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American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Christos Sachpekidis, Leyun Pan, Boris A Hadaschik, Klaus Kopka, Uwe Haberkorn, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT performed 60 min post tracer injection (p.i.) can underestimate prostate cancer (PC) local recurrence, due to high 68 Ga-PSMA-11 urinary bladder accumulation. Aim of this analysis is to evaluate the complementary role of early dynamic and parametric PET imaging in patients with PC local recurrence. Sixteen patients with PC biochemical relapse attributed to local recurrence underwent dynamic 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT scanning of the pelvis and whole-body PET/CT. Data analysis was based on visual analysis of the PET/CT scans, SUV calculations, quantitative analysis based on two-tissue compartment and Patlak models as well as parametric imaging based on Patlak analysis...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Irma Soldevilla-Gallardo, Sevastian S Medina-Ornelas, Cynthia Villarreal-Garza, Enrique Bargalló-Rocha, Claudia Hs Caro-Sánchez, Rodrigo Hernández-Ramírez, Enrique Estrada-Lobato
Our study examines the association between two Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) semi-quantitative parameters: PUVmax (maximum uptake value) and LTB (lesion to background) baseline and the end of Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with pathologic response in each of the following breast cancer subtype: Triple negative breast cancer (TPN), HER2-positive, and ER-positive/HER2-negative cancers. One-hundred and eight patients, 71 with invasive ductal carcinoma and 37 with infiltrating lobular carcinoma were evaluate with 18 F-FDG-PEM scans before and after of NAC...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Francisco Osvaldo García-Pérez, Jenny Davanzo, Sergio López-Buenrostro, Clara Santos-Cuevas, Guillermina Ferro-Flores, Miguel A Jímenez-Ríos, Anna Scavuzzo, Zael Santana-Ríos, Sevastián Medina-Ornelas
Positron emission tomography (PET) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has found widespread use for the diagnosis of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). Unfortunately, PET/CT is not as widely available; thus a PSMA-targeting compound for scintigraphy is of special interest. The aim of this study was to compare 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA and 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Twenty-three patients with metastatic PCa were underwent 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA SPECT/CT followed by 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Elin Pauwels, Frederik Cleeren, Guy Bormans, Christophe M Deroose
Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are variably expressed by a variety of malignancies. Using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs (SSAs), the presence of SSTRs on tumor cells may be exploited for molecular imaging and for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. 111 In-DTPA-octreotide has long been the standard in SSTR scintigraphy. A major leap forward was the introduction of gallium-68 labeled SSAs for positron emission tomography (PET) offering improved sensitivity. Tracers currently in clinical use are 68 Ga-DOTA-Tyr3 -octreotide (68 Ga-DOTATOC), 68 Ga-DOTA-Tyr3 -octreotate (68 Ga-DOTATATE) and 68 Ga-DOTA-1-NaI3 -octreotide (68 Ga-DOTANOC), collectively referred to as 68 Ga-DOTA-peptides...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ahmed El-Sabbagh, Medhat M Osman, Mark Fesler, Tarek Helmy, Nadeem Parker, Razi Muzaffar
This study aims to detect the potential impact of chemotherapy on the coronary calcium scoring (CCS) in lymphoma patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT at baseline and for therapy response using the CT portion of the exam to calculate the CCS. One hundred twelve lymphoma patients were included in the study based on having both baseline and at least 2 post-chemotherapy scans. The unenhanced CT portions of the scans were reviewed to measure the CCS which was then extracted using the Toshiba Vital Program. Agatston scores were assessed as category 1 with zero CCS unit and categories 2 to 5 having more than >1, 11, 101, and 400 CCS units respectively...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lars P Tolbod, Maria M Nielsen, Bodil G Pedersen, Søren Høyer, Hendrik J Harms, Michael Borre, Per Borghammer, Kirsten Bouchelouche, Jørgen Frøkiær, Jens Sørensen
Tumor blood flow (TBF) measurements in prostate cancer (PCa) provide an integrative index of tumor growth, which could be important for primary diagnosis and therapy response evaluation. 15 O-water PET is the non-invasive gold standard but is technically demanding. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three different non-invasive strategies with an invasively measured arterial input function (BSIF): Using image-derived input functions (IDIF) from either 1) a separate heart scan or 2) the pelvic scan or 3) a populations-based input function (PBIF)...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Babs G Sibinga Mulder, Henricus Jm Handgraaf, Danielle J Vugts, Claudia Sewing, Albert D Windhorst, Marieke Stammes, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Mark W Bordo, J Sven D Mieog, Cornelis Jh van de Velde, John V Frangioni, Alexander L Vahrmeijer
