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Scientific Reports

Dalton C Ludwick, Lisa N Meihls, Man P Huynh, Adriano E Pereira, B Wade French, Thomas A Coudron, Bruce E Hibbard
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September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingliang Gong, Yuming Xuan, L James Smart, Lynn A Olzak
The gist of natural scenes can be extracted very rapidly and even without focal attention. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent the gist of natural scenes can break through the bottleneck of crowding, a phenomenon in which object recognition will be immensely impaired. In the first two experiments, a target scene, either presented alone or surrounded by four flankers, was categorized at basic (Experiment 1) or global levels (Experiment 2). It was showed that the elimination of high-level semantic information of flankers greatly alleviated the crowding effect, demonstrating that high-level information played an important role in crowding of scene gist...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Opher S Kornfeld, Nir Qvit, Bereketeab Haileselassie, Mehrdad Shamloo, Paolo Bernardi, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Mitochondria form a dynamic network governed by a balance between opposing fission and fusion processes. Because excessive mitochondrial fission correlates with numerous pathologies, including neurodegeneration, the mechanism governing fission has become an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, targeting fission is a double-edged sword as physiological fission is necessary for mitochondrial function. Fission is trigged by Drp1 anchoring to adaptors tethered to the outer mitochondrial membrane. We designed peptide P259 that distinguishes physiological from pathological fission by specifically inhibiting Drp1's interaction with the Mff adaptor...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan
Musca domestica is one of the major cosmopolitan insect pests of public health importance. Spinosad is considered an eco-friendly insecticide used for the management of M. domestica and other pests of significant concern. Cases of resistance against spinosad in M. domestica have been reported from some parts of the world; however, there are no reports of any negative effects of spinosad resistance on the fitness/biological parameters of M. domestica. To investigate fitness costs, a near isogenic M. domestica resistant strain (Spin-R) was constructed using Spin-UNSEL-susceptible and Spin-SEL-resistant strains sharing a close genetic background...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Si-Han Tsai, Sarbani Basu, Chiung-Yi Huang, Liang-Ching Hsu, Yan-Gu Lin, Ray-Hua Horng
A single-crystalline ZnGa2 O4 epilayer was successfully grown on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. This epilayer was used as a ternary oxide semiconductor for application in high-performance metal-semiconductor-metal photoconductive deep-ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors (PDs). At a bias of 5 V, the annealed ZnGa2 O4 PDs showed better performance with a considerably low dark current of 1 pA, a responsivity of 86.3 A/W, cut-off wavelength of 280 nm, and a high DUV-to-visible discrimination ratio of approximately 107 upon exposure to 230 nm DUV illumination than that of as-grown ZnGa2 O4 PDs...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Aguirre de Cárcer
The complex community of microbes living in the human gut plays an important role in host wellbeing. However, defining a 'healthy' gut microbiome in terms of composition has remained an elusive task, despite its anticipated medical and scientific importance. In this regard, a central question has been if there is a 'core' microbiome consisting of bacterial groups common to all healthy humans. Recent studies have been able to define a compositional core in human gut microbiome datasets in terms of taxonomic assignments...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yong-Xia Li, Wei Zhang, Hui-Xia Dong, Zhen-Yu Liu, Jian Ma, Xing-Yao Zhang
The salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role during the establishment of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in uninfected plant tissues after localised exposure to a pathogen. Here, we studied SA in Populus tomentosa infected by the plant pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea. The accumulation of SA and methyl salicylate (MeSA) occurred in chronological order in P. tomentosa. The SA and MeSA contents were greater at infected than uninfected sites. Additionally, a gene expression analysis indicated that SA might be accumulated by phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and converted to MeSA by SA carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT), while MeSA might convert to SA by SA-binding protein 2 (SABP2)...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eun-Ah Christine Song, Sangwon Min, Akinsola Oyelakin, Kirsten Smalley, Jonathan E Bard, Lan Liao, Jianming Xu, Rose-Anne Romano
