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Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203487/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-potential-therapeutics-for-neuropathology-associated-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Paul D Drew, Cynthia J M Kane
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. These disorders present a variety of sequelae including involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with lasting impact on cognitive function and behavior. FASD occur at an alarming rate and have significant personal and societal impact. There are currently no effective treatments for FASD. Recent studies demonstrate that ethanol induces potent neuroinflammation in many regions of the developing brain. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory agents such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists suppress ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191362/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-rhinovirus-infected-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#2
Di Jiang, Reena Berman, Qun Wu, Connor Stevenson, Hong Wei Chu
OBJECTIVE: Excessive airway inflammation is seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing acute exacerbations, which are often associated with human rhinovirus (HRV) infection. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) has anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells and monocytes, but its anti-inflammatory effect has not been investigated in COPD airway epithelial cells. We determined A1AT's anti-inflammatory function in COPD airway epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms such as the role of caspase-1...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180029/the-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#3
Ryan Mokhtari, Herbert M Lachman
Epidemiological studies and mouse models suggest that maternal immune activation, induced clinically through prenatal exposure to one of several infectious diseases, is a risk factor in the development of schizophrenia. This is supported by the strong genetic association established by genome wide association studies (GWAS) between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus and schizophrenia. HLA proteins (also known in mice as the major histocompatibility complex; MHC) are mediators of the T-lymphocyte responses, and genetic variability is well-established as a risk factor for autoimmune diseases and susceptibility to infectious diseases...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149670/expression-and-regulation-of-cholecystokinin-receptor-in-the-chicken-s-immune-organs-and-cells
#4
Seham El-Kassas, Solomon Odemuyiwa, George Hajishengallis, Terry D Connell, Toufic O Nashar
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that affects growth rate in chickens by regulating appetite. CCK peptides exert their function by binding to two identified receptors, CCKAR and CCKBR in the GI tract and the brain, respectively, as well as in other organs. In mammals, CCK/CCKAR interactions affect a number of immunological parameters, including regulation of lymphocytes and functioning of monocytes. Thus, food intake and growth can potentially be altered by infection and the resulting inflammatory immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111608/repairing-the-aged-parkinsonian-striatum-lessons-from-the-lab-and-clinic
#5
Natosha M Mercado, Timothy J Collier, Thomas Freeman, Kathy Steece-Collier
The primary risk factor associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is advanced age. While there are symptomatic therapies for PD, efficacy of these eventually wane and/or side-effects develop over time. An alternative experimental therapy that has received a great deal of attention over the past several decades has been neural transplantation aimed at replacing nigral dopamine (DA) neurons that degenerate in PD. However, in PD patients and parkinsonian rats, advanced age is associated with inferior benefit following intrastriatal grafting of embryonic DA neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090375/autologous-bone-marrow-transplantation-in-multiple-sclerosis-biomarker-relevance-for-patient-recruitment-and-follow-up
#6
Ana C Londoño, Carlos A Mora
BACKGROUND: Despite the current availability of disease modifying therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there are still patients who suffer from severe neurological dysfunction in the relapsing-remitting or early progressive forms of the disease. For these patients autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant offers an important therapeutic solution to prevent progression to irreversible disability. In spite of multiple studies in the last two decades, patient inclusion criteria, protocols for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and bone marrow cell conditioning and methodology of follow up for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in multiple sclerosis have not been strictly unified...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066687/how-little-is-too-much-how-transient-tumor-stromal-crosstalk-can-control-tumor-progression
#7
Christina H Stuelten