cRGD peptides target integrins associated with angiogenesis (e.g., αv β3 ) and cancer, and have been used as binding ligands for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging. This study introduces the hybrid tracer cRGD-ZW800-1-Forte-[89 Zr]Zr-DFO, which is based on a novel zwitterionic fluorophore structure that reduces non-specific background uptake during molecular imaging of tumors. An in vitro binding assay was used to validate tracer performance. 10 nmol ZW800F-cRGD-Zr-DFO was injected in mice (n=7) bearing orthotopic human colorectal tumors (HT29-luc2) for tumor detection with NIRF imaging...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Luca Filippi, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Oreste Bagni, Orazio Schillaci
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, with tremendous impact on the affected individuals and the society. Definitive diagnosis can be achieved only by post mortem examination. Clinical diagnosis criteria currently applied in clinical practice for AD often fail to accurately discriminate between AD and non-AD dementia with up to 40% of misdiagnosed patients. Several published papers demonstrated that the pre-clinical phase of AD is characterized by an early rise in beta-amyloid accumulation into inter-neuronal space, followed by a severe synaptic dysfunction...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Rubel Chakravarty, Cerise M Siamof, Ashutosh Dash, Weibo Cai
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men and is a major contributor to cancer related deaths worldwide. Metastatic spread and disease progression under androgen deprivation therapy signify the onset of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPCa)-the lethal form of the disease, which severely deteriorates the quality of life of patients. Over the last decade, tremendous progress has been made toward identifying appropriate molecular targets that could enable efficient in vivo targeting for non-invasive imaging and therapy of mCPRCa...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
David Fällmar, Johan Lilja, Torsten Danfors, Lena Kilander, Victor Iyer, Mark Lubberink, Elna-Marie Larsson, Jens Sörensen
Neuroimaging is a central part of diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected neurodegenerative disease. FDG-PET can reveal pathological changes earlier and more reliably than morphological imaging. Diagnostic accuracy can be improved by constructing 3D SSP Z-score maps, showing patterns of significant deficits. During FDG-PET, the subject receives a moderate but not insignificant dose of ionizing radiation, and a dose reduction with retained image quality is desirable. With lower dose, repeated examinations can become a useful tool for monitoring disease progress and potential effects of disease-modifying interventions...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Georgia Keramida, Alexander Dunford, Guven Kaya, Constantinos D Anagnostopoulos, Adrien Michael Peters
The concept of a hepato-splenic axis has recently been put forward. We aimed to investigate whether hepatic and splenic metabolic activities are linked, and if splenic metabolic activity is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Blood clearance rates of phosphorylated 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose were measured in the spleen and liver from dynamic PET using Gjedde-Patlak-Rutland graphical analysis and abdominal aorta for input function in 59 patients undergoing routine PET/CT. Plot gradient (Ki), which represents blood clearance, was divided by intercept (V(0)), which represents tissue FDG distribution volume, and multiplied by blood glucose to give glucose uptake rate per unit tracer distribution volume (MRglu)...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Caitlund Q Davidson, Christopher P Phenix, T C Tai, Neelam Khaper, Simon J Lees
Advances in medical imaging technology have led to an increased demand for radiopharmaceuticals for early and accurate diagnosis of cardiac function and diseased states. Myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and hypoxia positron emission tomography (PET) imaging radiotracers for detection of cardiac disease lack specificity for targeting inflammation that can be an early indicator of cardiac disease. Inflammation can occur at all stages of cardiac disease and currently, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analog, is the standard for detecting myocardial inflammation...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Benjamin A Hoff, Jean-Christophe Brisset, Stefanie Galbán, Marcian Van Dort, David C Smith, Zachery R Reichert, Jon A Jacobson, Gary D Luker, Thomas L Chenevert, Brian D Ross
Metastatic prostate cancer to bone remains incurable, driving efforts to develop individualized, targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes while limiting adverse side-effects. Due to the complexity in cellular signaling pathways and the interaction between cancer and its microenvironment, multiparametric imaging approaches for treatment response may improve understanding of the biological effects of therapy. An orthotopic model of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastasis was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Cabozantinib (CABO)...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Run Zhang, Li Li, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Zhi Ping Xu
