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Scientific Reports

Zhenqi Lu, Johan Wahlström, Arye Nehorai
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
July 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shai Oron, Sigal Abramovich, Ahuva Almogi-Labin, Julia Woeger, Jonathan Erez
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
July 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong-Wei Pi, Marimuthu Anandharaj, Yi-Ying Kao, Yu-Ju Lin, Jui-Jen Chang, Wen-Hsiung Li
Rhodotorula glutinis, an oleaginous red yeast, intrinsically produces several bio-products (i.e., lipids, carotenoids and enzymes) and is regarded as a potential host for biorefinery. In view of the limited available genetic engineering tools for this yeast, we have developed a useful genetic transformation method and transformed the β-carotene biosynthesis genes (crtI, crtE, crtYB and tHMG1) and cellulase genes (CBHI, CBHII, EgI, EgIII, EglA and BGS) into R. glutinis genome. The transformant P4-10-9-63Y-14B produced significantly higher β-carotene (27...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bernat Corominas-Murtra, Rudolf Hanel, Leonardo Zavojanni, Stefan Thurner
Sample space reducing (SSR) processes offer a simple analytical way to understand the origin and ubiquity of power-laws in many path-dependent complex systems. SRR processes show a wide range of applications that range from fragmentation processes, language formation to search and cascading processes. Here we argue that they also offer a natural framework to understand stationary distributions of generic driven non-equilibrium systems that are composed of a driving- and a relaxing process. We show that the statistics of driven non-equilibrium systems can be derived from the understanding of the nature of the underlying driving process...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhibo Luo, Shanying Hu, Dingjiang Chen
The rapid development of aquaculture has sustained aquatic food production but has also led to a host of environmental problems, ranging from eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems to global acidification. China has become the world's largest producer and consumer of aquaculture products. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in aquaculture ecosystems, and the quantitative environmental fate and impact of nitrogen during aquaculture processes have notable environmental consequences but have received little attention...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Twinkle Pandhi, Eric Kreit, Roberto Aga, Kiyo Fujimoto, Mohammad Taghi Sharbati, Samane Khademi, A Nicole Chang, Feng Xiong, Jessica Koehne, Emily M Heckman, David Estrada
This paper reports the first known investigation of power dissipation and electrical breakdown in aerosol-jet-printed (AJP) graphene interconnects. The electrical performance of aerosol-jet printed (AJP) graphene was characterized using the Transmission Line Method (TLM). The electrical resistance decreased with increasing printing pass number (n); the lowest sheet resistance measured was 1.5 kΩ/sq. for n = 50. The role of thermal resistance (RTH ) in power dissipation was studied using a combination of electrical breakdown thermometry and infrared (IR) imaging...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maryam Zare, Shahram Solaymani, Azizollah Shafiekhani, Slawomir Kulesza, Ştefan Ţălu, Miroslaw Bramowicz
Nowadays, increasing awareness of environment and fossil fuels protection stimulates intensive research on clean and renewable sources of energy. Production of hydrogen from water through solar-driven splitting reactions is one of the most promising approaches in the field of photoelectrochemistry (PEC). In this work we have fabricated well-aligned, highly-ordered, smooth-mouth TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) in a two-step anodization process of titanium foil, which were then used as photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ling Wang, Liwen Zhang, Qing Hou, Xiaodong Zhu, Zhaohong Chen, Zhihong Liu
Podocyte injury is a primary contributor to proteinuria. Triptolide is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F that exhibits potent antiproteinuric effects. We used our previously developed in vivo zebrafish model of inducible podocyte-target injury and found that triptolide treatment effectively alleviated oedema, proteinuria and foot process effacement. Triptolide also inhibited podocyte apoptosis in our zebrafish model and in vitro. We also examined the mechanism of triptolide protection of podocyte...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuhong An, Xiaotao Zhang, Ximing Wang, Zhangjing Chen, Xiangwen Wu
This paper describes the preparation of nano@lignocellulose (nano@LC) and a nano@lignocellulose/montmorillonite (nano@LC/MT) nanocomposite, as well as the capacity of the nano@LC/MT for adsorbing manganese ions from aqueous solution. The structure of nano@LC and nano@LC/MT was characterised by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy, which revealed that the diffraction peak of montmorillonite almost disappeared, infrared bands of the functional groups shifted, and morphology of the material changed after the formation of the composite...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuya Horinouchi, Yasumasa Ikeda, Keijo Fukushima, Masaki Imanishi, Hirofumi Hamano, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Yoshito Zamami, Kenshi Takechi, Licht Miyamoto, Hiromichi Fujino, Keisuke Ishizawa, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Renal tubulointerstitial injury, an inflammation-associated condition, is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Levels of activated factor X (FXa), a blood coagulation factor, are increased in various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of an FXa inhibitor against renal tubulointerstitial injury using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice (a renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis model) and the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tapas Kumar Sar, Indranil Samanta, Achintya Mahanti, Shabnam Akhtar, Jeevan Ranjan Dash
Persistence of antibacterial drugs for prolonged period in milk increases the probability of antimicrobial resistance progress. Ceftizoxime was found to be excreted in milk for a prolonged period in goats, cows and buffaloes following intravenous injection of ceftriaxone and ceftizoxime. A single dose of ceftriaxone was administered intravenously in healthy control goats (group I) and a single oral dose of the commercial mammary protective polyherbal drug (1.9 gm) was given one hour prior to intravenous ceftriaxone injection in healthy (group II) and induced mastitic (group III) goats to evaluate milk disposition of ceftizoxime following single intravenous dosing of ceftriaxone at 42...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Sinigaglia, Ségolène Gracias, Elodie Décembre, Matthieu Fritz, Daniela Bruni, Nikaïa Smith, Jean-Philippe Herbeuval, Annette Martin, Marlène Dreux, Frédéric Tangy, Nolwenn Jouvenet
