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American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

Maria Danielsen, Andreas Kjaer, Max Wu, Lea Martineau, Mehdi Nosrati, Stanley Pl Leong, Richard W Sagebiel, James R Miller Iii, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool to identify occult melanoma metastasis. To date, it is controversial which patients with primary cutaneous melanoma should have staging PET/CT. In this retrospective analysis of more than 800 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma, we sought to identify factors predictive of PET/CT positivity in the setting of newly-diagnosed high-risk primary melanoma to determine those patients most appropriate to undergo a PET/CT scan as part of their diagnostic work up...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
David Fällmar, Johan Lilja, Lena Kilander, Torsten Danfors, Mark Lubberink, Elna-Marie Larsson, Jens Sörensen
The dosage of (18)F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original)...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Tomohiro Kaneta, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Hiromitsu Daisaki, Shintaro Nawata, Keisuke Yoshida, Tomio Inoue
The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Prabhakar Rajiah, Mojgan Hojjati, Ziang Lu, Vijaya Kosaraju, Sasan Partovi, James K O'Donnell, Christopher Longenecker, Grace A McComsey, Jackelyn B Golden, Fuad Muakkassa, Scott Santilli, Thomas S McCormick, Kevin D Cooper, Neil J Korman
We report our initial experience of performing integrated PET/MR imaging of the carotid arteries in psoriatic patients. Eleven patients with psoriasis and ten controls underwent carotid PET/MRI. Following injection of the FDG tracer, 3d T1w gradient echo sequence (atMR) was obtained for attenuation correction of PET data. High resolution images of carotid artery were then obtained, including pre-and post-contrast T1-w, T2-w and proton-density images as well as TOF images followed by PET imaging of the torso...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Milan Simanek, Pavel Koranda
Hybrid pulmonary imaging in the present day has seen a fusion of various uses of CT scans, including angiography (CTAG), diagnostic CT, low dose CT (LDCT), and perfusion or ventilation scintigraphy in tomographic or planar imaging. Determining the most effective individualized test for the complete diagnostics of patients with pulmonary symptoms for various groups of patients is a major issue. The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of hybrid imaging in current methods of nuclear medicine in differential diagnostics of pulmonary embolism (PE)...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Aishwarya Vijay, Shuo Wang, Patrick Worhunsky, Ming-Qiang Zheng, Nabeel Nabulsi, Jim Ropchan, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Yiyun Huang, Evan D Morris
Opioid receptors may play critical roles in alcoholism and other addictions, addiction withdrawal, and depression and are considered pharmacological targets for treatment of these conditions. Sex differences have been demonstrated in mu (MOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptors in humans, in vivo. In addition, sex differences have been observed in efficacy of treatment targeting kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Our goal in the present study was to compare the availability of KOR (1) between healthy control (HC) men and women...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Benjamin L Cox, Stephen A Graves, Mohammed Farhoud, Todd E Barnhart, Justin J Jeffery, Kevin W Eliceiri, Robert J Nickles
Positron emission tomography (PET) phantoms are used to calibrate PET scanners so that inter-scanner and inter-isotope comparison can be made between PET datasets. Hot rod style phantoms have a hole pattern, which is filled with a positron-emitting isotope and typically involves using two radioisotope reservoirs with the pattern created with channels in between. However, this configuration is difficult to fill and requires an excess of activity and volume. Here we present an alternative design, a phantom that is linearly filled-one channel at a time...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sai Kiran Sharma, Melinda Wuest, Jenilee D Way, Vincent R Bouvet, Monica Wang, Frank R Wuest
Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an (18)F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Pedram Heidari, Alicia Szretter, Laura E Rushford, Maria Stevens, Lee Collier, Judit Sore, Jacob Hooker, Umar Mahmood
The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kung-Chu Ho, Yu-Hua Dean Fang, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Tzu-Chen Yen, Tsung-Ying Ho, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Ji-Hong Hong, Yi-Ting Huang, Chun-Chieh Wang, Chyong-Huey Lai
We examined the role of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity on (18)F-FDG PET during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in predicting survival outcomes for patients with cervical cancer. This prospective study consisted of 44 patients with bulky (≥ 4 cm) cervical cancer treated with CCRT. All patients underwent serial (18)F-FDG PET studies. Primary cervical tumor standardized uptake values, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured in pretreatment and intra-treatment (2 weeks) PET scans...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ludovit Gaspar, Michal Reich, Zoltan Kassai, Fedor Macasek, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Peter Kovac
Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Irina Velikyan, Anders Wennborg, Joachim Feldwisch, Henrik Lindman, Jörgen Carlsson, Jens Sörensen
Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP)...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Salah Nabih Oueriagli, Imad Ghfir, Hassna El Guerrouj, Nouzha Ben Raïs
We report the case of 24 years old female patient, followed since ten years ago for bone giant cell tumor (GCT) of the right knee, which was complicated by pulmonary metastases. Surgical treatment and pulmonary metastasectomies have not allowed definitive cure of this disease with the appearance of metachronous bone lesions after eight years of evolution. The literature review confirms the originality of this observation: the age of the patient, the initial and metastasis locations and the occurrence of lung metastases with unfavorable prognosis...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Brett Marinelli, Carina Espinet-Col, Gary A Ulaner, Heather L McArthur, Mithat Gonen, Maxine Jochelson, Wolfgang A Weber
FDG PET/CT-based measures of tumor burden show promise to predict survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but the patient populations studied so far are heterogeneous. The reports may have been confounded by the markedly different prognosis of the various subtypes of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between tumor burden on FDG PET/CT and overall survival (OS) in patients within a defined population: metastatic triple negative breast cancer (MTNBC). FDG PET/CT scans of 47 consecutive MTNBC patients (54±12 years-old) with no other known malignancies were analyzed...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Arun K Thukkani, Kooresh I Shoghi, Dong Zhou, Jinbin Xu, Wenhua Chu, Eric Novak, Delphine L Chen, Robert J Gropler, Robert H Mach
The utility of [(18)F]WC-4-116, a PET tracer for imaging caspase-3 activation, was evaluated in an animal model of myocardial apoptosis. [(18)F]WC-4-116 was injected into rats at 3 hours after a 30 min period of ischemia induced by temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in Sprague-Dawley rats. [(18)F]WC-4-116 uptake was quantified by 1) autoradiography, 2) microPET imaging studies, and 3) post-PET biodistribution studies. MicroPET imaging also assessed uptake of the non-caspase-3-targeted tracer [(18)F]ICMT-18 at 3 hours postischemia...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Nevein Ibrahim, Joanna Kusmirek, Aaron F Struck, John M Floberg, Scott B Perlman, Catherine Gallagher, Lance T Hall
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Early PD may present a diagnostic challenge with broad differential diagnoses that are not associated with nigral degeneration or striatal dopamine deficiency. Therefore, the early clinical diagnosis alone may not be accurate and this reinforces the importance of functional imaging targeting the pathophysiology of the disease process. (18)F-DOPA L-6-[(18)F] fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalnine ((18)F-DOPA) is a positron emission tomography (PET) agent that measures the uptake of dopamine precursors for assessment of presynaptic dopaminergic integrity and has been shown to accurately reflect the monoaminergic disturbances in PD...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christine E Edmonds, Mehran Makvandi, Brian P Lieberman, Kuiying Xu, Chenbo Zeng, Shihong Li, Catherine Hou, Hsiaoju Lee, Roger A Greenberg, David A Mankoff, Robert H Mach
The nuclear enzyme PARP1 plays a central role in sensing DNA damage and facilitating repair. Tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations are highly dependent on PARP1 as an alternative mechanism for DNA repair, and PARP inhibitors generate synthetic lethality in tumors with BRCA mutations, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Zhou et al. recently synthesized an (18)F-labeled PARP1 inhibitor ([(18)F]FluorThanatrace) for PET, and demonstrated high specific tracer uptake in a xenograft model of breast cancer [1]. In the current study, we characterize the level of baseline PARP expression and activity across multiple human breast cancer cell lines, including a BRCA1 mutant line...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Kacie D Deters, Shannon L Risacher, Karmen K Yoder, Adrian L Oblak, Frederick W Unverzagt, Jill R Murrell, Francine Epperson, Eileen F Tallman, Kimberly A Quaid, Martin R Farlow, Andrew J Saykin, Bernardino Ghetti
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) is a familial neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by ataxia, parkinsonism, and dementia, and neuropathologically by deposition of diffuse and amyloid plaques composed of prion protein (PrP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of detecting PrP-amyloid in PRNP gene carriers. Six individuals at risk for GSS and eight controls underwent [(11)C]PiB PET scans using standard methods...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sandi A Kwee, Gordon S Okimoto, Owen Tm Chan, Maarit Tiirikainen, Linda L Wong
PET using fluorine-18 fluorocholine ((18)F-fluorocholine) may detect malignancies that involve altered choline metabolism. While (18)F-fluorocholine PET/CT has shown greater sensitivity for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than (18)F-fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, it is not known whether it can also detect intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), a less common form of primary liver cancer. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data from 5 patients with ICC and 23 patients with HCC from a diagnostic trial of liver (18)F-fluorocholine PET/CT imaging were analyzed to preliminarily evaluate (18)F-fluorocholine PET/CT for ICC...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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