Metals and metalloids play fundamental roles in many physiological processes in biological systems, but imbalance of these elements in the body may cause many diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and even cancers. Thus, to better understand the metallome in health and disease, quantitative determination of their localization, concentration, speciation, and related metabolism at cellular or subcellular levels is of great importance. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging, as a new generation of analytical technique, has been reported as an ideal tool to quantitatively map multiple metals and metalloids in tissues with reasonable sensitivity, specificity, and resolution...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Olivier Rager, Stephanie A Lee-Felker, Claire Tabouret-Viaud, Ely R Felker, Antoine Poncet, Gaël Amzalag, Valentina Garibotto, Habib Zaidi, Martin A Walter
New generation SPECT/CT scanners allow rapid whole-body imaging, and potentially facilitate significantly improved diagnostic accuracy. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body Tc-99m-HDP SPECT/CT, F-18-FDG PET/CT, and their combination for detecting bone metastases in breast cancer. Women with biopsy-proven breast cancer that were referred for whole-body SPECT/CT and FDG PET/CT were consecutively included in this retrospective study. Two blinded readers independently interpreted all scans...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Zhi-Qiang Zhou, Xu Zhao, Hong-Bing Xiang
A patient with obvious difficult airway who was received awake tracheal intubation using combination of an Airtraq® optical laryngoscope with smartphone and video flexible endoscope posted for elective surgery of tonsillectomy for OSAHS was reported. Our experiences strongly indicate that fully communication with patients, detailed preoperative assessment of airways and perfect plan, appropriate endotracheal intubation approach and devices play important roles in awake tracheal intubation in difficult airway...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yusuke Inoue, Kazunori Nagahara, Hiroko Kudo, Hiroyasu Itoh
Automatic exposure control (AEC) modulates tube current and consequently X-ray exposure in CT. We investigated the behavior of AEC systems in whole-body PET/CT. CT images of a whole-body phantom were acquired using AEC on two scanners from different manufactures. The effects of scout imaging direction and arm positioning on dose modulation were evaluated. Image noise was assessed in the chest and upper abdomen. On one scanner, AEC using two scout images in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (Lat) directions provided relatively constant image noise along the z-axis with the arms at the sides...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Michael W Cho, Bennett B Chin
Hepatosplenic Gamma Delta T cell lymphoma (γδHSTL) is a rare, highly aggressive, and rapidly lethal T cell lymphoma which manifests 18 F-FDG PET/CT findings that can mimic benign conditions. Patients with γδHSTL present with unexplained symptoms of a hematologic malignancy like the B symptoms of lymphoma including weight loss, fevers, and night sweats, as well as, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Thrombocytopenia, anemia, or neutropenia are also common due to spleen, liver and bone marrow involvement. The peripheral blood, however, typically does not show abnormal T cells...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lotte Nygård, Marianne C Aznar, Barbara M Fischer, Gitte F Persson, Charlotte B Christensen, Flemming L Andersen, Mirjana Josipovic, Seppo W Langer, Andreas Kjær, Ivan R Vogelius, Søren M Bentzen
We measured the repeatability of FDG PET/CT uptake metrics when acquiring scans in free breathing (FB) conditions compared with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for locally advanced lung cancer. Twenty patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Two FDG PET/CT scans per patient were conducted few days apart and in two breathing conditions (FB and DIBH). This resulted in four scans per patient. Up to four FDG PET avid lesions per patient were contoured. The following FDG metrics were measured in all lesions and in all four scans: Standardized uptake value (SUV)peak , SUVmax , SUVmean , metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), based on an isocontur of 50% of SUVmax ...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kelley Salem, Manoj Kumar, Kyle C Kloepping, Ciara J Michel, Yongjun Yan, Amy M Fowler
16α-[18 F]Fluoro-17β-estradiol ([18 F]FES) and 21-[18 F]-Fluoro-16α,17α-[(R)-(1'-α-furylmethylidene)dioxyl]-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione ([18 F]FFNP) are being investigated as imaging biomarkers for breast cancer patients. Quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) reflects both total receptor content and binding affinity. To study factors that may alter radiopharmaceutical binding and impact PET accuracy, assays that can separate receptor amount from binding affinity are needed. The study purpose was to quantify the binding parameters of [18 F]FES and [18 F]FFNP in breast cancer...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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