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Journal of Clinical Imaging Science

Fabiana Policeni, Brittany Pakalniskis, Limin Yang
Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Asif Ali Fakhri, Paul David Rodrigue, Amena Fatima Fakhri
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in patients with diagnosed multiple myeloma. Soft tissue plasmacytoma of the gallbladder is particularly uncommon and has been described in only a handful of cases. Diagnosis of gallbladder plasmacytoma with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has not previously been reported. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of multiple myeloma who underwent a restaging F18-FDG-PET/CT which showed a focal area of hypermetabolic activity, corresponding to a nodular lesion within the posterior gallbladder wall...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Matthew Neill, Hearns W Charles, Jonathan S Gross, Sean Farquharson, Amy R Deipolyi
Despite progress in noninvasive imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, conventional angiography still contributes to the diagnostic workup of oncologic and other diseases. Arteriography can reveal tumors not evident on cross-sectional imaging, in addition to defining aberrant or unexpected arterial supply to targeted lesions. This additional and potentially unanticipated information can alter management decisions during interventional procedures.
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Ronald Tan, Joanne Martires, Nader Kamangar
Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare condition defined by the presence of fibrotic mediastinal infiltrates that obliterate normal fat planes. It is a late complication of a previous granulomatous infection, such as histoplasmosis or tuberculosis (TB). Due to its rarity, fibrosing mediastinitis is often under-recognized, and the clinical presentation is variable and dependent on the extent of infiltration or encasement of structures within the mediastinum. We present a case of fibrosing mediastinitis in a man with a prior history of TB, who presented with progressive dyspnea and was found to have chronic mediastinal soft tissue opacities and pulmonary hypertension...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Carina Mari Aparici, Aung Zaw Win
We present a case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair with aortic valve replacement. On postsurgical day 12, he developed leukocytosis and low-grade fevers. The chest computed tomography (CT) showed a periaortic hematoma which represents a postsurgical change from aortic aneurysm repair, and a small pericardial effusion. The abdominal ultrasound showed cholelithiasis without any sign of cholecystitis. Finally, a fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examination was ordered to find the cause of fever of unknown origin, and it showed increased FDG uptake in the gallbladder wall, with no uptake in the lumen...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Randy Wei, Avinash Chaurasia, Suhong Yu, Chandana Lall, Samuel J Klempner
Patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal cancers frequently undergo concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CRT). 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) in combination with computed tomography is used for disease staging and assessing response to therapy. (18)FDG-PET interpretation is subject to confounding influences including infectious/inflammatory conditions, serum glucose, and concurrent medications. Radiotherapy induces tissue damage, which may be associated with FDG-avidity; however, few reports have described the focal areas of hepatic uptake following concurrent chemoradiation (CRT)...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Joshua M Owen, Ron Charles Gaba
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the concordance between clinical symptoms, Doppler ultrasound (US), and shunt venography for the detection of stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients (M:F 30:11, median age 55 years) who underwent contemporaneous clinical exam, Doppler US, and TIPS venography between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Clinical symptoms (recurrent ascites or variceal bleeding) were dichotomously classified as present/absent, and US and TIPS venograms were categorized in a binary fashion as normal/abnormal...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 63 in vol. 5, PMID: 26713179.].
