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Scientific Reports

Kai Kaspar, Sarah Cames
Based on the assumption that physical purity is associated with a clean slate impression, we examined how cognitions about bodily cleanliness modulate stress perception. Participants visualized themselves in a clean or dirty state before reporting the frequency of stress-related situations experienced in the past. In Study 1 (n = 519) and Study 2 (n = 647) cleanliness versus dirtiness cognitions reliably reduced stress perception. Further results and a mediation analysis revealed that this novel effect was not simply driven by participants' cognitive engagement in stress recall...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bekir Sami Yilbas, Billel Salhi, Muhammad Rizwan Yousaf, Fahad Al-Sulaiman, Haider Ali, Nasser Al-Aqeeli
In this study, nanowires/nanowalls were generated on a silicon wafer through a chemical etching method. Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) was deposited onto the nanowire/nanowall surfaces to alter their hydrophobicity. The hydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces were further modified via a 1.5-μm-thick layer of n-octadecane coating on the OTS-deposited surface. The hydrophobic characteristics of the resulting surfaces were assessed using the sessile water droplet method. Scratch and ultraviolet (UV)-visible reflectivity tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficient and reflectivity of the surfaces...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elena Burillo, Inmaculada Jorge, Diego Martínez-López, Emilio Camafeita, Luis Miguel Blanco-Colio, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Iakes Ezkurdia, Jesús Egido, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Olivier Meilhac, Jesús Vázquez, Jose Luis Martin-Ventura
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are complex protein and lipid assemblies whose composition is known to change in diverse pathological situations. Analysis of the HDL proteome can thus provide insight into the main mechanisms underlying abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and potentially detect novel systemic biomarkers. We performed a multiplexed quantitative proteomics analysis of HDLs isolated from plasma of AAA patients (N = 14) and control study participants (N = 7). Validation was performed by western-blot (HDL), immunohistochemistry (tissue), and ELISA (plasma)...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wen Liu, Yi Li, Shuang Guo, Han Yin, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Gut microbiota mediate the nutritional metabolism and play important roles in human obesity. Diapausing insects accumulate large fat reserves and develop obese phenotypes in order to survive unfavorable conditions. However, the possibility of an association between gut microbiota and insect diapause has not been investigated. We used the Illumina MiSeq platform to compare gut bacterial community composition in nondiapause- (i.e. reproductive) and diapause-destined female cabbage beetles, Colaphellus bowringi, a serious pest of vegetables in Asia...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katie J Denby, Jeffrey Iwig, Claudine Bisson, Jodie Westwood, Matthew D Rolfe, Svetlana E Sedelnikova, Khadine Higgins, Michael J Maroney, Patrick J Baker, Peter T Chivers, Jeffrey Green
Most organisms are exposed to the genotoxic chemical formaldehyde, either from endogenous or environmental sources. Therefore, biology has evolved systems to perceive and detoxify formaldehyde. The frmRA(B) operon that is present in many bacteria represents one such system. The FrmR protein is a transcriptional repressor that is specifically inactivated in the presence of formaldehyde, permitting expression of the formaldehyde detoxification machinery (FrmA and FrmB, when the latter is present). The X-ray structure of the formaldehyde-treated Escherichia coli FrmR (EcFrmR) protein reveals the formation of methylene bridges that link adjacent Pro2 and Cys35 residues in the EcFrmR tetramer...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kun Wu, Chao Huang, Xi Shi, Feng Chen, Yi-Huan Xu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo, Xu Liu
Previous studies have investigated the physiological responses in the liver of Synechogobius hasta exposed to waterborne zinc (Zn). However, at present, very little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of these responses. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to analyse the differences in the hepatic transcriptomes between control and Zn-exposed S. hasta. A total of 36,339 unigenes and 1,615 bp of unigene N50 were detected. These genes were further annotated to the Nonredundant protein (NR), Nonredundant nucleotide (Nt), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO) databases...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xianglong Tang, Jing Liu, Xingxing Hao
Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seyed Ali Hosseini, Michiel van Wijk, Gao Ke, Seyed Hossein Goldansaz, Coby Schal, Astrid T Groot
In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent forms of chemical mate guarding. In moths, more long-range female sex pheromones have been identified than in any other animal group, and males often display with close-range sex pheromones, yet odor-based post-copulatory mate guarding has not been described in moths so far...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Meng Chen, Fei Fan, Shi-Tong Xu, Sheng-Jiang Chang
Subwavelength dielectric gratings are widely applied in the phase and polarization manipulation of light. However, the dispersion of the normal dielectric gratings is not flat while their birefringences are not enough in the THz regime. In this paper, we have fabricated two all-dielectric gratings with gradient grids in the THz regime, of which artificial birefringence is much larger than that of the equal-grid dielectric grating demonstrated by both experiments and simulations. The transmission and dispersion characteristics are also improved since the gradient grids break the periodicity of grating lattices as a chirp feature...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lee Fah Yap, Sook Ling Lai, Sathya Narayanan Patmanathan, Ravindran Gokulan, C Max Robinson, Joe B White, San Jiun Chai, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Narayanan Prepageran, Yew Toong Liew, Victor Lopes, Wenbin Wei, Robert J Hollows, Paul G Murray, Daniel W Lambert, Keith D Hunter, Ian C Paterson
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is generalized term that encompasses a diverse group of cancers that includes tumours of the oral cavity (OSCC), oropharynx (OPSCC) and nasopharynx (NPC). Genetic alterations that are common to all HNSCC types are likely to be important for squamous carcinogenesis. In this study, we have investigated the role of the homeodomain-only homeobox gene, HOPX, in the pathogenesis of HNSCC. We show that HOPX mRNA levels are reduced in OSCC and NPC cell lines and tissues and there is a general reduction of HOPX protein expression in these tumours and OPSCCs...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anne Mai-Prochnow, Maryse Clauson, Jungmi Hong, Anthony B Murphy
