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Scientific Reports

Johannes Schlipf, Abdelrahman M Askar, Florian Pantle, Benjamin D Wiltshire, Anton Sura, Peter Schneider, Linus Huber, Karthik Shankar, Peter Müller-Buschbaum
Solar cells employing hybrid perovskites have proven to be a serious contender versus established thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Typically, current photovoltaic devices are built up layer by layer from a transparent substrate (bottom-up approach), while the deposition of the perovskite layer itself comes with many challenges including the control of crystal size, nucleation density and growth rate. On the other hand, single crystals have been used with great success for studying the fundamental properties of this new class of optoelectronic materials...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anirudh Sharma, Christine Cornejo, Jana Mihalic, Alison Geyh, David E Bordelon, Preethi Korangath, Fritz Westphal, Cordula Gruettner, Robert Ivkov
Citrate-stabilized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with one of carboxymethyl dextran (CM-dextran), polyethylene glycol-polyethylene imine (PEG-PEI), methoxy-PEG-phosphate+rutin, or dextran. They were characterized for size, zeta potential, hysteresis heating in an alternating magnetic field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility, and examined for their distribution in mouse organs following intravenous delivery. Except for PEG-PEI-coated nanoparticles, all coated nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential at physiological pH...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yunjin Tong, Robert S Manning
We use Monte Carlo simulation to quantify the change in cyclization J-factor within a dramatically simplified model of DNA that involves parameters for uniform stiffnesses, intrinsic twist, and intrinsic bending (including nonplanar bending). Plots of J versus DNA length over multiple periods of helical repeat are fit to a simple functional form in order to project the behavior of J over a broad range of these model parameters. In some instances, this process allows us to find families of DNA molecules (within our model) with quite different material properties, but very similar plots of J versus length, so similar as to likely to be indistinguishable by experiments...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marco Janko, Michael Wiertlewski, Yon Visell
When we touch an object, complex frictional forces are produced, aiding us in perceiving surface features that help to identify the object at hand, and also facilitating grasping and manipulation. However, even during controlled tactile exploration, sliding friction forces fluctuate greatly, and it is unclear how they relate to the surface topography or mechanics of contact with the finger. We investigated the sliding contact between the finger and different relief surfaces, using high-speed video and force measurements...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
A-M Lepadatu, A Slav, C Palade, I Dascalescu, M Enculescu, S Iftimie, S Lazanu, V S Teodorescu, M L Ciurea, T Stoica
Si and Ge nanocrystals in oxides are of a large interest for photo-effect applications due to the fine-tuning of the optical bandgap by quantum confinement in nanocrystals. In this work, dense Ge nanocrystals suitable for enhanced photoconduction were fabricated from 60% Ge in TiO2 amorphous layers by low temperature rapid thermal annealing at 550 °C. An exponential increase of the photocurrent with the applied voltage was observed in coplanar structure of Ge nanocrystals composite films deposited on oxidized Si wafers...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheng-Yu Long, Chiu-Lin Wang, Chin-Ru Ker, Yung-Shun Juan, Eing-Mei Tsai, Kun-Ling Lin
To assess whether our novel uterus-sparing procedure- laparoscopic organopexy with non-mesh genital(LONG) suspension is an effective, safe, and timesaving surgery for the treatment of apical prolapse. Forty consecutive women with main uterine prolapse stage II or greater defined by the POP quantification(POP-Q) staging system were referred for LONG procedures at our hospitals. Clinical evaluations before and 6 months after surgery included pelvic examination, urodynamic study, and a personal interview to evaluate urinary and sexual symptoms with overactive bladder symptom score(OABSS), the short forms of Urogenital Distress Inventory(UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire(IIQ-7), and the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI)...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sven Augustin, Sven Frohmann, Peter Jung, Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers