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Charlie Chia-Tsong Hsu, Gigi Nga Chi Kwan, Dalveer Singh, Jit Pratap, Trevor William Watkins
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) simultaneously acquires images at two X-ray energy levels, at both high- and low-peak voltages (kVp). The material attenuation difference obtained from the two X-ray energies can be processed by software to analyze material decomposition and to create additional image datasets, namely, virtual noncontrast, virtual contrast also known as iodine overlay, and bone/calcium subtraction images. DECT has a vast array of clinical applications in imaging cerebrovascular diseases, which includes: (1) Identification of active extravasation of iodinated contrast in various types of intracranial hemorrhage; (2) differentiation between hemorrhagic transformation and iodine staining in acute ischemic stroke following diagnostic and/or therapeutic catheter angiography; (3) identification of culprit lesions in intra-axial hemorrhage; (4) calcium subtraction from atheromatous plaque for the assessment of plaque morphology and improved quantification of luminal stenosis; (5) bone subtraction to improve the depiction of vascular anatomy with more clarity, especially at the skull base; (6) metal artifact reduction utilizing virtual monoenergetic reconstructions for improved luminal assessment postaneurysm coiling or clipping...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Sabrina Gerkowicz, Usha Verma
A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF) is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Annalice Chang, Kyle Pfeifer, Peter Chen, Vivek Kalra, Myung Soo Shin
The term "small round blue cell" is frequently used as a cursory radiologic pathological correlation of aggressive tumors throughout the body. We present a pictorial essay of common and uncommon subtypes of small round blue cell tumors in the chest illustrating the characteristic radiologic findings of each lesion. In addition, we review the pathologic findings of each tumor subtype with characteristic hematoxylin- and eosin-stained photomicrographs and immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Represented tumors include small cell carcinoma, Ewing sarcoma, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Jose Gavito-Higuera, Carola Birgit Mullins, Luis Ramos-Duran, Cristina Ivette Olivas Chacon, Nawar Hakim, Enrique Palacios
Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Jose Gavito-Higuera, Carola Birgit Mullins, Luis Ramos-Duran, Hugo Sandoval, Nassim Akle, Ramon Figueroa
Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Samuel Nguku Gitau, Sudhir Vinayak, Micah Silaba, Rodney Adam, Reena Shah
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection versus those with HIV hepatitis-B virus (HBV) co-infection as assessed with shear wave elastography (SWE) in a tertiary sub-Saharan Africa hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 105 consecutive patients, 70 with HIV monoinfection and 35 with HIV-HBV co-infection, had liver elastography obtained using SWE to assess for the presence of liver fibrosis the cutoff of which was 5...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Ayşegül Altunkeser, Muslu Kazım Körez
OBJECTIVES: Ramadan is a holy month in which eating and drinking are forbidden from dawn to sunset. In this study, we investigated using ultrasonography (USG) whether fasting in summer (as occurred in Ramadan 2014) had an influence on the volume of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 119 pregnant women in total who were admitted to our department with a request of obstetric USG between June 28, 2014, and July 27, 2014. The fasting group included 61 pregnant women and the control group of 58 pregnant women...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Shashidhar Vedavyas Achar, Hemonta Kumar Dutta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associated intracranial malformations in patients with sincipital encephaloceles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over 8 years from June 2007 to May 2015 on 28 patients. The patients were evaluated by either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging whichever was feasible. Encephaloceles were described with respect to their types, contents, and extensions. A note was made on the associated malformations with sincipital encephaloceles...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Denise A Castro, Asad Ahmed Naqvi, Elizabeth Vandenkerkhof, Michael P Flavin, David Manson, Donald Soboleski
OBJECTIVE: Variability in image interpretation has been attributed to differences in the interpreters' knowledge base, experience level, and access to the clinical scenario. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has allowed the user to manipulate the images while developing their impression of the radiograph. The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of chest radiograph (CXR) impressions among radiologists and neonatologists and help determine the effect of image manipulation with PACS on report impression...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Daniel Corey Oppenheimer, Eric P Weinberg, Gary M Hollenberg, Steven P Meyers
Multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the prostate combines both morphological and functional MR techniques by utilizing small field of view T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and MR spectroscopy to accurately detect, localize, and stage primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Localizing the site of recurrence in patients with rising prostate-specific antigen following treatment affects decision making regarding treatment and can be accomplished with multiparametric prostate MR...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Derik L Davis, James J Morrison
Pseudotumors are a complication of hip arthroplasty. The goal of this article is to review the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, histology, and the role of diagnostic imaging in clinical decision making for treatment, and surveillance of pseudotumors. We will discuss the multimodal imaging appearances, differential diagnosis, associated complications, treatment, and prognosis of pseudotumors, as an aid to the assessment of orthopedic prostheses at the hip.
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Aliya Sarhan Al Barwani, Sawsan Taif, Reem Ahmed Al Mazrouai, Khamis Salim Al Muzahmi, Asif Alrawi
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tumor which originally represents a cutaneous sarcoma. It grows slowly and presents usually as nodular superficial lesion on the trunk or the extremities. Although these tumors are locally aggressive with high rate of recurrence following surgery; the prognosis is considered excellent when it is effectively treated. The radiological appearance of this tumor has rarely been studied and findings infrequently discussed in the literature probably because many lesions underwent resection before imaging...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
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