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Scientific Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448061/grand-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy-and-grandchild-s-autistic-traits-and-diagnosed-autism
#1
Jean Golding, Genette Ellis, Steven Gregory, Karen Birmingham, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Dheeraj Rai, Marcus Pembrey
Although there is considerable research into the genetic background of autism spectrum disorders, environmental factors are likely to contribute to the variation in prevalence over time. Rodent experiments indicate that environmental exposures can have effects on subsequent generations, and human studies indicate that parental prenatal exposures may play a part in developmental variation. Here we use the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test the hypothesis that if the mother or father (F1) had been exposed to their own mother's (F0) smoking during pregnancy, the offspring (F2) would be at increased risk of autism...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447670/harmonic-trap-resonance-enhanced-synthetic-atomic-spin-orbit-coupling
#2
Ling-Na Wu, Xin-Yu Luo, Zhi-Fang Xu, Masahito Ueda, Ruquan Wang, L You
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays an essential role in many exotic and interesting phenomena in condensed matter physics. In neutral-atom-based quantum simulations, synthetic SOC constitutes a key enabling element. The strength of SOC realized so far is limited by various reasons or constraints. This work reports tunable SOC synthesized with a gradient magnetic field (GMF) for atoms in a harmonic trap. Nearly ten-fold enhancement is observed when the GMF is modulated near the harmonic-trap resonance in comparison with the free-space situation...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447667/tweak-blockade-decreases-atherosclerotic-lesion-size-and-progression-through-suppression-of-stat1-signaling-in-diabetic-mice
#3
Valvanera Fernández-Laso, Cristina Sastre, Nerea Méndez-Barbero, Jesús Egido, Jose L Martín-Ventura, Carmen Gómez-Guerrero, Luis M Blanco-Colio
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK/Tnfsf12) is a cytokine implicated in different steps associated with vascular remodeling. However, the role of TWEAK under hyperglycemic conditions is currently unknown. Using two different approaches, genetic deletion of Tnfsf12 and treatment with a TWEAK blocking mAb, we have analyzed the effect of TWEAK inhibition on atherosclerotic plaque progression and stability in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ApoE deficient mice. Genetic inactivation of Tnfsf12 reduced atherosclerosis extension and severity in diabetic ApoE deficient mice...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447666/in-situ-polymerisation-of-isoeugenol-as-a-green-consolidation-method-for-waterlogged-archaeological-wood
#4
Emily McHale, Calin C Steindal, Hartmut Kutzke, Tore Benneche, Stephen E Harding
Waterlogged archaeological wood is often in need of consolidation prior to drying to prevent shrinkage and cracking of the object. There is a need for new greener materials (than for example polyethylene glycol) and methods for consolidation to be developed. The use of wood-based components could provide good interaction between the consolidant and the remaining wood structure and would also support a shift away from fossil fuel-based materials to those with more sustainable sources. Based on this, lignin-like structures have been investigated for their ability to consolidate waterlogged archaeological wood...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447624/wireless-power-transfer-to-millimeter-sized-gastrointestinal-electronics-validated-in-a-swine-model
#5
Abubakar Abid, Jonathan M O'Brien, Taylor Bensel, Cody Cleveland, Lucas Booth, Brian R Smith, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Electronic devices placed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for prolonged periods have the potential to transform clinical evaluation and treatment. One challenge to the deployment of such gastroresident electronics is the difficulty in powering millimeter-sized electronics devices without using batteries, which compromise biocompatibility and long-term residence. We examined the feasibility of leveraging mid-field wireless powering to transfer power from outside of the body to electronics at various locations along the GI tract...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447623/five-low-energy-phosphorene-allotropes-constructed-through-gene-segments-recombination
#6
Chaoyu He, ChunXiao Zhang, Chao Tang, Tao Ouyang, Jin Li, Jianxin Zhong
Based on the crystal structures of the previously proposed low energy η-P and θ-P, five new phosphorene allotropes were predicted through gene segments recombination method. These five new phosphorene allotropes are confirmed dynamically stable and energetically more favorable than their parents (η-P and θ-P). Especially, the XX-XX type G1-P is confirmed energetically more favorable than most of all the previously proposed phosphorene allotropes, including black phosphorene and blue phosphorene, which is highly expected to be synthesized in future experiment through vapor deposition or epitaxial growth method like blue β-P...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447619/little-cigars-are-more-toxic-than-cigarettes-and-uniquely-change-the-airway-gene-and-protein-expression
#7