Stem and progenitor cells of the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) give rise to, maintain, and regenerate the multiple lineages of mature epithelial cells including those belonging to the ductal, acinar, basal and myoepithelial subtypes. Here we have exploited single cell RNA-sequencing and in vivo genetic lineage tracing technologies to generate a detailed map of the cell fate trajectories and branch points of the basal and myoepithelial cell populations of the mouse SMG during embryonic development and in adults...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joachim Michael Matz, Kai Matuschewski
During blood stage development the malaria parasite resides in a membrane-bound compartment, termed the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The reasons for this intravacuolar life style and the molecular functions of this parasite-specific compartment remain poorly defined, which is mainly due to our limited knowledge about the molecular make-up of this unique niche. We used an in silico down-scaling approach to select for Plasmodium-specific candidates that harbour signatures of PV residency. Live co-localisation of five endogenously tagged proteins confirmed expression in the PV of Plasmodium berghei blood and liver stages...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mubashir Ahmad, Torsten Kroll, Jeanette Jakob, Alexander Rauch, Aspasia Ploubidou, Jan Tuckermann
Osteoblasts are responsible for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Deregulation of their differentiation is etiologically linked to several bone disorders, making this process an important target for therapeutic intervention. Systemic identification of osteoblast regulators has been hampered by the unavailability of physiologically relevant in vitro systems suitable for efficient RNAi and for differentiation read-outs compatible with fluorescent microscopy-based high-content analysis (HCA). Here, we report a new method for identification of osteoblast differentiation regulators by combining siRNA transfection in physiologically relevant cells with high-throughput screening (HTS)...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lu-Mei Pu, Xiao-Yan Li, Jing Hao, Yin-Xia Sun, Yang Zhang, Hai-Tao Long, Wen-Kui Dong
A highly selective fluorescent sensor H4 L based on a bis(salamo)-type compound with two N2 O2 chelating moieties as ionophore was successfully developed. Sensor H4 L was found to have excellent selectivity for B4 O7 2- over many other anions (Br- , CI- , CN- , CO3 2- , HCO3 - , H2 PO4 - , HSO4 - , NO3 - , OAc- , S2 O3 - , SCN- , SO4 2- , Hcy (homocysteine) and H2 O2 ), and it exhibited an approximately 150-fold enhancement of the fluorescence response to B4 O7 2- in Tris-HCl buffer (DMF/H2 O = 9:1, v/v, pH = 7) solutions...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toshihiro Shindo, Shigehiro Doi, Ayumu Nakashima, Kensuke Sasaki, Koji Arihiro, Takao Masaki
Renal fibrosis is a histological manifestation that occurs in almost every type of chronic kidney disease. Histone variant H3.3 and its chaperone, histone cell cycle regulation defective homolog A (HIRA), serve as epigenetic marks that regulate transcriptional activity. In this study, we assessed the roles of histone H3.3 and HIRA in unilateral ureteral-obstruction (UUO) mice. In UUO mice, the levels of histone H3.3 and HIRA were significantly upregulated in the kidneys. These upregulated levels were decreased by a TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Míriam Díaz-Varela, Armando de Menezes-Neto, Daniel Perez-Zsolt, Ana Gámez-Valero, Joan Seguí-Barber, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros, Javier Martinez-Picado, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo
Reticulocyte-derived exosomes (Rex), extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, were initially discovered as a cargo-disposal mechanism of obsolete proteins in the maturation of reticulocytes into erythrocytes. In this work, we present the first mass spectrometry-based proteomics of human Rex (HuRex). HuRex were isolated from cultures of human reticulocyte-enriched cord blood using different culture conditions and exosome isolation methods. The newly described proteome consists of 367 proteins, most of them related to exosomes as revealed by gene ontology over-representation analysis and include multiple transporters as well as proteins involved in exosome biogenesis and erythrocytic disorders...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhili Li, Yuejia Cai, Guozhi Liang, Saeed El-Ashram, Minmin Mei, Wenjing Huang, Xiaowen Li, Wenfeng Li, Cheng He, Shujian Huang
Here we present a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detecting the gene encoding the σB major outer-capsid protein of novel duck reovirus (NDRV). A set of primers, composed of two outer primers, two inner primers and two loop primers, was designed based on the gene of interest. The LAMP reaction was conducted in a traditional laboratory water bath at 65 °C for 50 min. We compared the performance of calcein/Mn2+ and SYBR Green I dyes, as well as electrophoresis on agarose gel stained with GoldView nucleic acid dye to detect the RT-LAMP-amplified products and all assays could be employed to discriminate between positive and negative specimens in visible or UV light...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carlos J Garcia, Androulla Pericleous, Mennat Elsayed, Michael Tran, Shilpi Gupta, Jake D Callaghan, Nicholas A Stella, Jonathan M Franks, Patrick H Thibodeau, Robert M Q Shanks, Daniel E Kadouri
