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Scientific Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343868/galectin-13-a-different-prototype-galectin-does-not-bind-%C3%AE-galacto-sides-and-forms-dimers-via-intermolecular-disulfide-bridges-between-cys-136-and-cys-138
#1
Jiyong Su, Yue Wang, Yunlong Si, Jin Gao, Chenyang Song, Linlin Cui, Runjie Wu, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou
During pregnancy, placental protein-13 (galectin-13) is highly expressed in the placenta and fetal tissue, and less so in maternal serum that is related to pre-eclampsia. To understand galectin-13 function at the molecular level, we solved its crystal structure and discovered that its dimer is stabilized by two disulfide bridges between Cys136 and Cys138 and six hydrogen bonds involving Val135, Val137, and Gln139. Native PAGE and gel filtration demonstrate that this is not a crystallization artifact because dimers also form in solution...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343867/improving-survival-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-patients-complicated-with-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#2
Jie Gao, Qing Zhang, Yuankui Wu, Ying Li, Tingting Qi, Congyan Zhu, Sijia Liu, Ruoxi Yu, Qinjun He, Weiqun Wen, Fuyuan Zhou, Yongpeng Chen, Jinjun Chen, Jinlin Hou
The mortality of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients complicated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) was extremely high. We aimed to explore prognostic value of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) lung score and to establish an optimal voriconazole regimen for ACLF patients complicated with IPA. We retrospectively screened hospitalized ACLF patients in our hospital from July 2011 to April 2016, from which 20 probable IPA cases were diagnosed. Along with onsets of IPA, deteriorated diseases severity, especially lung conditions were found in those 20 ACLF patients...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343866/identification-of-jaz-interacting-myc-transcription-factors-involved-in-latex-drainage-in-hevea-brasiliensis
#3
Jinling Zhai, Hui Hao, Hua Xiao, Yuxin Cao, Xiangui Lin, Xi Huang
Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. is one of the most frequently wounded plants worldwide. Expelling latex upon mechanical injury is a wound response of rubber trees. However, JA-mediated wound responses in rubber trees are not well documented. In this work, three JAZ-interacting MYC transcription factors of H. brasiliensis (termed HbMYC2/3/4) were identified by yeast two-hybrid screening. HbMYC2/3/4 each showed specific interaction profiles with HbJAZs. HbMYC2/3/4 each localized in the nucleus and exhibited strong transcriptional activity...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343865/targeting-murine-leukemic-stem-cells-by-antibody-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#4
Tamoghna Mandal, Michaela Beck, Nicole Kirsten, Mika Lindén, Christian Buske
Acute leukemia is initiated and maintained by leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and therefore there is great interest to develop innovative therapeutic approaches which target LSCs. Here we show that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) functionalized with succinic anhydride, tagged with an anti-B220 antibody and loaded with the anthracycline daunorubicin are efficiently incorporated into murine B220-positive AML LSCs and preferentially kill these cells in comparison to B220-negative AML LSCs in vitro. Furthermore, short - term treatment of the AML LSCs with these MSNs before transplant significantly delayed leukemia development in recipient mice...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343864/electrochemical-and-friction-characteristics-of-metallic-glass-composites-at-the-microstructural-length-scales
#5
Aditya Ayyagari, Vahid Hasannaeimi, Harpreet Arora, Sundeep Mukherjee
Metallic glass composites represent a unique alloy design strategy comprising of in situ crystalline dendrites in an amorphous matrix to achieve damage tolerance unseen in conventional structural materials. They are promising for a range of advanced applications including spacecraft gears, high-performance sporting goods and bio-implants, all of which demand high surface degradation resistance. Here, we evaluated the phase-specific electrochemical and friction characteristics of a Zr-based metallic glass composite, Zr56...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343863/genetic-analyses-favour-an-ancient-and-natural-origin-of-elephants-on-borneo
#6
Reeta Sharma, Benoit Goossens, Rasmus Heller, Rita Rasteiro, Nurzhafarina Othman, Michael W Bruford, Lounès Chikhi
The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343862/angiotensin-ii-overstimulation-leads-to-an-increased-susceptibility-to-dilated-cardiomyopathy-and-higher-mortality-in-female-mice
#7
Sophie Mathieu, Nabil El Khoury, Katy Rivard, Pierre Paradis, Mona Nemer, Céline Fiset
Heart failure (HF) is associated with high mortality and affects men and women differently. The underlying mechanisms for these sex-related differences remain largely unexplored. Accordingly, using mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the angiotensin II (ANGII) type 1 receptor (AT1R), we explored male-female differences in the manifestations of hypertrophy and HF. AT1R mice of both sexes feature electrical and Ca2+ handling alterations, systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy and develop HF. However, females had much higher mortality (21...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343861/sensing-native-protein-solution-structures-using-a-solid-state-nanopore-unraveling-the-states-of-vegf
