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Mobile Genetic Elements

Mikako Ueno, Tadashi Okamura, Masayoshi Mishina, Yukihito Ishizaka
BACKGROUND: Retrotransposition of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1-RTP) is proposed to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) plasticity by inducing mosaicism of neuronal cells. Clinical studies have identified increased L1 copy numbers in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders. These observations implicate that L1-RTP is important for neurogenesis and that its deregulation represents a risk factor for mental disorders. However, no supportive evidence is available for understanding the importance of L1-RTP in CNS function...
July 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Joshua P Ramsay, Stephen M Kwong, Riley J T Murphy, Karina Yui Eto, Karina J Price, Quang T Nguyen, Frances G O'Brien, Warren B Grubb, Geoffrey W Coombs, Neville Firth
The horizontal gene transfer facilitated by mobile genetic elements impacts almost all areas of bacterial evolution, including the accretion and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance genes in the human and animal pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genome surveys of staphylococcal plasmids have revealed an unexpected paucity of conjugation and mobilization loci, perhaps suggesting that conjugation plays only a minor role in the evolution of this genus. In this letter we present the DNA sequences of historically documented staphylococcal conjugative plasmids and highlight that at least 3 distinct and widely distributed families of conjugative plasmids currently contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus...
July 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Claiborne M Christian, Kristine J Kines, Victoria P Belancio
The Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE1 or L1) ORF2 protein (ORF2p) can cause DNA damage through the activity of its endonuclease domain (EN). The DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) introduced by the ORF2p EN have the potential to be mutagenic. Previously, our lab has shown that ORF2p fragments containing the EN domain could be expressed in mammalian cells and have variable cytotoxicity. Inclusion of the ORF2p sequence C-terminal to the EN domain in these fragments both reduced the cytotoxicity of these fragments and increased their presence in the nucleus as detected by Western blot analysis...
July 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Douglas R Deutsch, Bryan Utter, Vincent A Fischetti
Staphylococcus aureus is a major clinically important pathogen with well-studied phage contributions to its virulence potential. In this commentary, we describe our method to enrich and sequence stealth extra-chromosomal DNA elements in the bacterial cell, allowing the identification of novel extra-chromosomal prophages in S. aureus clinical strains. Extra-chromosomal sequencing is a useful and broadly applicable tool to study bacterial genomics, giving a temporal glance at the extra-chromosomal compartment of the cell and allowing researchers to uncover lower-copy plasmidial elements (e...
July 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Joseph S Murray, Elaina H Murray
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Irene Munk Pedersen, Dimitrios G Zisoulis
Transposable elements, the class of mobile DNA sequences that change their copies or positions within the genome have an ever increasing role in shaping the genetic and evolutionary landscape. Approximately half of the mammalian genome is composed of repetitive elements, including LINE-1 (L1) elements. Because of their ability to "copy and paste" into other regions of the genome, their activation represent an opportunity as well as a threat, as L1-induced mutations results in genomic instability and plasticity...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Vertebrate genomes contain many virus-related sequences derived from both retroviruses and non-retroviral RNA and DNA viruses. Such non-retroviral RNA sequences are possibly produced by reverse-transcription and integration of viral mRNAs of ancient RNA viruses using retrotransposon machineries. We refer to this process as transcript reversion. During an ancient bornavirus infection, transcript reversion may have left bornavirus-related sequences, known as endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoproteins (EBLNs), in the genome...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Ellie Harrison, Calvin Dytham, James P J Hall, David Guymer, Andrew J Spiers, Steve Paterson, Michael A Brockhurst
Conjugative plasmids play a vital role in bacterial adaptation through horizontal gene transfer. Explaining how plasmids persist in host populations however is difficult, given the high costs often associated with plasmid carriage. Compensatory evolution to ameliorate this cost can rescue plasmids from extinction. In a recently published study we showed that compensatory evolution repeatedly targeted the same bacterial regulatory system, GacA/GacS, in populations of plasmid-carrying bacteria evolving across a range of selective environments...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Jessica M Tucker, David J Garfinkel
Ty1 is a long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon belonging to the Ty1/copia family and is present in up to 32 full-length copies in Saccharomyces. Like retroviruses, Ty1 contains GAG and POL genes, LTRs, and replicates via an RNA intermediate within a virus-like particle (VLP). Although Ty1 retrotransposition is not infectious, uncontrolled replication can lead to detrimental effects on the host genome, including insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements. Ty1 copy number control (CNC) limits replication and is mediated through a self-encoded protein called p22...
March 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Guilherme B Dias, Pedro Heringer, Gustavo C S Kuhn
Although Helitrons were discovered 15 y ago, they still represent an elusive group of transposable elements (TEs). They are thought to transpose via a rolling-circle mechanism, but no transposition assay has yet been conducted. We have recently characterized a group of Helitrons in Drosophila, named DINE-TR1, that display interesting features, including pronounced enrichment at β-heterochromatin, multiple tandem insertions (TIs) of the entire TE, and that experienced at least 2 independent expansion events of its internal tandem repeats (TRs) in distant Drosophila lineages...
