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Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra

Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yuma Nagata, Daiki Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Keita Fukuhara, Takashi Nishikawa
Aims: This study sought to conduct additional analyses of the Cognitive Test for Severe Dementia (CTSD) using the COSMIN checklist to ensure the development of adequate outcome measures. Methods: The following analyses were conducted: (1) factor analyses were used to evaluate construct validity; (2) the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were assessed to evaluate reliability and interpretability; and (3) longitudinal change was assessed to evaluate responsiveness...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Taiki Kambe, Asako Yasuda, Setsuo Kinoshita, Masahiro Shigeta, Toru Kinoshita
Background/Aims: Depression and cognitive decline are reported to be interrelated. Depression of older adults with memory complaints who seek medical help have not been well documented. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that a relatively high level of depressive symptoms associated with brain structure is characteristic of people who visited a memory clinic unaccompanied (UA). Method: We retrospectively compared Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, for evaluation of depressive symptoms) scores of UA subjects ( n = 21) with those of people who were accompanied ( n = 75)...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado, Sara G Aguilar-Navarro, Sara Yeverino-Castro, César Mendoza-Franco, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Gustavo C Román
Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD). By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Latha Velayudhan, Sarah Baillon, Gabriela Urbaskova, Laura McCulloch, Samuel Tromans, Mathew Storey, James Lindesay, Sagnik Bhattacharyya
Background: Although driving by persons with dementia is an important public health concern, little is known about driving cessation in younger people with dementia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting driving cessation in individuals with and without dementia aged under 65 years attending a memory clinic in a European setting. Methods: Subjects were consecutive patients assessed at a specialist memory service at a university teaching hospital between 2000 and 2010...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Angus M J Prosser, John H Spreadbury, Livia Tossici-Bolt, Christopher M Kipps
Background: Dementia caregivers frequently report high stress, with increased burden associated with worse outcomes for both patients and caregivers. Although many studies relate clinical phenotypes to burden, the relationship between imaging pathology and burden, irrespective of diagnosis, is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between caregiver burden and patient regional cerebral blood flow in dementia. Methods: Seventy-sev en patients with cognitive impairment undergoing brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography imaging in normal clinical care and their caregivers were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Hossein Pakdaman, Koroush Gharagozli, Mehdi Abbasi, Ali Sobhanian, Ali Bakhshandehpour, Farzad Ashrafi, Mitra Khalilzad, Ali Amini Harandi
Background and Aim: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Currently, there is no disease-modifying therapy for AD. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of AD. Methods: In this open-label extension study, patients with mild to moderate AD according to DSM-IV criteria were recruited. Patients received MLC601 capsules 3 times a day for 4 years. Cognitive function was assessed every 6 months using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) scores...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Ali Tafazzoli, Anuraag Kansal, Peter Lockwood, Charles Petrie, Alexandra Barsdorf
Background/Aims: Few studies have modeled individual Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) symptom scores for Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and assessed the value of therapeutic interventions that can potentially impact them. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of new AD symptomatic treatments on relevant health economic outcomes via their potential effects on cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, irritability, anxiety, and sleep disorder. Methods: We enhanced the previously published AHEAD model (Assessment of Health Economics in Alzheimer's Disease) by including new variables and functional relations to capture the NPI's individual neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to the total NPI score...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Raul M Vintimilla, Stephanie E Large, Adriana Gamboa, Geoffrey D Rohlfing, Judith R O'Jile, James R Hall, Sid E O'Bryant, Leigh A Johnson
Background: Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary intake of minerals reduces the risk of dementia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between potassium and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a sample of older Mexican-Americans from rural and urban populations. Methods: The sample was formed of a total of 139 participants with MCI and 371 normal controls from two independent cohorts: a rural cohort (Facing Rural Obstacles to Healthcare Now through Intervention, Education and Research [Project FRONTIER]) and an urban cohort (the Health and Aging Brain among Latino Elders [HABLE] study)...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Naoki Saji, Toshiharu Nakai, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are exhibited in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is often observed with AD, the precise role of WMH in BPSD remains unclear. The current study aimed to identify the impact of regional WMH on specific features of BPSD in persons with mild to moderate AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: A sample of 256 female outpatients with AD ( n = 217) and aMCI ( n = 39) were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Asuka Koyama, Mamoru Hashimoto, Ryuji Fukuhara, Naoko Ichimi, Akihiro Takasaki, Masateru Matsushita, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Hibiki Tanaka, Yusuke Miyagawa, Manabu Ikeda
Background: Caregiver burden is a serious concern for family caregivers of dementia patients, but its nature is unclear in patients with semantic dementia (SD). This study aimed to clarify caregiver burden for right- (R > L) and left-sided (L > R) predominant SD versus behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients. Methods: Using the Japanese version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, we examined caregiver burden and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in 43 first-visit outpatient/family caregiver dyads (bvFTD, 20 dyads; SD [L > R], 13 dyads; SD [R > L], 10 dyads)...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Anne-Sofie Helvik, Knut Engedal, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Geir Selbæk