#8
Nitinun Varongchayakul, Diana Huttner, Mark W Grinstaff, Amit Meller
Monitoring individual proteins in solution while simultaneously obtaining tertiary and quaternary structural information is challenging. In this study, translocation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein through a solid-state nanopore (ssNP) produces distinct ion-current blockade amplitude levels and durations likely corresponding to monomer, dimer, and higher oligomeric states. Upon changing from a non-reducing to a reducing condition, ion-current blockage events from the monomeric state dominate, consistent with the expected reduction of the two inter-chain VEGF disulfide bonds...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343860/predicted-impact-of-thermal-power-generation-emission-control-measures-in-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-on-air-pollution-over-beijing-china
#9
Liqiang Wang, Pengfei Li, Shaocai Yu, Khalid Mehmood, Zhen Li, Shucheng Chang, Weiping Liu, Daniel Rosenfeld, Richard C Flagan, John H Seinfeld
Widespread economic growth in China has led to increasing episodes of severe air pollution, especially in major urban areas. Thermal power plants represent a particularly important class of emissions. Here we present an evaluation of the predicted effectiveness of a series of recently proposed thermal power plant emission controls in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region on air quality over Beijing using the Community Multiscale Air Quality(CMAQ) atmospheric chemical transport model to predict CO, SO2, NO2, PM2...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343859/rate-after-effects-fail-to-transfer-cross-modally-evidence-for-distributed-sensory-timing-mechanisms
#10
Aysha Motala, James Heron, Paul V McGraw, Neil W Roach, David Whitaker
Accurate time perception is critical for a number of human behaviours, such as understanding speech and the appreciation of music. However, it remains unresolved whether sensory time perception is mediated by a central timing component regulating all senses, or by a set of distributed mechanisms, each dedicated to a single sensory modality and operating in a largely independent manner. To address this issue, we conducted a range of unimodal and cross-modal rate adaptation experiments, in order to establish the degree of specificity of classical after-effects of sensory adaptation...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343858/developmental-pathways-inferred-from-modularity-morphological-integration-and-fluctuating-asymmetry-patterns-in-the-human-face
#11
Mirsha Quinto-Sánchez, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Jorge Gomez-Valdes, Celia Cintas, Pablo Navarro, Caio Cesar Silva de Cerqueira, Carolina Paschetta, Soledad de Azevedo, Virginia Ramallo, Victor Acuña-Alonzo, Kaustubh Adhikari, Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo, Tábita Hünemeier, Paola Everardo, Francisco de Avila, Claudia Jaramillo, Williams Arias, Carla Gallo, Giovani Poletti, Gabriel Bedoya, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Francisco Rothhammer, Javier Rosique, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Rolando Gonzalez-Jose
Facial asymmetries are usually measured and interpreted as proxies to developmental noise. However, analyses focused on its developmental and genetic architecture are scarce. To advance on this topic, studies based on a comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of modularity, morphological integration and facial asymmetries including both phenotypic and genomic information are needed. Here we explore several modularity hypotheses on a sample of Latin American mestizos, in order to test if modularity and integration patterns differ across several genomic ancestry backgrounds...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343857/stimulation-of-epicardial-sympathetic-nerves-at-different-sites-induces-cardiac-electrical-instability-to-various-degrees
#12
Liang Wang, Lin Sun, Kun Wang, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Xudong Liu, Jiakun Zhang, Jingjie Li
The cardiac sympathetic nerves distribute across cardiac tissues with uneven density. Yet, to what extent this anatomical heterogeneity affects electrical activity of the left ventricle is largely unknown. Dogs were randomized into non-stimulation control (NC), posterior basal-stimulation (PB), anterior superior-stimulation (AS), apical part-stimulation (AP) group. The epicardial sympathetic nerves at different sites along their distribution were with electrical stimulation (ES) for 4 hours except in the NC group...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343856/deep-ultraviolet-algan-aln-core-shell-multiple-quantum-wells-on-aln-nanorods-via-lithography-free-method
#13
Jinwan Kim, Uiho Choi, Jaedo Pyeon, Byeongchan So, Okhyun Nam
We report deep ultraviolet (UVC) emitting core-shell-type AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on the AlN nanorods which are prepared by catalyst/lithography free process. The MQWs are grown on AlN nanorods on a sapphire substrate by polarity-selective epitaxy and etching (PSEE) using high-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The AlN nanorods prepared through PSEE have a low dislocation density because edge dislocations are bent toward neighboring N-polar AlN domains. The core-shell-type MQWs grown on AlN nanorods have three crystallographic orientations, and the final shape of the grown structure is explained by a ball-and-stick model...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343855/the-ferroptosis-inducer-erastin-irreversibly-inhibits-system-xc-and-synergizes-with-cisplatin-to-increase-cisplatin-s-cytotoxicity-in-cancer-cells