Terahertz (THz) radiation meaning electromagnetic radiation in the range from 0.1 (3) to 10 (30) has the unique advantage of easily penetrating many obstructions while being non-hazardous to organic tissue since it is non-ionizing. A shortcoming of this domain is the limited availability of high-sensitivity detector arrays respective THz cameras with >1k pixels. To overcome the imaging limitations of the THz domain, compressive imaging in combination with an optically controllable THz spatial light modulator is a promising approach especially when used in a single-pixel imaging modality...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jude Masannat, Hamsa Thayele Purayil, Yushan Zhang, Michelle Russin, Iqbal Mahmud, Wanju Kim, Daiqing Liao, Yehia Daaka
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urological cancers worldwide. The disease does not present early clinical symptoms and is commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage. Limited molecular drivers have been identified for RCC, resulting in the lack of effective treatment for patients with progressive disease. Ubiquitous βArrestin2 (βArr2) is well established for its function in the desensitization and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors. More recently, βArr2 has been implicated in the regulation of fundamental cellular functions, including proliferation and invasion...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brett Greer, Julie P Meneely, Christopher T Elliott
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems and intensified aquaculture have increased the risk to human health through exposure to cyanotoxins such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR). To understand the uptake and processing of MC-LR in humans, the pig was chosen as an animal model. This was assessed by repeated exposure for 13 weeks of eight animals dosed daily with MC-LR at 0.04 µg/kg bw, repeated with six animals over five weeks at a dose 50 times higher at 2 µg/kg bw. An analytical method was developed for MC-LR in porcine serum and also to analyse levels of free MC-LR in harvested porcine tissues, with Lemieux Oxidation employed to determine bound MC-LR in these tissues...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Stefan Siebert, Hubert Hüging, Frank Ewert
Changing crop phenology is considered an important bio-indicator of climate change, with the recent warming trend causing an advancement in crop phenology. Little is known about the contributions of changes in sowing dates and cultivars to long-term trends in crop phenology, particularly for winter crops such as winter wheat. Here, we analyze a long-term (1952-2013) dataset of phenological observations across western Germany and observations from a two-year field experiment to directly compare the phenologies of winter wheat cultivars released between 1950 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeonghyun Kim, Hyung-Mi Cho, Guebuem Kim
Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) is important for marine organisms and the global carbon cycle contributing to the optical properties of surface seawater and organic carbon budgets. Rivers are known to be the main source of FDOM in coastal oceans and marginal seas. In this study, however, we show that the contribution of FDOM produced from organic sediments of the northwestern Pacific continental shelf is similar to that from the Changjiang River. FDOM showed relatively higher concentrations at stations off the Changjiang River mouth and in the central Yellow Sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Pérez-Benito, Henrik Keränen, Herman van Vlijmen, Gary Tresadern
A congeneric series of 21 phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2) inhibitors are reported. Crystal structures show how the molecules can occupy a 'top-pocket' of the active site. Molecules with small substituents do not enter the pocket, a critical leucine (Leu770) is closed and water molecules are present. Large substituents enter the pocket, opening the Leu770 conformation and displacing the waters. We also report an X-ray structure revealing a new conformation of the PDE2 active site domain. The relative binding affinities of these compounds were studied with free energy perturbation (FEP) methods and it represents an attractive real-world test case...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jhajaira M Araujo, Andrea C Gomez, Alfredo Aguilar, Roberto Salgado, Justin M Balko, Leny Bravo, Franco Doimi, Denisse Bretel, Zaida Morante, Claudio Flores, Henry L Gomez, Joseph A Pinto
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer with limited options of targeted therapy. Recent findings suggest that the clinical course of TNBC may be modified by the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and chemokine's expression, such as CCL5. Diverse studies have shown that CCL5 suppresses anti-tumor immunity and it has been related to poor outcome in different types of cancer while in other studies, this gene has been related with a better outcome. We sought to determine the association of CCL5 with the recruitment of TILs and other immune cells...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhichao Wu, Felipe A Medeiros