Micavibrio aeruginosavorus is an obligate Gram-negative predatory bacterial species that feeds on other Gram-negative bacteria by attaching to the surface of its prey and feeding on the prey's cellular contents. In this study, Serratia marcescens with defined mutations in genes for extracellular cell structural components and secreted factors were used in predation experiments to identify structures that influence predation. No change was measured in the ability of the predator to prey on S. marcescens flagella, fimbria, surface layer, prodigiosin and phospholipase-A mutants...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Minghan Liu, Chan Yao, Chunbo Liu, Yanhong Xu
A series of conjugated microporous polymers containing thiophene-moieties (SCMP-COOH@1-3) was obtained by a homo-coupling polymerization reaction. Then the SCMP-COOH@1-3 were directly pyrolyzed without any templates to synthesize the porous carbon networks, named as SCMP-600@1, 2 and 3. SCMP-600@1-3 possess moderate BET surface area of 362-642 m2  g-1 , have a permanent porous structure and plenty of sulfur and oxygen units in the skeletons as effective sorption sites, and display a high absorption performance for iodine vapour with an uptake up to 204 wt...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nora Vanessa de Camp, Gerhard Kalinka, Jürgen Bergeler
We invented the first non-metallic, self-adhesive and dry biosignalling electrode. The PEDOT polymer electrode changes its aggregate state and conductivity by a light curing procedure. The electrode can be applied as a gel underneath hair without shaving. With the aid of blue light, the electrode can be hardened within a few seconds at the desired location on the scalp. The cured polymer electrode is highly conductive and can be applied on a very small location. Unlike other EEG electrodes, our electrode does not lose conductivity upon drying...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin E Maimon, Maurizio Diaz, Emilie C M Revol, Alexis M Schneider, Ben Leaker, Claudia E Varela, Shriya Srinivasan, Matthew B Weber, Hugh M Herr
Optogenetic technologies have been the subject of great excitement within the scientific community for their ability to demystify complex neurophysiological pathways in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The excitement surrounding optogenetics has also extended to the clinic with a trial for ChR2 in the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa currently underway and additional trials anticipated for the near future. In this work, we identify the cause of loss-of-expression in response to transdermal illumination of an optogenetically active peroneal nerve following an anterior compartment (AC) injection of AAV6-hSyn-ChR2(H134R) with and without a fluorescent reporter...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuzo Suzuki, Katsuhiro Yoshimura, Yasunori Enomoto, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Masato Karayama, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Takafumi Suda
Change in body composition with skeletal muscle wasting, a major component of pulmonary cachexia, is associated with mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. However, its relevance in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) remains unclear. We hypothesized changes in body composition would be associated with mortality in ILDs. We measured the cross-sectional-area (ESMCSA ) and muscle attenuation (ESMMA ) of erector-spinae muscles, as determined by CT-imaging, in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 131) and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (iPPFE; n = 43) and controls...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah J C Craig, Daniel Blankenberg, Alice Carla Luisa Parodi, Ian M Paul, Leann L Birch, Jennifer S Savage, Michele E Marini, Jennifer L Stokes, Anton Nekrutenko, Matthew Reimherr, Francesca Chiaromonte, Kateryna D Makova
Gut and oral microbiota perturbations have been observed in obese adults and adolescents; less is known about their influence on weight gain in young children. Here we analyzed the gut and oral microbiota of 226 two-year-olds with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Weight and length were measured at seven time points and used to identify children with rapid infant weight gain (a strong risk factor for childhood obesity), and to derive growth curves with innovative Functional Data Analysis (FDA) techniques. We showed that growth curves were associated negatively with diversity, and positively with the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, of the oral microbiota...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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