March 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Leszek Błaszczyk, Julita Gumna, Yuri Nishida, Agniva Saha, Marcin Biesiada, David J Garfinkel, Katarzyna J Purzycka
The long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons comprise approximately half of the human genome, and we are only beginning to understand their influence on genome function and evolution. The LTR retrotransposon Ty1 is the most abundant mobile genetic element in the S. cerevisiae reference genome. Ty1 replicates via an RNA intermediate and shares several important structural and functional characteristics with retroviruses. However, unlike retroviruses Ty1 retrotransposition is not infectious. Retrotransposons integrations can cause mutations and genome instability...
March 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Eduard Kejnovsky, Edward N Trifonov
Acytota is a kingdom of life covering satellites, plasmids, transposable elements, viroids and viruses, all outside the conventional tree of life but satisfying most life definitions. This review focuses on some aspects of Acytota, their "genomes" and life styles, the dominance of transposable elements and their evolutionary influence on other life forms in order to vindicate the Acytota as a life kingdom no more polyphyletic than other kingdoms and its members no more parasitic than other life forms.
March 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Astrid M Roy-Engel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Rohan Maddamsetti
Researchers contest the importance of gene flow in bacterial core genomes, as traditionalists view microbes as predominantly clonal, asexually reproducing organisms. Contrary to the traditional perspective, Escherichia coli core genes vary greatly in their levels of synonymous genetic diversity. This observation indicates that the relative importance of evolutionary forces such as mutation, selection, and recombination varies from gene to gene. In this paper, I highlight why the synonymous diversity observation is broadly relevant to researchers interested in the evolutionary dynamics of microbial populations and communities...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Dor Salomon
Protein secretion systems that mediate interbacterial competition secret a wide repertoire of antibacterial toxins. A major player in these competitions is the newly discovered bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS). We recently found that a subset of polymorphic MIX-effectors, which are a widespread class of effectors secreted by T6SSs, are horizontally shared between marine bacteria and are used to diversify their T6SS effector repertoires, thus enhancing their environmental fitness. In this commentary, I expand on the ideas that were introduced in the previous report, and further speculate on the possible mobility of other MIX-effectors...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Mizue Naito, Teresa E Pawlowska
The movement of mobile genetic elements (MGEs), including bacteriophages, insertion sequence (IS) elements, and integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) can have profound effects on bacterial evolution by introducing novel genes, or disrupting the existing ones. Obligate endobacteria are a distinctive group of bacteria that reside within the intracellular compartments of their eukaryotic hosts. Many obligate endobacteria are reproductively dependent on their hosts. Vertical transmission, in addition to degenerative genome contraction and loss of MGEs, makes heritable endobacteria vulnerable to Muller's ratchet, a process that jeopardizes evolutionary longevity of small populations...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Siqi Hu, Chen Liang, Fei Guo
Occupying 17% of human genome, the mobile long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) continues to modulate the landscape of our genome by inserting into new loci and, as a result, causing sporadic diseases. It is not surprising that human cells have evolved a battery of mechanisms to control and limit the activity of LINE-1. Our recent study unravels such a mechanism that is imposed by the stress granule pathway. This mechanism functions by sequestering the LINE-1 RNA-protein complex within the cytoplasmic stress granules and thus inhibiting the nuclear import of LINE-1 RNA and its subsequent reverse transcription and integration into cellular DNA...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Anthony V Furano, Pamela R Cook
L1 non-LTR retrotransposons are autonomously replicating genetic elements that profoundly affected their mammalian hosts having generated upwards of 40% or more of their genomes. Although deleterious, they remain active in most mammalian species, and thus the nature and consequences of the interaction between L1 and its host remain major issues for mammalian biology. We recently showed that L1 activity requires phosphorylation of one of its 2 encoded proteins, ORF1p, a nucleic acid chaperone and the major component of the L1RNP retrotransposition intermediate...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Maria A Nilsson
The third marsupial genome was sequenced from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), a species that currently is driven to extinction by a rare transmissible cancer. The transposable element (TE) landscape of the Tasmanian devil genome revealed that the main driver of retrotransposition the Long INterspersed Element 1 (LINE1) seem to have become inactivated during the past 12 million years. Strangely, the Short INterspersed Elements (SINE), that normally hijacks the LINE1 retrotransposition system, became inactive prior to LINE1 at around 30 million years ago...
January 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Magnus Lundgren
Research into the CRISPR-Cas immune system of prokaryotes is progressing at a tremendous pace given both its important biological function and its role as a source of new genetic tools. However, a few areas of the field have remained largely unaddressed. A recent report provides information on one such overlooked area: how the cell regulates the CRISPR-Cas immune system. The processes, despite their importance, have remained illusive. In Pectobacterium atrosepticum regulation is, perhaps surprisingly, based on metabolic factors responding to glucose levels in the cell...
November 2015: Mobile Genetic Elements
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