Objectives: We described the duration from symptom debut to assessment at specialist healthcare outpatient clinics for dementia in Norway and explored whether educational level was associated with time from symptom debut to dementia assessment. Methods: The study comprised 835 persons from a register for individuals with cognitive symptoms (NorCog). The outcome variable was time in months from symptom debut to assessment. The main independent variable was the number of years of education...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Emilia Salvadori, Anna Poggesi, Giovanni Pracucci, Alberto Chiti, Laura Ciolli, Mirco Cosottini, Alessandra Del Bene, Nicola De Stefano, Stefano Diciotti, Ilaria Di Donato, Andrea Ginestroni, Sandro Marini, Mario Mascalchi, Serena Nannucci, Giovanni Orlandi, Marco Pasi, Francesca Pescini, Raffaella Valenti, Antonio Federico, Maria Teresa Dotti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Domenico Inzitari, Leonardo Pantoni
Aims: The DSM-5 introduced the term "major neurocognitive disorders" (NCDs) to replace the previous term "dementia." However, psychometric and functional definitions of NCDs are missing. We aimed to apply the DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing the transition to NCD to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and small vessel disease (SVD), and to define clinically significant thresholds for this transition. Methods: The functional and cognitive features of the NCD criteria were evaluated as change from baseline and operationalized according to hierarchically ordered psychometric rules...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Muath Alkhunizan, Abdullah Alkhenizan, Loay Basudan
Introduction: The age of the population in Saudi Arabia is shifting toward elderly, which can lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) among elderly patients in a community-based setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included patients aged 60 years and above who were seen in the Family Medicine Clinics affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Takahiro Mori, Takashi Kikuchi, Yumi Umeda-Kameyama, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Shinsuke Kojima, Tatsuo Kagimura, Chiaki Kudoh, Hirotake Uchikado, Akinori Ueki, Masato Yamashita, Toshiyuki Watabe, Chika Nishimura, Norifumi Tsuno, Takashi Ueda, Masahiro Akishita, Yu Nakamura
Background: In this study, we examined the construct validity, concurrent validity concerning other standard scales, intrarater reliability, and changes in scores at 12 weeks of the previously developed ABC Dementia Scale (ABC-DS), a novel assessment tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Data were obtained from 312 patients diagnosed with either AD or mild cognitive impairment. The scores on the ABC-DS and standard scales were compared. Results: The 13 items of the ABC-DS are grouped into three domains, and the domain-level scores were highly correlated with the corresponding conventional scales...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Yoshiko Furiya, Takami Tomiyama, Tesseki Izumi, Naoki Ohba, Satoshi Ueno
Background: Weight loss accelerates cognitive decline and increases mortality in patients with dementia. While acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are known to cause appetite loss, we sometimes encounter patients in whom switching from donepezil (AChE inhibitor) to rivastigmine (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase [BuChE] inhibitor) improves appetite. Since BuChE inactivates ghrelin, a potent orexigenic hormone, we speculated that rivastigmine improves appetite by inhibiting BuChE-mediated ghrelin inactivation...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Georg Adler, Agnies Marczak, Jana Binder
Background: Cognitive blackouts, e.g. moments of amnesia, disorientation, or perplexity may be an early sign of incipient Alzheimer's dementia (AD). A short questionnaire, the checklist for cognitive blackouts (CCB), was evaluated cross-sectionally in users of a memory clinic. Methods: The CCB was performed in 130 subjects, who further underwent a neuropsychological and clinical examination. Subjective memory impairment and depressive symptoms were assessed. Differences in the CCB score between diagnostic groups and relationships with cognitive performance, depression, and subjective memory impairment were analyzed...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Flavia Mayer, Alessandra Di Pucchio, Eleonora Lacorte, Ilaria Bacigalupo, Fabrizio Marzolini, Gianluigi Ferrante, Valentina Minardi, Maria Masocco, Marco Canevelli, Teresa Di Fiandra, Nicola Vanacore
Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Antti Cajanus, Anette Hall, Juha Koikkalainen, Eino Solje, Antti Tolonen, Timo Urhemaa, Yawu Liu, Ramona M Haanpää, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Ville Korhonen, Daniel Rueckert, Steen Hasselbalch, Gunhild Waldemar, Patrizia Mecocci, Ritva Vanninen, Mark van Gils, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lötjönen, Anne M Remes
Aims: We assessed the value of automated MRI quantification methods in the differential diagnosis of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subjective memory complaints (SMC). We also examined the role of the C9ORF72 -related genetic status in the differentiation sensitivity. Methods: The MRI scans of 50 patients with bvFTD (17 C9ORF72 expansion carriers) were analyzed using 6 quantification methods as follows: voxel-based morphometry (VBM), tensor-based morphometry, volumetry (VOL), manifold learning, grading, and white-matter hyperintensities...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Tomaž Rus, Bogdan Lorber, Maja Trošt, Srečko Dobrecovič, Nuška Čakš Jager, Mara Popović, Milica G Kramberger
Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare fatal neurodegenerative disorder presenting with rapid cognitive decline and additional signs. The clinical characteristics of an increasing number of sporadic CJD (sCJD) patients admitted to the Ljubljana University Medical Centre are presented as well as the incidence of sCJD in Slovenia in 2015 compared to previous years. Methods: We investigated patients presenting with rapidly progressive dementia and at least one additional sign...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Fiammetta Monacelli, Alessio Signori, Matteo Prefumo, Chiara Giannotti, Alessio Nencioni, Emanuele Romairone, Stefano Scabini, Patrizio Odetti
Background/Aims: Postoperative delirium (POD) is more frequent in elderly patients undergoing major cancer surgery. The interplay between individual clinical vulnerability and a series of perioperative factors seems to play a relevant role. Surgery is the first-line treatment option for cancer, and fast-track surgery (FTS) has been documented to decrease postoperative complications. The study sought to assess, after comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and frailty stratification (Rockwood 40 items index), which perioperative parameters were predictive of POD development in elderly patients undergoing FTS for colorectal cancer...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
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