Tumorigenesis is driven by genetic and physiological alterations of tumor cells as well as by the host microenvironment. In a co-culture of breast cancer cells and fibroblasts, short term interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts increase levels of active, fibroblast derived TGF-β in the extracellular medium, which in turn induces an expanded metastatic pattern of MCF10CA1a cells. These findings suggest that the effects of stromal TGF-β on tumor cell phenotype can be modeled as a dynamical system rather than a continuous linear system...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957385/ar-12-inhibits-chaperone-proteins-preventing-virus-replication-and-the-accumulation-of-toxic-misfolded-proteins
#8
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Heath Ecroyd, St Patrick Reid, Stefan Proniuk, Alexander Zukiwski, Abraham Jacob, Elsa Damonte, María J Tuñón, Paul Dent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942420/er-stress-induced-inflammasome-activation-contributes-to-hepatic-inflammation-and-steatosis
#9
Jinyu Zhang, Kezhong Zhang, Zihai Li, Beichu Guo
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress functions as a protein folding and quality control mechanism to maintain cell homeostasis. Emerging evidence indicates that ER stress is also involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, the link between ER stress and inflammation remains not well characterized. In this study, we have demonstrated that ER stress-induced inflammasome activation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. By utilizing genetic and pharmacological agent-induced hepatic steatosis animal models, we found that hepatic steatosis was associated with inflammasome activation and ER stress...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942419/immune-suppression-mediated-by-myeloid-and-lymphoid-derived-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-facilitates-progression-of-thyroid-cancers-driven-by-hras-g12v-and-pten-loss
#10
Lee Ann Jolly, Nicole Massoll, Aime T Franco
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and is predicted to be the 4(th) most commonly diagnosed cancer by 2030. Approximately one-half of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) contain genetic alterations in RAS family members. Furthermore, Cowden's disease, which is characterized by loss of PTEN, predisposes for the development of FTC in humans. We have shown that thyroid specific expression of Hras(G12V) at endogenous levels and Pten inactivation (Hras(G12V)/Pten(-/-)/TPO-cre mice) leads to the development of FTCs that closely recapitulate human disease, with complete penetrance at one year...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853628/tir-domain-containing-adapter-inducing-interferon-%C3%AE-trif-regulates-cxcr5-t-helper-cells-in-the-intestine
#11
Saravana Kanagavelu, Claudia Flores, Shinichiro Hagiwara, Jose Ruiz, Jinhee Hyun, Ei E Cho, Frank Sun, Laura Romero, David Q Shih, Masayuki Fukata
OBJECTIVE: Establishing an effective humoral immunity is an important host defense mechanism in intestinal mucosa. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a spectrum of CXCR5 expressing T helper cells that induce antigen-specific B cell differentiation. Because the differentiation of T helper cells is largely regulated by innate immunity, we addressed whether TRIF signaling regulates Tfh cell differentiation and its ability to trigger humoral immune responses in the intestine. METHOD: CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells, B cells, and plasma cells in the Peyer's patches (PPs) of WT and TRIF-deficient (Trif(LPS2)) mice were analyzed by flow cytometry at the baseline, 9 days post primary infection, and 7 days post-secondary infection with Y...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895978/cytokines-and-cytokine-receptors-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Tomone Nagae, Kiho Araki, Yuki Shimoda, Lucia I Sue, Thomas G Beach, Yoshihiro Konishi
Inflammatory mechanisms are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether inflammatory alterations are a cause or consequence of neurodegeneration leading to dementia. Clarifying this issue would provide valuable insight into the early diagnosis and therapeutic management of AD. To address this, we compared the mRNA expression profiles of cytokines in the brains of AD patients with "non-demented individuals with AD pathology" and non-demented healthy control (ND) individuals...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747135/multiple-defects-impair-the-hla-class-ii-antigen-presentation-capacity-of-burkitt-lymphoma
#13
Jason M God, Azizul Haque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747134/interleukin-6-a-constitutive-modulator-of-glycoprotein-130-neuroinflammatory-and-cell-survival-signaling-in-retina
#14
Franklin D Echevarria, Abigayle E Rickman, Rebecca M Sappington
OBJECTIVE: The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines and their signal transducer glycoprotein (gp130) are implicated in inflammatory and cell survival functions in glaucoma. There are several avenues for interdependent modulation of IL-6 family members and gp130 signaling. Here we investigated whether IL-6 modulates gp130 and related neuroinflammatory, cell survival and regulatory signaling in both healthy and glaucomatous retina. METHODS: In naïve and glaucomatous (Microbead Occlusion Model), wildtype (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6-/-) mice, we examined gp130 protein expression and localization, using western blot and immunohistochemistry...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656328/development-of-incvax-in-situ-cancer-vaccine-and-its-immune-response-in-mice-with-hepatocellular-cancer