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bing Yan, Junsheng Li, Nengwen Xiao, Yue Qi, Gang Fu, Gaohui Liu, Mengping Qiao
Numerous studies have implicated urbanization as a major cause of loss of biodiversity. Most of them have focused on plants and animals, even though soil microorganisms make up a large proportion of that biodiversity. However, it is unclear how the soil bacterial community is affected by urban development. Here, paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene at V4 region was performed to study the soil microbial community across Beijing's built-up area. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla in all samples, but the relative abundance of these phyla differed significantly across these concentric zones...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chuanxi Fu, Long Lu, Hao Wu, Jeffrey Shaman, Yimin Cao, Fang Fang, Qiongying Yang, Qing He, Zhicong Yang, Ming Wang
Maternal antibodies transported across the placenta can provide vital immunity against infectious pathogens for infants. We here examine maternal antibody (MA) levels and their association with neonatal antibody levels. Pregnant women of gestational age ≥35 weeks were enrolled at a Guangzhou China hospital and mother-infant paired sera were collected. Measles IgG antibody was detected using ELISA assay, neutralizing antibodies titers against coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), enterovirus 71 (EV71), PV I-III and HIV-1 were performed...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bilal Malik, John Klock, James Wiskin, Mark Lenox
Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound (QT) is a powerful and emerging imaging paradigm which has the potential to perform true three-dimensional image reconstruction of biological tissue. Breast imaging is an important application of QT and allows non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging of whole breasts in vivo. Here, we report the first demonstration of breast tissue image classification in QT imaging. We systematically assess the ability of the QT images' features to differentiate between normal breast tissue types...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hyunbin D Huh, Eun A Ra, Taeyun A Lee, Sujin Kang, Areum Park, Eunhye Lee, Junhee L Choi, Eunji Jang, Ji Eun Lee, Sungwook Lee, Boyoun Park
The WD40-repeat protein serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) is involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, in response to various stresses. Here, we show that STRAP is a new scaffold protein that functions in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses. STRAP specifically binds transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) along with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, leading to enhanced association between TAK1, IKKα, and p65, and subsequent facilitation of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei Guo, Jing Hou, Tongming Yin, Yingnan Chen
Polyploid breeding is an important means for creating elite willow cultivars, and therefore provokes an active demand for discriminating the ploidy levels of natural willow stands. In this study, we established an analytical toolkit for polyploid willow identification by combining molecular markers and flow cytometry (FCM). A total of 10 single-copy fully informative SSRs were chosen for marker-aided selection based on a segregation test with a full-sib willow pedigree and a mutability test with a collection of natural willow stands...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
N Haskins, A Mumo, P H Brown, M Tuchman, H Morizono, L Caldovic
N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; E.C. catalyzes the formation of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl coenzyme A and glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, NAG is the first intermediate of the L-arginine biosynthesis; in animals, NAG is an allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I and III. In some bacteria bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase-kinase (NAGS-K) catalyzes the first two steps of L-arginine biosynthesis. L-arginine inhibits NAGS in bacteria, fungi, and plants and activates NAGS in mammals...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Raphaële Castagné, Michelle Kelly-Irving, Gianluca Campanella, Florence Guida, Vittorio Krogh, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Carlotta Sacerdote, Rosario Tumino, Jos Kleinjans, Theo de Kok, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Thierry Lang, Silvia Stringhini, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Cyrille Delpierre, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
Consistent evidence is accumulating to link lower socioeconomic position (SEP) and poorer health, and the inflammatory system stands out as a potential pathway through which socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Using bloodderived genome-wide transcriptional profiles from 268 Italian participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we evaluated the association between early life, young and later adulthood SEP and the expression of 845 genes involved in human inflammatory responses...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alaa Tharwat, Yasmine S Moemen, Aboul Ella Hassanien
Measuring toxicity is one of the main steps in drug development. Hence, there is a high demand for computational models to predict the toxicity effects of the potential drugs. In this study, we used a dataset, which consists of four toxicity effects:mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effects. The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, rough set-based methods are used to select the most discriminative features for reducing the classification time and improving the classification performance...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Orest Pavlosiuk, Przemysław Swatek, Piotr Wiśniewski
Very strong magnetoresistance and a resistivity plateau impeding low temperature divergence due to insulating bulk are hallmarks of topological insulators and are also present in topological semimetals where the plateau is induced by magnetic field, when time-reversal symmetry (protecting surface states in topological insulators) is broken. Similar features were observed in a simple rock-salt-structure LaSb, leading to a suggestion of the possible non-trivial topology of 2D states in this compound. We show that its sister compound YSb is also characterized by giant magnetoresistance exceeding one thousand percent and low-temperature plateau of resistivity...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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