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Scientific Reports

J D Albar, A Summerfield, T S Cheng, A Davies, E F Smith, A N Khlobystov, C J Mellor, T Taniguchi, K Watanabe, C T Foxon, L Eaves, P H Beton, S V Novikov
We report the use of a novel atomic carbon source for the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of graphene layers on hBN flakes and on sapphire wafers at substrate growth temperatures of ~1400 °C. The source produces a flux of predominantly atomic carbon, which diffuses through the walls of a Joule-heated tantalum tube filled with graphite powder. We demonstrate deposition of carbon on sapphire with carbon deposition rates up to 12 nm/h. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal the formation of hexagonal moiré patterns when graphene monolayers are grown on hBN flakes...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maarten van der Linden, Geertje H A Westerlaken, Michiel van der Vlist, Joris van Montfrans, Linde Meyaard
A wide variety of microbial and inflammatory factors induce DNA release from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consensus on the kinetics and mechanism of NET release has been hindered by the lack of distinctive methods to specifically quantify NET release in time. Here, we validate and refine a semi-automatic live imaging approach for quantification of NET release. Importantly, our approach is able to correct for neutrophil input and distinguishes NET release from neutrophil death by other means, aspects that are lacking in many NET quantification methods...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hojun Song, Bert Foquet, Ricardo Mariño-Pérez, Derek A Woller
Locusts are grasshoppers that can form dense migrating swarms through an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity, known as locust phase polyphenism. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Schistocerca, which contains both non-swarming grasshoppers and swarming locusts. We find that the desert locust, S. gregaria, which is the only Old World representative of the genus, is the earliest diverging lineage. This suggests that the common ancestor of Schistocerca must have been a swarming locust that crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to America approximately 6 million years ago, giving rise to the current diversity in the New World...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaojing Li, Zhenhua Wu, Jiangtao Liu
We investigate theoretically the effects of a modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in a graphene monolayer. The magnetic fields and supperlattice geometry give rise to distinct Dirac cone shift and open a finite bandgap at the Dirac point. In contrast to the energy spectrum without the RSOC interaction, we find that the RSOC term will develop a spin-splitting energy-momentum dispersion relation in this graphene magnetic supperlattice...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
John K Pearman, Joanne Ellis, Xabier Irigoien, Y V B Sarma, Burton H Jones, Susana Carvalho
The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Krisadaporn Jaturontakul, Thapanan Jatuyosporn, Pasunee Laohawutthichai, Sun-Yong Kim, Tomoyuki Mori, Premruethai Supungul, Toshio Hakoshima, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Kuakarun Krusong
A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP15 was found in heavy and light membrane fractions, indicating that PmVRP15 may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
K Shrestha, D Antonio, M Jaime, N Harrison, D S Mast, D Safarik, T Durakiewicz, J-C Griveau, K Gofryk
Uranium nitride (UN) is one of the most studied actinide materials as it is a promising fuel for the next generation of nuclear reactors. Despite large experimental and theoretical efforts, some of the fundamental questions such as degree of 5 f-electron localization/delocalization and its relationship to magneto-vibrational properties are not resolved yet. Here we show that the magnetostriction of UN measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T and below the Néel temperature is large and exhibits complex behavior with two transitions...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Richard Johnston, Nicola J Pitchford, Neil W Roach, Timothy Ledgeway
Readers with dyslexia are purported to have a selective visual impairment but the underlying nature of the deficit remains elusive. Here, we used a combination of behavioural psychophysics and biologically-motivated computational modeling to investigate if this deficit extends to object segmentation, a process implicated in visual word form recognition. Thirty-eight adults with a wide range of reading abilities were shown random-dot displays spatially divided into horizontal segments. Adjacent segments contained either local motion signals in opposing directions or analogous static form cues depicting orthogonal orientations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yael Alippe, Chun Wang, Biancamaria Ricci, Jianqiu Xiao, Chao Qu, Wei Zou, Deborah V Novack, Yousef Abu-Amer, Roberto Civitelli, Gabriel Mbalaviele
The NLRP3 inflammasome senses a variety of signals referred to as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including those triggered by crystalline particulates or degradation products of extracellular matrix. Since some DAMPs confer tissue-specific activation of the inflammasomes, we tested the hypothesis that bone matrix components function as DAMPs for the NLRP3 inflammasome and regulate osteoclast differentiation. Indeed, bone particles cause exuberant osteoclastogenesis in the presence of RANKL, a response that correlates with NLRP3 abundance and the state of inflammasome activation...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Richard P Haslam, Louise V Michaelson, Drew Sturtevant, Mina Aziz, Kent D Chapman, Olga Sayanova, Johnathan A Napier
There is considerable interest in the de novo production of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not least of all given the importance of these fatty acids in both aquaculture and human nutrition. Previously we have demonstrated the feasibility of using metabolic engineering in transgenic plants (Camelina sativa) to modify the seed oil composition to now include EPA and/or DHA. In this study, we further tailored the seed oil profile to reduce the omega-6 content, and evaluated the performance of such GM plants under field conditions (i...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Naoki Muguruma, Koichi Okamoto, Tadahiko Nakagawa, Katsutaka Sannomiya, Shota Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Tetsuo Kimura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Jun Higashijima, Mitsuo Shimada, Yoko Horino, Shinya Matsumoto, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Tetsuo Nagano, Makoto Shibutani, Tetsuji Takayama
