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Scientific Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916835/plasmon-coupled-whispering-gallery-modes-on-nanodisk-arrays-for-signal-enhancements
#1
Tae Young Kang, Wonju Lee, Heesang Ahn, Dong-Myeong Shin, Chang-Seok Kim, Jin-Woo Oh, Donghyun Kim, Kyujung Kim
Metallic nanostructures including single and double nanodisks are successfully used to enhance the localized electric field in vicinity of microcavity in whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor. We demonstrate numerical calculations of plasmonic coupling of WGMs to single and double nanodisk arrays on a planar substrate. We then experimentally confirmed that the resonance wavelength of WGM sensor was dramatically shifted by adoption of single and double nanodisks on the surface of microcavity in the WGM sensor...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916834/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-glomerulopathy-in-alport-mice-by-helium-ion-scanning-microscopy-him
#2
Kenji Tsuji, Hani Suleiman, Jeffrey H Miner, James M Daley, Diane E Capen, Teodor G Păunescu, Hua A Jenny Lu
The glomerulus exercises its filtration barrier function by establishing a complex filtration apparatus consisting of podocyte foot processes, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells. Disruption of any component of the glomerular filtration barrier leads to glomerular dysfunction, frequently manifested as proteinuria. Ultrastructural studies of the glomerulus by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been routinely used to identify and classify various glomerular diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916833/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-rimonabant-a-therapeutic-target-for-colon-cancer
#3
Maria Chiara Proto, Donatella Fiore, Chiara Piscopo, Silvia Franceschelli, Valentina Bizzarro, Chiara Laezza, Gianluigi Lauro, Alessandra Feoli, Alessandra Tosco, Giuseppe Bifulco, Gianluca Sbardella, Maurizio Bifulco, Patrizia Gazzerro
In a high percentage (≥85%) of both sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), the inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene initiates tumor formation and modulates the Wnt/β-Catenin transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and metastasis. Increasing evidence showed that the endocannabinoids control tumor growth and progression, both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the effect of Rimonabant, a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist, on the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in HCT116 and SW48 cell lines carrying the genetic profile of metastatic CRC poorly responsive to chemotherapies...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916832/design-of-multivalent-inhibitors-for-preventing-cellular-uptake
#4
Veronika Schubertová, Francisco J Martinez-Veracoechea, Robert Vácha
Cellular entry, the first crucial step of viral infection, can be inhibited by molecules adsorbed on the virus surface. However, apart from using stronger affinity, little is known about the properties of such inhibitors that could increase their effectiveness. Our simulations showed that multivalent inhibitors can be designed to be much more efficient than their monovalent counterparts. For example, for our particular simulation model, a single multivalent inhibitor spanning 5 to 6 binding sites is enough to prevent the uptake compared to the required 1/3 of all the receptor binding sites needed to be blocked by monovalent inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916831/the-melanocortin-signaling-camp-axis-accelerates-repair-and-reduces-mutagenesis-of-platinum-induced-dna-damage
#5
Stuart G Jarrett, Katharine M Carter, Brent J Shelton, John A D'Orazio
Using primary melanocytes and HEK293 cells, we found that cAMP signaling accelerates repair of bi- and mono-functional platinum-induced DNA damage. Elevating cAMP signaling either by the agonistic MC1R ligand melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or by pharmacologic cAMP induction by forskolin enhanced clearance of intrastrand cisplatin-adducts in melanocytes or MC1R-transfected HEK293 cells. MC1R antagonists human beta-defensin 3 and agouti signaling protein blocked MSH- but not forskolin-mediated enhancement of platinum-induced DNA damage...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916830/the-effects-of-different-enrofloxacin-dosages-on-clinical-efficacy-and-resistance-development-in-chickens-experimentally-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#6
Jun Li, Haihong Hao, Guyue Cheng, Xu Wang, Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Zhenli Liu, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
To investigate the optimal dosage which can improve clinical efficacy and minimize resistance, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics model of enrofloxacin was established. Effect of enrofloxacin treatments on clearance of Salmonella in experimentally infected chickens and simultaneously resistance selection in Salmonella and coliforms were evaluated in three treatment groups (100, PK/PD designed dosage of 4, 0.1 mg/kg b.w.) and a control group. Treatment duration was three rounds of 7-day treatment alternated with 7-day withdrawal...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916828/invasive-andropogon-gayanus-gamba-grass-alters-litter-decomposition-and-nitrogen-fluxes-in-an-australian-tropical-savanna
#7
N A Rossiter-Rachor, S A Setterfield, L B Hutley, D McMaster, S Schmidt, M M Douglas