Arunava Ghosh, Sabri H Abdelwahab, Steven L Reeber, Boris Reidel, Abigail J Marklew, Andrew J Garrison, Shernita Lee, Hong Dang, Amy H Herring, Gary L Glish, Mehmet Kesimer, Robert Tarran
Little cigars (LCs) are regulated differently than cigarettes, allowing them to be potentially targeted at youth/young adults. We exposed human bronchial epithelial cultures (HBECs) to air or whole tobacco smoke from cigarettes vs. LCs. Chronic smoke exposure increased the number of dead cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion and decreased apical cilia, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein levels, and transepithelial resistance. These adverse effects were significantly greater in LC-exposed HBECs than cigarette exposed cultures...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447618/manufacturing-differences-affect-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-characteristics-and-function-comparison-of-production-methods-and-products-from-multiple-centers
#8
Shutong Liu, Luis F de Castro, Ping Jin, Sara Civini, Jiaqiang Ren, Jo-Anna Reems, Jose Cancelas, Ramesh Nayak, Georgina Shaw, Timothy O'Brien, David H McKenna, Myriam Armant, Leslie Silberstein, Adrian P Gee, Derek J Hei, Peiman Hematti, Sergei A Kuznetsov, Pamela G Robey, David F Stroncek
Human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are manufactured using many different methods, but little is known about the spectrum of manufacturing methods used and their effects on BMSC characteristics and function. Seven centers using, and one developing, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) processes were surveyed as to their production methods. Among the seven centers, all used marrow aspirates as the starting material, but no two centers used the same manufacturing methods...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447617/corrigendum-screening-with-an-nmnat2-msd-platform-identifies-small-molecules-that-modulate-nmnat2-levels-in-cortical-neurons
#9
Yousuf O Ali, Gillian Bradley, Hui-Chen Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447615/millions-of-boreal-shield-lakes-can-be-used-to-probe-archaean-ocean-biogeochemistry
#10
S L Schiff, J M Tsuji, L Wu, J J Venkiteswaran, L A Molot, R J Elgood, M J Paterson, J D Neufeld
Life originated in Archaean oceans, almost 4 billion years ago, in the absence of oxygen and the presence of high dissolved iron concentrations. Early Earth oxidation is marked globally by extensive banded iron formations but the contributing processes and timing remain controversial. Very few aquatic habitats have been discovered that match key physico-chemical parameters of the early Archaean Ocean. All previous whole ecosystem Archaean analogue studies have been confined to rare, low sulfur, and permanently stratified lakes...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447613/guilty-repair-sustains-cooperation-angry-retaliation-destroys-it
#11
Anya Skatova, Alexa Spence, Caroline Leygue, Eamonn Ferguson
Sustained cooperative social interactions are key to successful outcomes in many real-world contexts (e.g., climate change and energy conservation). We explore the self-regulatory roles of anger and guilt, as well as prosocial or selfish social preferences in a repeated social dilemma game framed around shared electricity use at home. We explore the proposal that for sustained cooperation, guilty repair needs to override angry retaliation. We show that anger is damaging to cooperation as it leads to retaliation and an increase of defection, while, through guilt, cooperation is repaired resulting in higher levels of cooperation...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447607/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-profile-of-aquaporin-gene-family-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum
#12
S M Shivaraj, Rupesh K Deshmukh, Rhitu Rai, Richard Bélanger, Pawan K Agrawal, Prasanta K Dash
Membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form transmembrane channels and facilitate transport of myriad substrates across the cell membrane in many organisms. Majority of plant MIPs have water transporting ability and are commonly referred as aquaporins (AQPs). In the present study, we identified aquaporin coding genes in flax by genome-wide analysis, their structure, function and expression pattern by pan-genome exploration. Cross-genera phylogenetic analysis with known aquaporins from rice, arabidopsis, and poplar showed five subgroups of flax aquaporins representing 16 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 17 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 13 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 2 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and 3 uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs)...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447606/a-tunable-high-pass-filter-for-simple-and-inexpensive-size-segregation-of-sub-10-nm-nanoparticles
#13
N C Surawski, S Bezantakos, K Barmpounis, M C Dallaston, A Schmidt-Ott, G Biskos
Recent advanced in the fields of nanotechnology and atmospheric sciences underline the increasing need for sizing sub-10-nm aerosol particles in a simple yet efficient way. In this article, we develop, experimentally test and model the performance of a High-Pass Electrical Mobility Filter (HP-EMF) that can be used for sizing nanoparticles suspended in gaseous media. Experimental measurements of the penetration of nanoparticles having diameters down to ca 1nm through the HP-EMF are compared with predictions by an analytic, a semi-empirical and a numerical model...