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the earliest precursor lesion of colorectal cancers (CRCs), are a good surrogate marker for CRC risk stratification and chemoprevention. However, the conventional ACF detection method with dye-spraying by magnifying colonoscopy is labor- and skill-intensive. We sought to identify rat and human ACF using a fluorescent imaging technique that targets a molecule specific for ACF. We found that glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1-1 was overexpressed in ACF tissues in a screening experiment...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Sara Becerril, Javier Salvador, Piero Portincasa, Inmaculada Colina, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi
The aim of the present work was to study whether the leptin-adiponectin axis may have a pathophysiological role in the increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress observed in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Leptin, adiponectin, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured in a sample of 140 Caucasian subjects (74 males/66 females), aged 28-82 years, 60 with and 80 without the MS. Total concentrations of adiponectin as well as its multimeric forms HMW, MMW and LMW were significantly lower in individuals with the MS...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
W Dmowski, S Gierlotka, Z Wang, Y Yokoyama, B Palosz, T Egami
Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yee-Huang Ku, Yin-Ching Chuang, Chi-Chung Chen, Mei-Feng Lee, Yan-Chang Yang, Hung-Jen Tang, Wen-Liang Yu
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporin (BSC) in meningitis is important because of limited therapeutic options. To investigate the antibiotic resistance, virulence and epidemiology of KP in meningitis, we conducted a retrospective study for 33 non-metastatic isolates, including primary meningitis (n = 20) and post-craniotomy meningitis (n = 13) collected from 1999 to 2013. BSC resistance was found in 9 (27.3%) isolates, all from post-craniotomy meningitis, harboring bla SHV-5 (n = 6), bla CMY-2 (n = 2), bla DHA-1 (n = 2), and bla TEM-1B (n = 1)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nikolaos K Karadimitriou, Vahid Joekar-Niasar, Omar Godinez Brizuela
There are abundant examples of natural, engineering and industrial applications, in which "solute transport" and "mixing" in porous media occur under multiphase flow conditions. Current state-of-the-art understanding and modelling of such processes are established based on flawed and non-representative models. Moreover, there is no direct experimental result to show the true hydrodynamics of transport and mixing under multiphase flow conditions while the saturation topology is being kept constant for a number of flow rates...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ammar Bin Yousaf, M Imran, Syed Javaid Zaidi, Peter Kasak
The demand for clean renewable energy is increasing due to depleting fossil fuels and environmental concerns. Photocatalytic hydrogen production through water splitting is one such promising route to meet global energy demands with carbon free technology. Alternative photocatalysts avoiding noble metals are highly demanded. Herein, we fabricated heterostructure consist of oxygen-deficient WO3-x nanorods with Zn0.3Cd0.7S nanoparticles for an efficient Z-Scheme photocatalytic system. Our as obtained heterostructure showed photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 352...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luis M Guachalla, Katarina Stojkovic, Katharina Hartl, Marta Kaszowska, Yadhu Kumar, Benjamin Wahl, Tobias Paprotka, Eszter Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Gábor Nagy, Valéria Szijártó
Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for nosocomial infections causing significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of newly emerging multi-drug resistant strains is hampered due to severely limited antibiotic choices. Passive immunization targeting LPS O-antigens has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic option, given the limited variability of Klebsiella O-antigens. Here we report that the O3 serogroup, previously considered to have uniform O-antigen built of mannan, represents three different subtypes differing in the number of mannose residues within the O-antigen repeating units...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lie Xiao, Guobin Liu, Peng Li, Sha Xue
The influence of elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition on soil microbial communities and the rhizospheric effects of Bothriochloa ischaemum were investigated. A pot-cultivation experiment was conducted in climate-controlled chambers under two levels of CO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1)) and three levels of N addition (0, 2.5, and 5 g N m(-2) y(-1)). Soil samples (rhizospheric and bulk soil) were collected for the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (TN), total phosphorus (TP), basal respiration (BR), and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) 106 days after treatments were conducted...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brandan Walters, Tatiana Uynuk-Ool, Miriam Rothdiener, Julian Palm, Melanie L Hart, Jan P Stegemann, Bernd Rolauffs
Stem cells have been predicted to improve disease outcomes and patient lives. Steering stem cell fate - through controlling cell shape - may substantially accelerate progress towards this goal. As mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are continuously exposed in vivo to a dynamically changing biomechanical environment, we hypothesized that exogenous forces can be applied for engineering a variety of significantly different MSC shapes. We applied specific cyclic stretch regimens to human MSCs and quantitatively measured the resulting cell shape, alignment, and expression of smooth muscle (SMC) differentiation markers, as those have been associated with elongated morphology...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yu Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
Conventional functional connectivity (FC), referred to as low-order FC, estimates temporal correlation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series between any pair of brain regions, simply ignoring the potentially high-level relationship among these brain regions. A high-order FC based on "correlation's correlation" has emerged as a new approach for abnormality detection of brain disease. However, separate construction of the low- and high-order FC networks overlooks information exchange between the two FC levels...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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