The African grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is invading Australian savannas, altering their ecological and biogeochemical function. To assess impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, we quantified litter decomposition and N dynamics of grass litter in native grass and A. gayanus invaded savanna using destructive in situ grass litter harvests and litterbag incubations (soil surface and aerial position). Only 30% of the A. gayanus in situ litter decomposed, compared to 61% of the native grass litter, due to the former being largely comprised of highly resistant A...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916827/role-of-rkky-torque-on-domain-wall-motion-in-synthetic-antiferromagnetic-nanowires-with-opposite-spin-hall-angles
#8
S Krishnia, P Sethi, W L Gan, F N Kholid, I Purnama, M Ramu, T S Herng, J Ding, W S Lew
We experimentally show the effect of enhanced spin-orbit and RKKY induced torques on the current-induced motion of a pair of domain walls (DWs), which are coupled antiferromagnetically in synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) nanowires. The torque from the spin Hall effect (SHE) rotates the Néel DWs pair into the transverse direction, which is due to the fact that heavy metals of opposite spin Hall angles are deposited at the top and the bottom ferromagnetic interfaces. The rotation of both DWs in non-collinear fashion largely perturbs the antiferromagnetic coupling, which in turn stimulates an enhanced interlayer RKKY exchange torque that improved the DW velocity...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916826/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biocompatibility-evaluation-of-polyallylamine-and-macromolecular-heparin-conjugates-modified-alginate-microbeads
#9
Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Bjørg Steinkjer, Liv Ryan, Rolf Larsson, Bernard Edward Tuch, Jose Oberholzer, Anne Mari Rokstad
Host reactivity to biocompatible immunoisolation devices is a major challenge for cellular therapies, and a human screening model would be of great value. We designed new types of surface modified barium alginate microspheres, and evaluated their inflammatory properties using human whole blood, and the intraperitoneal response after three weeks in Wistar rats. Microspheres were modified using proprietary polyallylamine (PAV) and coupled with macromolecular heparin conjugates (Corline Heparin Conjugate, CHC)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916825/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-cosmopolitan-dinoflagellate-amphidinium-carterae-to-identify-enzymes-with-biotechnological-potential
#10
Chiara Lauritano, Daniele De Luca, Alberto Ferrarini, Carla Avanzato, Andrea Minio, Francesco Esposito, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are phytoplanktonic organisms found in both freshwater and marine habitats. They are often studied because related to harmful algal blooms but they are also known to produce bioactive compounds for the treatment of human pathologies. The aim of this study was to sequence the full transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae in both nitrogen-starved and -replete culturing conditions (1) to evaluate the response to nitrogen starvation at the transcriptional level, (2) to look for possible polyketide synthases (PKSs) in the studied clone (genes that may be involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds), (3) if present, to evaluate if nutrient starvation can influence PKS expression, (4) to look for other possible enzymes of biotechnological interest and (5) to test strain cytotoxicity on human cell lines...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916824/grip-force-when-reaching-with-target-uncertainty-provides-evidence-for-motor-optimization-over-averaging
#11
Joseph Y Nashed, Jonathan S Diamond, Jason P Gallivan, Daniel M Wolpert, J Randall Flanagan
When presented with competing potential reach targets and required to launch a movement before knowing which one will be cued as the target, people initially reach in the average target direction. Although this spatial averaging could arise from executing a weighted average of motor plans for the potential targets, it could also arise from planning a single, optimal movement. To test between these alternatives we used a task in which participants were required to reach to either a single target or towards two potential targets while grasping an object...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916823/digging-into-the-low-molecular-weight-peptidome-with-the-oligonet-web-server
#12
Youzhong Liu, Sara Forcisi, Marianna Lucio, Mourad Harir, Florian Bahut, Magali Deleris-Bou, Sibylle Krieger-Weber, Régis D Gougeon, Hervé Alexandre, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Bioactive peptides play critical roles in regulating many biological processes. Recently, natural short peptides biomarkers are drawing significant attention and are considered as "hidden treasure" of drug candidates. High resolution and high mass accuracy provided by mass spectrometry (MS)-based untargeted metabolomics would enable the rapid detection and wide coverage of the low-molecular-weight peptidome. However, translating unknown masses (<1 500 Da) into putative peptides is often limited due to the lack of automatic data processing tools and to the limit of peptide databases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916821/reduced-basal-forebrain-atrophy-progression-in-a-randomized-donepezil-trial-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Enrica Cavedo, Michel J Grothe, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Marie Chupin, Didier Dormont, Marion Houot, Stephane Lehéricy, Stefan Teipel, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy is reported to precede both entorhinal cortex atrophy and memory impairment in AD, challenging the traditional model of the temporal sequence of topographical pathology associated with AD. We studied the effect of one-year Donepezil treatment on the rate of BFCS atrophy in prodromal AD patients using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Donepezil (10 mg/day)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916820/accumulation-of-minor-alleles-and-risk-prediction-in-schizophrenia
