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Neural Systems & Circuits

Caswell Barry, Daniel Bush
Since their discovery, the strikingly regular and spatially stable firing of entorhinal grid cells has attracted the attention of experimentalists and theoreticians alike. The bulk of this work has focused either on the assumption that the principal role of grid cells is to support path integration or the extent to which their multiple firing locations can drive the sparse activity of hippocampal place cells. Here, we propose that grid cells are best understood as part of a network that combines self-motion and environmental cues to accurately track an animal's location in space...
May 30, 2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Michael W Hadley, Matt F McGranaghan, Aaron Willey, Chun Wai Liew, Elaine R Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Detailed connection maps of human and nonhuman brains are being generated with new technologies, and graph metrics have been instrumental in understanding the general organizational features of these structures. Neural networks appear to have small world properties: they have clustered regions, while maintaining integrative features such as short average pathlengths. RESULTS: We captured the structural characteristics of clustered networks with short average pathlengths through our own variable, System Difference (SD), which is computationally simple and calculable for larger graph systems...
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Ariel Agmon
BACKGROUND: Precise spike synchrony, at the millisecond or even sub-millisecond time scale, has been reported in different brain areas, but its neurobiological meaning and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown or controversial. Studying these questions is complicated by the lack of a validated, well-normalized and robust index for quantifying synchrony. Previously used measures of synchrony are often improperly normalized and thereby are not comparable between different experimental conditions, are sensitive to variations in firing rate or to the firing rate differential between the two neurons, and/or rely on untenable assumptions of firing rate stationarity and Poisson statistics...
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Paul R Benjamin
The aim of the work reviewed here is to relate the properties of individual neurons to network organization and behavior using the feeding system of the gastropod mollusk, Lymnaea. Food ingestion in this animal involves sequences of rhythmic biting movements that are initiated by the application of a chemical food stimulus to the lips and esophagus. We investigated how individual neurons contribute to various network functions that are required for the generation of feeding behavior such as rhythm generation, initiation ('decision making'), modulation and hunger and satiety...
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska, Cindy Poo
The 9th annual Computational and Systems Neuroscience meeting (Cosyne) was held 23-26 February in Salt Lake City, Utah. Cosyne meeting is the forum for exchange of experimental and theoretical/computational approaches to studying systems neuroscience.
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
David Gamez
The development of neuroscience over the past 50 years has some similarities with the development of physics in the 17th century. Towards the beginning of that century, Bacon promoted the systematic gathering of experimental data and the induction of scientific truth; towards the end, Newton expressed his principles of gravitation and motion in a concise set of mathematical equations that made precise falsifiable predictions. This paper expresses the opinion that as neuroscience comes of age, it needs to move away from amassing large quantities of data about the brain, and adopt a popperian model in which theories are developed that can make strong falsifiable predictions and guide future experimental work...
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Peter E Latham, Venkatesh N Murthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2012: Neural Systems & Circuits
Geoffrey E Hinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Malcolm Burrows, Stephen M Rogers, Swidbert R Ott
The environment has a central role in shaping developmental trajectories and determining the phenotype so that animals are adapted to the specific conditions they encounter. Epigenetic mechanisms can have many effects, with changes in the nervous and musculoskeletal systems occurring at different rates. How is the function of an animal maintained whilst these transitions happen? Phenotypic plasticity can change the ways in which animals respond to the environment and even how they sense it, particularly in the context of social interactions between members of their own species...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
George Kemenes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Peter E Latham, Venkatesh N Murthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Tilman Kispersky, Gabrielle J Gutierrez, Eve Marder
BACKGROUND: Understanding circuit function would be greatly facilitated by methods that allow the simultaneous estimation of the functional strengths of all of the synapses in the network during ongoing network activity. Towards that end, we used Granger causality analysis on electrical recordings from the pyloric network of the crab Cancer borealis, a small rhythmic circuit with known connectivity, and known neuronal intrinsic properties. RESULTS: Granger causality analysis reported a causal relationship where there is no anatomical correlate because of the strong oscillatory behavior of the pyloric circuit...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Mark H Histed, Jonathan W Pillow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Fabio M Simões de Souza, Erik De Schutter
BACKGROUND: Previous one-dimensional network modeling of the cerebellar granular layer has been successfully linked with a range of cerebellar cortex oscillations observed in vivo. However, the recent discovery of gap junctions between Golgi cells (GoCs), which may cause oscillations by themselves, has raised the question of how gap-junction coupling affects GoC and granular-layer oscillations. To investigate this question, we developed a novel two-dimensional computational model of the GoC-granule cell (GC) circuit with and without gap junctions between GoCs...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Hiroyuki Katagiri, Marta Pallotto, Antoine Nissant, Kerren Murray, Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Pierre-Marie Lledo
The olfactory bulb (OB) receives and integrates newborn interneurons throughout life. This process is important for the proper functioning of the OB circuit and consequently, for the sense of smell. Although we know how these new interneurons are produced, the way in which they integrate into the pre-existing ongoing circuits remains poorly documented. Bearing in mind that glutamatergic inputs onto local OB interneurons are crucial for adjusting the level of bulbar inhibition, it is important to characterize when and how these inputs from excitatory synapses develop on newborn OB interneurons...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Sachiko Mitsui, Kei M Igarashi, Kensaku Mori, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
BACKGROUND: Mitral and tufted cells are the projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, conveying odour information to various regions of the olfactory cortex. In spite of their functional importance, there are few molecular and genetic tools that can be used for selective labelling or manipulation of mitral and tufted cells. Tbx21 was first identified as a T-box family transcription factor regulating the differentiation and function of T lymphocytes. In the brain, Tbx21 is specifically expressed in mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Abhijit Das, Albert Chiang, Sejal Davla, Rashi Priya, Heinrich Reichert, K Vijayraghavan, Veronica Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: The antennal lobe of Drosophila is perhaps one of the best understood neural circuits, because of its well-described anatomical and functional organization and ease of genetic manipulation. Olfactory lobe interneurons - key elements of information processing in this network - are thought to be generated by three identified central brain neuroblasts, all of which generate projection neurons. One of these neuroblasts, located lateral to the antennal lobe, also gives rise to a population of local interneurons, which can either be inhibitory (GABAergic) or excitatory (cholinergic)...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Jonathan J Hunt, William H Bosking, Geoffrey J Goodhill
BACKGROUND: The statistical structure of the visual world offers many useful clues for understanding how biological visual systems may understand natural scenes. One particularly important early process in visual object recognition is that of grouping together edges which belong to the same contour. The layout of edges in natural scenes have strong statistical structure. One such statistical property is that edges tend to lie on a common circle, and this 'co-circularity' can predict human performance at contour grouping...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Masanori Matsuzaki, Graham Cr Ellis-Davies, Yuya Kanemoto, Haruo Kasai
BACKGROUND: Dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are distributed along the complicated structure of the dendritic branches and possess a variety of morphologies associated with synaptic strength. The location and structure of dendritic spines determine the extent of synaptic input integration in the postsynaptic neuron. However, how spine location or size relates to the position of innervating presynaptic cells is not yet known. This report describes a new method that represents a first step toward addressing this issue...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
Wolfgang Keil, Fred Wolf
BACKGROUND: The primary visual cortex of many mammals contains a continuous representation of visual space, with a roughly repetitive aperiodic map of orientation preferences superimposed. It was recently found that orientation preference maps (OPMs) obey statistical laws which are apparently invariant among species widely separated in eutherian evolution. Here, we examine whether one of the most prominent models for the optimization of cortical maps, the elastic net (EN) model, can reproduce this common design...
2011: Neural Systems & Circuits
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