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Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra

Catharina A Melander, Basel Kikhia, Malin Olsson, Britt-Marie Wälivaara, Stefan Sävenstedt
Background: A major and complex challenge when trying to support individuals with dementia is meeting the needs of those who experience changes in behaviour and mood. Aim: To explore how a sensor measuring electrodermal activity (EDA) impacts assistant nurses' structured assessments of problematic behaviours amongst people with dementia and their choices of care interventions. Methods: Fourteen individuals with dementia wore a sensor that measured EDA...
September 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Yağmur Tetik Aydoğdu, Onur Aydoğdu, H Serap İnal
Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of dual-task training on balance, mobility, functional independence, and fear of falling in geriatrics with chronic stroke. Methods: Fifty-three geriatrics diagnosed with stroke were included in our study. The elderly were divided into 2 groups, i.e., those walking with (intervention group, n = 25) and those walking without (controls, n = 28) dual-task training. Results: We found statistically significant improvements in all parameters between pre- and posttreatment in both groups ( p < 0...
September 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
A J Larner
Background/Aims: "Number needed to" metrics may hold more intuitive appeal for clinicians than standard diagnostic accuracy measures. The aim of this study was to calculate "number needed to diagnose" (NND), "number needed to predict" (NNP), and "number needed to misdiagnose" (NNM) for neurological signs of possible value in assessing cognitive status. Methods: Data sets from pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies examining easily observed and dichotomised neurological signs ("attended alone" sign, "attended with" sign, head turning sign, applause sign, la maladie du petit papier ) were analysed to calculate the NND, NNP, and NNM...
September 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Francesca Morganti, Alex Soli, Paola Savoldelli, Gloria Belotti
Background: In health-care settings, the use of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home (NPI-NH) may not always be consistent with the authors' guidelines, which affects its reliability. To avoid this bias, a diary version of the NPI (NPI-Diary) was developed. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties (internal consistency and reliability) of the NPI-Diary, and examined its convergence with the NPI-NH. Methods: Two raters administered the NPI-NH and NPI-Diary to 40 participants with Alzheimer's disease, selected randomly from a hospital's weekly turnover...
September 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Miriam Goudsmit, Jos van Campen, Thelma Schilt, Chris Hinnen, Sanne Franzen, Ben Schmand
Background: Diagnosing dementia in elderly immigrants is often difficult due to language and cultural barriers, low education, and illiteracy. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) to that of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Methods: A total of 144 patients (42 with intact cognition, 44 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 58 with dementia) were administered both instruments and were diagnosed by specialists blinded for MMSE and RUDAS results...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Carola G Schipke, Ann De Vos, Manuel Fuentes, Dirk Jacobs, Eugeen Vanmechelen, Oliver Peters
Background/Aims: Major depressive disorder (MDD) can cooccur with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) or may cause memory problems independently of AD. Previous studies have suggested that the AD-related cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers tau and Aβ(1-42) could help discriminate between early AD and depression unrelated to AD. Moreover, the postsynaptic protein neurogranin and presynaptic BACE1 have increasingly gained attention as potential new AD biomarkers, but they have not yet been investigated concerning depression...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Boris Punchik, Elena Komissarov, Vladimir Zeldez, Tamar Freud, Tali Samson, Yan Press
Background: The use of feeding tubes (FTs) in patients with advanced dementia does not yield positive health outcomes and can have a negative effect. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of physicians on the use of FTs for patients with advanced dementia. Results: 201 of 240 doctors (83.8%) participated in the study; 61.7% of the doctors claimed that FTs prevent aspiration, 51.7% that they prevent pneumonia, and 38...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Jacinta A Lucke, Roos C van der Mast, Jelle de Gelder, Noor Heim, Bas de Groot, Simon P Mooijaart, Gerard J Blauw
Aim: The study aim was to investigate whether cognitive impairment, measured by the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT), is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in acutely hospitalized older patients. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study including acutely hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate whether impaired cognition (6-CIT ≥11 points) was an independent predictor of 90-day adverse outcome, a composite measure of functional decline and mortality...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Casper de Boer, Holly V Echlin, Alica Rogojin, Bianca R Baltaretu, Lauren E Sergio
Background: Noninvasive interventions to aid healthy cognitive aging are considered an important healthcare priority. Traditional approaches typically focus on cognitive training or aerobic exercise training. In the current study, we investigate the effect of exercises that directly combine cognitive and motor functions on visuomotor skills and general cognition in elderly with various degrees of cognitive deficits. Subjects and Methods: A total of 37 elderly, divided into four groups based on their level of cognition, completed a 16-week cognitive-motor training program...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Benedicte Sørensen Strøm, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Knut Engedal
Objectives: The primary aim was to examine how communication abilities changed over time among nursing home residents with moderate-to-severe dementia who were attending the Sonas programme and to explore whether changes in communication abilities were related to cognitive ability. Method: A longitudinal secondary descriptive study method was employed, where 56 people with moderate-to-severe dementia attended a 45-min Sonas group session twice a week for 24 weeks...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Qi Gao, Xinyi Gwee, Liang Feng, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Lei Feng, Simon L Collinson, Mei Sian Chong, Wee Shiong Lim, Tih-Shih Lee, Philip Yap, Keng Bee Yap, Tze Pin Ng