#15
Xiaoqiang Qi, Samuel Sk Lam, Dai Liu, Dae Young Kim, Lixin Ma, Lu Alleruzzo, Wei Chen, Tomas Hode, Carolyn J Henry, Jussuf Kaifi, Eric T Kimchi, Guangfu Li, Kevin F Staveley-O'Carroll
Manipulation of immune system toward the rejection of established cancers has become the standard of care in some patients. Here we propose the development of an in situ autologous cancer vaccine, inCVAX, for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). inCVAX is based on the induction of local immunogenic cancer cell death combined with local dendritic cell stimulation by intratumoral injection of the immune-activator N-dihydro-galacto-chitosan (GC). In a first set of experiments, cellular and molecular studies were performed to investigate the effect of inCVAX on immune activation in a murine model of HCC that we previously developed...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478681/impact-of-depression-and-inflammation-on-the-progression-of-hiv-disease
#16
Yainyrette Rivera-Rivera, Fabián J Vázquez-Santiago, Elinette Albino, María Del C Sánchez, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic has negatively affected over 40 million people worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved life expectancy and changed the outcome of HIV-1 infection, making it a chronic and manageable disease. However, AIDS and non-AIDS comorbid illnesses persist during the course of infection despite the use of ART. In addition, the development of neuropsychiatric comorbidities (including depression) by HIV-infected subjects significantly affects quality of life, medication adherence, and disease prognosis...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453801/th17-cells-in-protection-from-tumor-or-promotion-of-tumor-progression
#17
M Rita I Young
The roles of inflammation and inflammatory cells such as Th17 cells in the development and progression of cancer have been extensively studied. However, the results have been varied, with conflicting conclusions. Most studies have focused on changes in inflammatory phenotypes once cancers have developed and disease is progressing. Far fewer studies have looked at the immune phenotypic changes that occur during progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. The impact of inflammation and, in particular, Th17 cells on tumor biology is summarized in this review, with a focus on the differences in the outcomes of studies...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446638/fc-receptor-like-proteins-in-pathophysiology-of-b-cell-disorder
#18
Mollie Capone, John Matthew Bryant, Natalie Sutkowski, Azizul Haque
Members of the family of Fc receptor-like (FcRL) proteins, homologous to FcγRI, have been identified by multiple research groups. Consequently, they have been described using multiple nomenclatures including Fc receptor homologs (FcRH), immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation-associated genes (IRTA), immunoglobulin-Fc-gp42-related genes (IFGP), Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase anchor proteins (SPAP), and B cell cross-linked by anti-immunoglobulin M-activating sequences (BXMAS). They are now referred to under a unified nomenclature as FCRL...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441095/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induces-expansion-of-foxp3-positive-cd4-t-cells-with-a-regulatory-profile-in-tuberculin-non-sensitized-healthy-subjects-implications-for-effective-immunization-against-tb
#19
Christina S Hirsch, Roxana Rojas, Mianda Wu, Zahra Toossi
OBJECTIVE: Infection by MTB or exposure to MTB constituents is associated with intense microbial stimulation of the immune system, through both antigenic and TLR components, and induction of a milieu that is rich in pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we addressed the basis of induced regulatory T-cell (iT-reg) expansion in response to MTB stimulation, in the absence of prior T cell antigen responsiveness. METHODS: PBMC from HIV-1 un-infected TST negative and TST positive control subjects were stimulated by virulent MTB H37Rv lysate (L), a French press preparation of MTB that includes all bacterial components...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398263/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-production-by-immortalized-human-chondrocyte-lines
#20
Charles J Malemud, Evan C Meszaros, Meredith A Wylie, Wissam Dahoud, Yelenna Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Sam Mesiano
We reported at the Keynote Forum of Immunology Summit-2015 that recombinant human (rh) TNF-α or rhIL-6 stimulated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the T/C28a2 and C-28/I2 human immortalized chondrocyte cell lines. Furthermore, we reported that tocilizumab (TCZ), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody which neutralizes IL-6-mediated signaling, inhibited the rhIL-6-mediated increase in the production of MMP-9. IL-6 is also a known activator of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. In that regard, we evaluated the effect of rhIL-6 on total and phosphorylated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription by these chondrocyte lines which showed that whereas STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in T/C28a2 chondrocytes, rhIL-6 activated STAT3 in C-28/I2 chondrocytes...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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