#14
Pei He, Xiaoyun Lei, Dejian Yuan, Zuobin Zhu, Shi Huang
Schizophrenia is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime risk of 1%. Accumulation of common polygenic variations has been found to be an important risk factor. Recent studies showed a role for the enrichment of minor alleles (MAs) of SNPs in complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Here we similarly studied the role of genome wide MAs in schizophrenia using public datasets. Relative to matched controls, schizophrenia cases showed higher average values in minor allele content (MAC) or the average amount of MAs per subject...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916819/continuous-beam-steering-through-broadside-using-asymmetrically-modulated-goubau-line-leaky-wave-antennas
#15
Xiao-Lan Tang, Qingfeng Zhang, Sanming Hu, Yaqiang Zhuang, Abhishek Kandwal, Ge Zhang, Yifan Chen
Goubau line is a single-conductor transmission line, featuring easy integration and low-loss transmission properties. Here, we propose a periodic leaky-wave antenna (LWA) based on planar Goubau transmission line on a thin dielectric substrate. The leaky-wave radiations are generated by introducing periodic modulations along the Goubau line. In this way, the surface wave, which is slow-wave mode supported by the Goubau line, achieves an additional momentum and hence enters the fast-wave region for radiations...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916818/identification-of-4-phenylquinolin-2-1h-one-as-a-specific-allosteric-inhibitor-of-akt
#16
Bill X Huang, Kenny Newcomer, Karl Kevala, Elena Barnaeva, Wei Zheng, Xin Hu, Samarjit Patnaik, Noel Southall, Juan Marugan, Marc Ferrer, Hee-Yong Kim
Akt plays a major role in tumorigenesis and the development of specific Akt inhibitors as effective cancer therapeutics has been challenging. Here, we report the identification of a highly specific allosteric inhibitor of Akt through a FRET-based high-throughput screening, and characterization of its inhibitory mechanism. Out of 373,868 compounds screened, 4-phenylquinolin-2(1H)-one specifically decreased Akt phosphorylation at both T308 and S473, and inhibited Akt kinase activity (IC50 = 6 µM) and downstream signaling...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916817/micro-and-nano-hierachical-structures-of-bioi-activated-carbon-for-efficient-visible-light-photocatalytic-reactions
#17
Jianhua Hou, Kun Jiang, Ming Shen, Rui Wei, Xiaoge Wu, Faryal Idrees, Chuanbao Cao
Constructing the heterojunctions or designing the novel nanostructures are thought as effective methods to improve photocatalytic activities of semiconductors. Herein, a one-step green route was developed to fabricate bismuth oxyiodide/activated carbon (BiOI/C) composite. The prepared BiOI/C exhibit obviously red shifts and increased absorption range of visible light. The presence of Bi-C bonds confirms the heterojunction, on account of which the BiOI nanosheets tightly grew on the surface of carbon and subsequently provided the hierarchical structure, sufficient interfacial interaction and high specific surface area...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916816/striking-diflubenzuron-resistance-in-culex-pipiens-the-prime-vector-of-west-nile-virus
#18
Linda Grigoraki, Arianna Puggioli, Konstantinos Mavridis, Vassilis Douris, Mario Montanari, Romeo Bellini, John Vontas
Culex pipiens mosquitoes cause severe nuisance and transmit human diseases including West Nile. Vector control by insecticides is the main tool to prevent these diseases and diflubenzuron is one of the most effective mosquito larvicides used in many places. Here, high levels of resistance were identified in Cx. pipiens from Italy, with a Resistance Ratio of 128 fold. The phenotype was associated with mutations at amino acid I1043 (I1043M and I1043L) of the Chitin synthase gene, which showed significantly higher frequency in bioassay survivors...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916815/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-in-tumour-cell-and-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-and-its-prognostic-value
#19
Ahrong Kim, So Jeong Lee, Young Keum Kim, Won Young Park, Do Youn Park, Jee Yeon Kim, Chang Hun Lee, Gyungyub Gong, Gi Yeong Huh, Kyung Un Choi
Immunotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis showed benefits in cancer. Prognostic significance of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been determined. We evaluated PD-L1 protein expression in tumour cells and TILs, PD-L1 mRNA level and various histopathologic factors including TILs using 167 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and 39 fresh tissue of HER2-positive breast cancer. TILs level and PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and TILs were significantly correlated one another. PD-L1 positivity in tumour cells was associated with high histologic grade and high TILs level (p < 0...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916814/expression-of-brown-midrib-in-a-spontaneous-sorghum-mutant-is-linked-to-a-5-utr-deletion-in-lignin-biosynthesis-gene-sbcad2
#20
Huang Li, Yinghua Huang
Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Studying bmr mutants has considerably expanded our understanding of the molecular basis underlying lignin biosynthesis and perturbation in grasses. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, identified and cloned a novel cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase allele (SbCAD2) that has an 8-bp deletion in its 5'-untranslated region (UTR), conferring the spontaneous brown midrib trait and lignin reduction in the sorghum germplasm line PI 595743...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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