Visual field testing is an important endpoint in glaucoma clinical trials, and the testing paradigm used can have a significant impact on the sample size requirements. To investigate this, this study included 353 eyes of 247 glaucoma patients seen over a 3-year period to extract real-world visual field rates of change and variability estimates to provide sample size estimates from computer simulations. The clinical trial scenario assumed that a new treatment was added to one of two groups that were both under routine clinical care, with various treatment effects examined...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vanessa V Sarathy, Mellodee White, Li Li, Jaclyn A Kaiser, Gerald A Campbell, Gregg N Milligan, Nigel Bourne, Alan D T Barrett
The mosquito-borne disease dengue is caused by four serologically- and genetically-related viruses, termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Historical setbacks due to lack of human-like mouse models of dengue were partially remedied with characterization of lethal DENV-2 infection in immunocompromised AG129 mice (deficient in IFN-α/β/γ receptors). Recently, our group established lethal AG129 mouse infection models of DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 using human isolates. Here we compare a non-lethal, disseminated model of DENV-3 infection using strain D83-144 to that of the lethal outcome following infection by strain C0360/94...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claire Hudson, Tomomi E Kimura, Aparna Duggirala, Graciela B Sala-Newby, Andrew C Newby, Mark Bond
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation has been implicated in the development of restenosis after angioplasty, vein graft intimal thickening and atherogenesis. We investigated the mechanisms underlying positive and negative regulation of VSMC proliferation by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). Incubation with the cAMP elevating stimuli, adenosine, prostacyclin mimetics or low levels of forksolin activated CREB without changing CREB phosphorylation on serine-133 but induced nuclear translocation of the CREB co-factors CRTC-2 and CRTC-3...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patrick Blažek, Jerko Ferri-Certić, Hrvoje Vražić, Carsten Lennerz, Christian Grebmer, Kazuaki Kaitani, Martin Karch, Boris Starčević, Verena Semmler, Christof Kolb
Fixation of the pacemaker leads during pacemaker implantation leads to an increase of cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) that can be interpreted as a sign of minimal myocardial damage. This trial evaluates whether the mechanism type of lead fixation influences the magnitude of cTnT release. Patients having a de-novo cardiac pacemaker implantation or a lead revision were centrally randomized to receive either a ventricular lead with an active (screw) or passive (tine) fixation mechanism. High-sensitive Troponin T (hsTnT) was determined on the day of the procedure beforehand and on the following day...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hanlin Wang, Jiushu Xie, Ce Mo, Xianyou He, Ruiming Wang, Rongjun Yu, Lei Mo
The action-evaluation effect indicates that the processing of affective valence is affected by bodily actions. However, whether this effect is based on bodily simulation or situational priming is unknown. Moreover, P2 is a neural marker for this effect, suggesting the integration between valence and actions. Whether the P2 component is modulated by the situation is also unknown. In this study, we tested this effect in multiple situations to examine (1) whether this effect is dependent on the situation and (2) the amplitude of P2 is modulated by the situation...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leabaneng Tawe, Thato Motshoge, Pleasure Ramatlho, Naledi Mutukwa, Charles Waithaka Muthoga, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Axel Martinelli, Elias Peloewetse, Gianluca Russo, Isaac Kweku Quaye, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
Identification of inter-individual variability for drug metabolism through cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses to malaria and HIV. This study evaluates the distribution of CYP2B6 alleles, haplotypes and inferred metabolic phenotypes among subjects with different ethnicity in Botswana. A total of 570 subjects were analyzed for CYP2B6 polymorphisms at position 516 G > T (rs3745274), 785 A > G (rs2279343) and 983 T > C (rs28399499)...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
C C Baldwin, L Tornabene, D R Robertson
Mesophotic coral ecosystems, which occur at depths of ~40 to 150 m, have received recent scientific attention as potential refugia for organisms inhabiting deteriorating shallow reefs. These ecosystems merit research in their own right, as they harbor both depth-generalist species and a distinctive reef-fish fauna. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic are globally underexplored, and the scant recent literature that mentions them often suggests that mesophotic ecosystems transition directly into those of the deep sea...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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