Background: Studies report varying rates and predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progression and reversion. Methods: We determined MCI reversion and progression among 473 community-living adults aged ≥55 years in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study with an average of 6 years of follow-up and estimated association with baseline variables. Results: A total of 208 MCI participants reverted to normal cognition (44.0%) and 19 progressed to dementia (4...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yuma Nagata, Daiki Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Keita Fukuhara, Takashi Nishikawa
Aims: This study sought to conduct additional analyses of the Cognitive Test for Severe Dementia (CTSD) using the COSMIN checklist to ensure the development of adequate outcome measures. Methods: The following analyses were conducted: (1) factor analyses were used to evaluate construct validity; (2) the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were assessed to evaluate reliability and interpretability; and (3) longitudinal change was assessed to evaluate responsiveness...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Taiki Kambe, Asako Yasuda, Setsuo Kinoshita, Masahiro Shigeta, Toru Kinoshita
Background/Aims: Depression and cognitive decline are reported to be interrelated. Depression of older adults with memory complaints who seek medical help have not been well documented. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a relatively high level of depressive symptoms associated with brain structure is characteristic of people who visited a memory clinic unaccompanied (UA). Method: We retrospectively compared Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, for evaluation of depressive symptoms) scores of UA subjects ( n = 21) with those of people who were accompanied ( n = 75)...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado, Sara G Aguilar-Navarro, Sara Yeverino-Castro, César Mendoza-Franco, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Gustavo C Román
Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD). By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Latha Velayudhan, Sarah Baillon, Gabriela Urbaskova, Laura McCulloch, Samuel Tromans, Mathew Storey, James Lindesay, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Background: Although driving by persons with dementia is an important public health concern, little is known about driving cessation in younger people with dementia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting driving cessation in individuals with and without dementia aged under 65 years attending a memory clinic in a European setting. Methods: Subjects were consecutive patients assessed at a specialist memory service at a university teaching hospital between 2000 and 2010...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Angus M J Prosser, John H Spreadbury, Livia Tossici-Bolt, Christopher M Kipps
Background: Dementia caregivers frequently report high stress, with increased burden associated with worse outcomes for both patients and caregivers. Although many studies relate clinical phenotypes to burden, the relationship between imaging pathology and burden, irrespective of diagnosis, is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between caregiver burden and patient regional cerebral blood flow in dementia. Methods: Seventy-sev en patients with cognitive impairment undergoing brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography imaging in normal clinical care and their caregivers were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Hossein Pakdaman, Koroush Gharagozli, Mehdi Abbasi, Ali Sobhanian, Ali Bakhshandehpour, Farzad Ashrafi, Mitra Khalilzad, Ali Amini Harandi
Background and Aim: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Currently, there is no disease-modifying therapy for AD. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of AD. Methods: In this open-label extension study, patients with mild to moderate AD according to DSM-IV criteria were recruited. Patients received MLC601 capsules 3 times a day for 4 years. Cognitive function was assessed every 6 months using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) scores...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Ali Tafazzoli, Anuraag Kansal, Peter Lockwood, Charles Petrie, Alexandra Barsdorf
Background/Aims: Few studies have modeled individual Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) symptom scores for Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and assessed the value of therapeutic interventions that can potentially impact them. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of new AD symptomatic treatments on relevant health economic outcomes via their potential effects on cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, irritability, anxiety, and sleep disorder. Methods: We enhanced the previously published AHEAD model (Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease) by including new variables and functional relations to capture the NPI's individual neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to the total NPI score...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Raul M Vintimilla, Stephanie E Large, Adriana Gamboa, Geoffrey D Rohlfing, Judith R O'Jile, James R Hall, Sid E O'Bryant, Leigh A Johnson
Background: Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary intake of minerals reduces the risk of dementia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between potassium and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a sample of older Mexican-Americans from rural and urban populations. Methods: The sample was formed of a total of 139 participants with MCI and 371 normal controls from two independent cohorts: a rural cohort (Facing Rural Obstacles to Healthcare Now through Intervention, Education and Research [Project FRONTIER]) and an urban cohort (the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders [HABLE] study)...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Naoki Saji, Toshiharu Nakai, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are exhibited in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is often observed with AD, the precise role of WMH in BPSD remains unclear. The current study aimed to identify the impact of regional WMH on specific features of BPSD in persons with mild to moderate AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: A sample of 256 female outpatients with AD ( n = 217) and aMCI ( n = 39) were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
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