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized in the production of interferons (IFNs) in response to viral infections. The Flaviviridae family comprises enveloped RNA viruses such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Dengue virus (DENV). Cell-free flaviviridae virions poorly stimulate pDCs to produce IFN. By contrast, cells infected with HCV and DENV potently stimulate pDCs via short-range delivery of viral RNAs, which are either packaged within immature virions or secreted exosomes. We report that cells infected with Yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototypical flavivirus, stimulated pDCs to produce IFNs in a TLR7- and cell contact- dependent manner...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katharina Skaja, Michael Andrä, Vikas Rana, Rainer Waser, Regina Dittmann, Christoph Baeumer
In this study, we investigated the influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry on the resistive switching performance of tantalum oxide based memristive devices. Thin-films of tantalum oxide were deposited with varying sputter power and oxygen partial pressure. The electroforming voltage was found to decrease with increasing power density or decreased oxygen partial pressure, while the endurance remained stable and the resistance window ROFF /RON was found to increase. In-depth XPS analysis connects these observations to a controllable oxygen sub-stoichiometry in the sputter-deposited films...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
P H Tuan, Y H Lai, C P Wen, K F Huang, Y F Chen
Point-driven modern Chladni figures subject to the symmetry breaking are systematically unveiled by developing a theoretical model and making experimental confirmation in the orthotropic brass. The plates with square shape are employed in the exploration based on the property that the orientation-dependent elastic anisotropy can be controlled by cutting the sides with a rotation angle with respect to the characteristic axes of the brass. Experimental results reveal that the orientation symmetry breaking not only causes the redistribution of resonant frequencies but also induces more resonant modes...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melissa T Adams, Jennifer M Gilbert, Jesus Hinojosa Paiz, Faith M Bowman, Barak Blum
Pancreatic islets of Langerhans display characteristic spatial architecture of their endocrine cell types. This architecture is critical for cell-cell communication and coordinated hormone secretion. Islet architecture is disrupted in type-2 diabetes. Moreover, the generation of architecturally correct islets in vitro remains a challenge in regenerative approaches to type-1 diabetes. Although the characteristic islet architecture is well documented, the mechanisms controlling its formation remain obscure. Here, we report that correct endocrine cell type sorting and the formation of mature islet architecture require the expression of Roundabout (Robo) receptors in β cells...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Shahid, Min Young Lee, Austin Yeon, Eunho Cho, Vikram Sairam, Luis Valdiviez, Sungyong You, Jayoung Kim
Chronic inflammation is a potential systemic risk factor for many bladder dysfunctions, including interstitial cystitis (IC). However, the underlying mechanism through which a healthy bladder protects itself from inflammatory triggers remains unknown. In this study, we identified odor compounds in urine obtained from IC patients and healthy controls. Using comprehensive solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-TOF-MS) profiling and bioinformatics, we found that levels of urinary volatile metabolites, such as menthol, were significantly reduced in IC patients, compared to healthy controls...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ju Yeon Jung, Hyun Kyu Yoon, Sanghyun An, Jee Won Lee, Eu-Ree Ahn, Yeon-Ji Kim, Hyun-Chul Park, Kyungmyung Lee, Jung Ho Hwang, Si-Keun Lim
This study developed a new method for forensic saliva identification using three oral bacteria, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Neisseria subflava, combined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system we called OB mRT-PCR. Analytical sensitivity results showed that the target bacteria were amplified at 102 -107 copies/reaction, and analytical specificity was assessed using 24 other viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. To evaluate the OB mRT-PCR kit for forensic applications, saliva from 140 Korean individuals was tested, and at least two target bacteria were detected in all the samples...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eran Dayan, Avi Barliya, Beatrice de Gelder, Talma Hendler, Rafael Malach, Tamar Flash
Film theorists and practitioners suggest that motion can be manipulated in movie scenes to elicit emotional responses in viewers. However, our understanding of the role of motion in emotion perception remains limited. On the one hand, movies continuously depict local motion- movements of objects and humans, which are crucial for generating emotional responses. Movie scenes also frequently portray global motion, mainly induced by large camera movements, global motion being yet another source of information used by the brain during natural vision...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sen Nie, H Eugene Stanley, Shi-Ming Chen, Bing-Hong Wang, Xu-Wen Wang
Controlling complex networked systems is a real-world puzzle that remains largely unsolved. Despite recent progress in understanding the structural characteristics of network control energy, target state and system dynamics have not been explored. We examine how varying the final state mixture affects the control energy of canonical and conformity-incorporated dynamical systems. We find that the control energy required to drive a network to an identical final state is lower than that required to arrive a non-identical final state...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Grover, Paul R Bessell, Anne Conan, Pim Polak, Claude T Sabeta, Bjorn Reininghaus, Darryn L Knobel
We characterized the spatiotemporal epidemiology of rabies from January 2009 through March 2014 across the interface between a wildlife reserve and communal livestock farming area in South Africa. Brain tissue from 344 animals of 28 different species were tested for lyssavirus antigen. Of these, 146 (42.4%) samples tested positive, of which 141 (96.6%) came from dogs. Brain samples of dogs were more likely to test positive for lyssavirus antigen if they were found and destroyed in the reserve, compared to samples originating from dogs outside the reserve (65...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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