April 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446795/variants-in-the-il7ra-gene-confer-susceptibility-to-multiple-sclerosis-in-caucasians-evidence-based-on-9734-cases-and-10436-controls
#14
Hong Liu, Jian Huang, Mengmeng Dou, Yong Liu, Biying Xiao, Xu Liu, Zunnan Huang
Recently, numerous genome wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control association studies examining the relationship between interleukin-7 receptor α chain (IL7RA) gene rs3194051, rs987107, rs11567686, and rs11567685 variants and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk have been conducted, but the conclusions have been inconsistent. The main objective of this meta-analysis was to more precisely explore the association of these four IL7RA variants with MS development. Twenty-seven eligible studies involving 9734 cases and 10436 controls were included in the present meta-analysis...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446794/up-scalable-full-colour-plasmonic-pixels-with-controllable-hue-brightness-and-saturation
#15
Renilkumar Mudachathi, Takuo Tanaka
It has long been the interests of scientists to develop ink free colour printing technique using nano structured materials inspired by brilliant colours found in many creatures like butterflies and peacocks. Recently isolated metal nano structures exhibiting preferential light absorption and scattering have been explored as a promising candidate for this emerging field. Applying such structures in practical use, however, demands the production of individual colours with distinct reflective peaks, tunable across the visible wavelength region combined with controllable colour attributes and economically feasible fabrication...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446793/demonstration-of-shot-noise-limited-swept-source-oct-without-balanced-detection
#16
Vala Fathipour, Tilman Schmoll, Alireza Bonakdar, Skylar Wheaton, Hooman Mohseni
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been utilized in a rapidly growing number of clinical and scientific applications. In particular, swept source OCT (SS-OCT) has attracted many attentions due to its excellent performance. So far however, the limitations of existing photon detectors have prevented achieving shot-noise-limited sensitivity without using balanced-detection scheme in SS-OCT, even when superconducting single-photon detectors were used. Unfortunately, balanced-detection increases OCT system size and cost, as it requires many additional components to boost the laser power and maintain near ideal balanced performance across the whole optical bandwidth...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446792/sulfated-hyaluronan-derivatives-modulate-tgf-%C3%AE-1-receptor-complex-formation-possible-consequences-for-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#17
Linda Koehler, Sergey Samsonov, Sandra Rother, Sarah Vogel, Sebastian Köhling, Stephanie Moeller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Jörg Rademann, Ute Hempel, M Teresa Pisabarro, Dieter Scharnweber, Vera Hintze
Glycosaminoglycans are known to bind biological mediators thereby modulating their biological activity. Sulfated hyaluronans (sHA) were reported to strongly interact with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 leading to impaired bioactivity in fibroblasts. The underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated yet. Examining the interaction of all components of the TGF-β1:receptor complex with sHA by surface plasmon resonance, we could show that highly sulfated HA (sHA3) blocks binding of TGF-β1 to its TGF-β receptor-I (TβR-I) and -II (TβR-II)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446791/tissue-distribution-of-the-mers-coronavirus-receptor-in-bats
#18
W Widagdo, Lineke Begeman, Debby Schipper, Peter R van Run, Andrew A Cunningham, Nils Kley, Chantal B Reusken, Bart L Haagmans, Judith M A van den Brand
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been shown to infect both humans and dromedary camels using dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) as its receptor. The distribution of DPP4 in the respiratory tract tissues of humans and camels reflects MERS-CoV tropism. Apart from dromedary camels, insectivorous bats are suggested as another natural reservoir for MERS-like-CoVs. In order to gain insight on the tropism of these viruses in bats, we studied the DPP4 distribution in the respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues of two frugivorous bat species (Epomophorus gambianus and Rousettus aegyptiacus) and two insectivorous bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and Eptesicus serotinus)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446789/imaging-of-underground-cavities-with-cosmic-ray-muons-from-observations-at-mt-echia-naples
#19
G Saracino, L Amato, F Ambrosino, G Antonucci, L Bonechi, L Cimmino, L Consiglio, R D ' Alessandro, E De Luzio, G Minin, P Noli, L Scognamiglio, P Strolin, A Varriale
Muography is an imaging technique based on the measurement of absorption profiles for muons as they pass through rocks and earth. Muons are produced in the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The technique is conceptually similar to usual X-ray radiography, but with extended capabilities of investigating over much larger thicknesses of matter thanks to the penetrating power of high-energy muons. Over the centuries a complex system of cavities has been excavated in the yellow tuff of Mt...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446788/resolution-enhanced-fourier-ptychographic-microscopy-based-on-high-numerical-aperture-illuminations
#20
Jiasong Sun, Chao Zuo, Liang Zhang, Qian Chen
High-resolution and wide field-of-view (FOV) microscopic imaging plays a central role in diverse applications such as high-throughput screening and digital pathology. However, conventional microscopes face inherent trade-offs between the spatial resolution and FOV, which are fundamental limited by the space-bandwidth product (SBP) of the optical system. The resolution-FOV tradeoff can be effectively decoupled in Fourier ptychography microscopy (FPM), however, to date, the effective imaging NA achievable with a typical FPM system is still limited to the range of 0...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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