#14
Mami Sato, Ryosuke Kusumi, Shinji Hamashima, Sho Kobayashi, Satoru Sasaki, Yuhei Komiyama, Takuji Izumikawa, Marcus Conrad, Shiro Bannai, Hideyo Sato
System xc- was recently described as the most upstream node in a novel form of regulated necrotic cell death, called ferroptosis. In this context, the small molecule erastin was reported to target and inhibit system xc-, leading to cysteine starvation, glutathione depletion and consequently ferroptotic cell death. Although the inhibitory effect of erastin towards system xc- is well-documented, nothing is known about its mechanism of action. Therefore, we sought to interrogate in more detail the underlying mechanism of erastin's pro-ferroptotic effects...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343853/differential-tissue-specific-temporal-and-spatial-expression-patterns-of-the-aggrecan-gene-is-modulated-by-independent-enhancer-elements
#15
Ian M H Li, Ke Liu, Alice Neal, Peter D Clegg, Sarah De Val, George Bou-Gharios
The transcriptional mechanism through which chondrocytes control the spatial and temporal composition of the cartilage tissue has remained largely elusive. The central aim of this study was to identify whether transcriptional enhancers played a role in the organisation of the chondrocytes in cartilaginous tissue. We focused on the Aggrecan gene (Acan) as it is essential for the normal structure and function of cartilage and it is expressed developmentally in different stages of chondrocyte maturation. Using transgenic reporter studies in mice we identified four elements, two of which showed individual chondrocyte developmental stage specificity...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343852/a-new-class-of-magnetically-actuated-pumps-and-valves-for-microfluidic-applications
#16
Joshua K Hamilton, Matthew T Bryan, Andrew D Gilbert, Feodor Y Ogrin, Thomas O Myers
We propose a new class of magnetically actuated pumps and valves that could be incorporated into microfluidic chips with no further external connections. The idea is to repurpose ferromagnetic low Reynolds number swimmers as devices capable of generating fluid flow, by restricting the swimmers' translational degrees of freedom. We experimentally investigate the flow structure generated by a pinned swimmer in different scenarios, such as unrestricted flow around it as well as flow generated in straight, cross-shaped, Y-shaped and circular channels...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343847/neural-substrates-of-purely-endogenous-self-regulatory-control-of-attention
#17
Suk Won Han, Hyunji Shin, Dahee Jeong, Shinyoung Jung, Eunhee Bae, Joo Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Man Baek, Kyoheon Kim
Stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward a novel, salient stimulus is a highly adaptive behavior. In an opposing vein, it is also crucial to endogenously redirect attention to other stimuli of behavioral significance if the attended stimulus was evaluated to be unimportant. This stimulus-driven orienting and subsequent reorienting of attention are known to be mediated by similar neural substrates. However, this might be because reorienting was triggered by a sensory transition exogenously capturing attention, such as an abrupt onset of a new stimulus...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343846/author-correction-coda-integrating-multi-level-context-oriented-directed-associations-for-analysis-of-drug-effects
#18
Hasun Yu, Jinmyung Jung, Seyeol Yoon, Mijin Kwon, Sunghwa Bae, Soorin Yim, Jaehyun Lee, Seunghyun Kim, Yeeok Kang, Doheon Lee
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343845/metal-free-magnetism-spin-dependent-seebeck-effect-and-spin-seebeck-diode-effect-in-armchair-graphene-nanoribbons
#19
Xiao-Qin Tang, Xue-Mei Ye, Xing-Yi Tan, Da-Hua Ren
Metal-free magnetism and spin caloritronics are at the forefront of condensed-matter physics. Here, the electronic structures and thermal spin-dependent transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (N-AGNRs), where N is the ribbon width (N = 5-23), are systematically studied. The results show that the indirect band gaps exhibit not only oscillatory behavior but also periodic characteristics with E 3p  > E3p+1 > E3p+2 (E 3p , E3p+1 and E3p+2 are the band gaps energy) for a certain integer p, with increasing AGNR width...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343844/determinants-of-population-responses-to-environmental-fluctuations
#20
Jose M G Vilar, J Miguel Rubi
Environmental fluctuations, such as changing conditions and variable nutrient availability, are an unavoidable component of the dynamics of virtually all populations. They affect populations in ways that are often difficult to predict and sometimes lead to paradoxical outcomes. Here, we present a general analytical approach to examine how populations respond to fluctuations. We show that there exist general explicit conditions that determine to what extent fluctuations propagate to the variability of the responses and how they change the behavior of the system, including whether they promote proliferation or death and whether they facilitate coexistence or exclusion of competing species...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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