rabies antibody concentrations produced from a single 20 IU/kg intramuscular (IM) dose of RIG-C as measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (50% neutralization endpoint) 1-hour postdose and on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, and 21...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Karem H Alzoubi, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Mohamed K Al-Essa, Osama Y Alshogran, Reem F Abutayeh, Nareman Abu-Baker
Introduction: This study explored D-ribose pharmacokinetics after intravenous (IV) and oral administration to healthy rabbits. Materials and methods: D-ribose was administered once as 420 mg/kg (N=4) or 840 mg/kg (N=6) dose intravenously, or as an oral dose of 420 mg/kg (N=3) or 840 mg/kg (N=3). Serum was obtained at various time points, up to 210 minutes after administration. Urine was also collected after IV administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from drug concentration-time data using Kinetica software...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 179 in vol. 6, PMID: 25419161.].
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Linda Tahaineh, Sahar M Edaily, Shadi F Gharaibeh
Objectives: To evaluate the degree of anticoagulation achieved with different enoxaparin dosing regimens used in obese and morbidly obese patients in a hospital setting in Jordan. Methods: All obese adult patients who were prescribed enoxaparin for various indications were invited to participate in the study. The anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) level was checked once after 4-6 hours of the third or fourth dose of enoxaparin (at steady state). Patients were followed daily to evaluate drug efficacy and safety through their hospital course...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Yan Li, Xiaomin Wang, Liangang Liu, Josephine Reyes, Maria Palmisano, Simon Zhou
Objective: To assess whether pomalidomide can distribute into human semen and its duration in human semen. Method: A phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (CC-4047-CP-006) was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of pomalidomide (CC-4047) following multiple daily doses in healthy male subjects. Semen samples were collected on Day -1 and 4 hours after dosing on Day 4 to quantify the pomalidomide concentrations in ejaculate after multiple oral doses of pomalidomide...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Arini Setiawati, Dwi Nofiarny, Liana W Susanto, Effi Setiawati
Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate whether a generic product of etoricoxib 120 mg film-coated tablet (the test drug) was bioequivalent to the reference product (Arcoxia® film-coated tablet 120 mg). Methods: This was a randomized, open-label, two-sequence, crossover study under fasting condition, with a 14-day washout period, involving 26 healthy adult male and female subjects. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for plasma concentrations of etoricoxib (Chemical Abstracts Service [CAS] 202409-33-4) using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) system capable of measuring etoricoxib concentrations ranging from 5...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Thomas Müller
Heterogeneous expression of neurotransmitter deficits results from onset and progression of Parkinson's disease. Intervals, characterized by reappearance of motor and associated certain nonmotor symptoms, determine the end of good tolerability and efficacy of oral levodopa therapy. These "OFF" states result from levodopa pharmacokinetics and disease progression-related deterioration of the central buffering capacity for fluctuations of dopamine levels. This review discusses safinamide as an add-on therapeutic agent in orally levodopa-treated patients with "OFF" phenomena...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Maha S Al-Keilani, Dua H Alsmadi, Ruba S Darweesh, Karem H Alzoubi
Background: Approximately 90% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer fail therapy mainly due to resistance. Taking advantage of currently approved agents for treatment of disease conditions other than cancer for the identification of new adjuvant anticancer therapies is highly encouraged. Pramlintide is a parenteral antidiabetic agent that is currently approved for treatment of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Objectives: To address the antineoplastic potential of pramlintide in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the ability of pramlintide to enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan against colorectal cancer cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant p53...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Teresa Gasalla, John Whitesides
Brivaracetam (BRV; Briviact) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults. BRV is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) with 15- to 30-fold higher affinity than levetiracetam, the first AED acting on SV2A. It has high lipid solubility and rapid brain penetration, with engagement of the target molecule, SV2A, within minutes of administration. BRV has potent broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity in animal models. Phase I studies indicated BRV was well tolerated and showed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile over a wide dose range following single (10-1,000 mg) and multiple (200-800 mg/day) oral dosing...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Dave Singh, Arjun Ravi, Thomas Southworth
Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH 2 cells (CRTH2) binds to prostaglandin D2 . CRTH2 is expressed on various cell types including eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. CRTH2 and prostaglandin D2 are involved in allergic inflammation and eosinophil activation. Orally administered CRTH2 antagonists are in clinical development for the treatment of asthma. The biology and clinical trial data indicate that CRTH2 antagonists should be targeted toward eosinophilic asthma. This article reviews the clinical evidence for CRTH2 involvement in asthma pathophysiology and clinical trials of CRTH2 antagonists in asthma...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Alexandra Pender, Robin L Jones
The outcome of patients with unresectable or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) remains poor with few treatment options. A number of randomized trials in the first-line setting have shown no difference in overall survival between combination anthracycline schedules and single-agent doxorubicin. A Phase Ib/randomized Phase II trial of doxorubicin with or without the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-blocking antibody, olaratumab, demonstrated a significant difference in median overall survival in favor of the olaratumab arm...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Tiziana Vavalà
Lung cancer treatment has considerably changed over the last few years: the identification of druggable oncogenic alterations and innovative immunotherapic approaches granted lung cancer patients the possibility of more efficient and less toxic therapeutic options than chemotherapy. Nowadays, lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) patients have the chance to benefit from novel treatment alternatives, including immune checkpoint blockade and anti-angiogenic agents and, given positive trial results, from afatinib, a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that irreversibly antagonizes ErbB family tyrosine kinase receptors...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
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