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Medical Mycology Journal

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2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Taminori Obayashi
 In 1985, a (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay based on the discovery of a (1→3)-β-D-glucan-sensitive coagulation factor in the horseshoe crab amebocytes was developed in Japan, as a test aid in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. After many clinical trials, it has now been incorporated in practice guidelines both in Japan and abroad for the diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infection, and is now available worldwide. In Japan, however, two commercial kits that differ widely in sensitivity to (1→3)-β-D-glucan are used; namely, the colorimetric and the turbidimetric assays...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Masato Tashiro, Koichi Izumikawa
 The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Masatomo Kimura
 Fungal sinusitis is divided into two categories depending on mucosal invasion by fungus, i.e., invasive and noninvasive. Invasive fungal sinusitis is further divided into acute and chronic disease based on time course. Noninvasive fungal sinusitis includes chronic noninvasive sinusitis (fungal ball type) and allergic fungal sinusitis. Chronic noninvasive sinusitis is the most predominant fungal sinusitis in Japan, followed by allergic fungal sinusitis. Invasive fungal sinusitis is rare. Hyphal tissue invasion is seen in invasive fungal sinusitis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Rui Kano
 Canine and feline upper respiratory tract (URT) infection due to Aspergillus spp. is considered an emerging disease, with the number of reported cases continuing to rise in Japan. Aspergillus fumigatus has been the most frequently reported etiologic agent of sino-orbital aspergillosis in dogs and cats; the other Aspergillus species, Aspergillus felis, Aspergillus fischeri, Aspergillus udagawae, Aspergillus viridinutans, and A. fumigatus, have also been implicated in feline cases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal drugs are elevated for these cryptic species compared with A...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Masayuki Hasuko, Ryo Shiomi, Yoshinori Takahashi, Kazuhiko Motoba, Hirofumi Hirano, Ryoji Tsuboi, Katsuhiro Inagaki
 Affinity of Luliconazole (LLCZ), an antifungal drug used for topical treatment of onychomycosis in Japan, to nail keratin was demonstrated. Efinaconazole (EFCZ) was used as a reference drug. Drugs at fixed concentrations were added to 4 ml of buffer solution containing 40 mg of nail keratin powder prepared from healthy volunteers or from tinea unguium patients. The mixtures were shaken at 37℃, and adsorption and desorption rates of the drug in nail keratin were measured. Theoretical analysis using the Freundlich adsorption isotherm was applied to eliminate effects of testing conditions on the results...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Eri Ikeda, Soko Watanabe, Mizuki Sawada, Junya Ninomiya, Itaru Dekio, Sumiko Ishizaki, Mariko Fujibayashi, Masaru Tanaka, Takashi Harada
  67-year-old female patient developed drug-induced liver dysfunction after taking oral itraconazole (ITCZ) for the treatment of kerion celsi. Red papules appeared on the temporal area of the patient one month prior to her visit to our clinic. The patient presented with a nodule with yellow crust, erosion, infiltration, and hair loss on the area. Diagnosis of kerion celsi caused by Trichophyton rubrum was made from clinical, pathological, and mycological findings. Laboratory data showed normal liver function, and the patient was not taking any other medication, thus, daily oral ITCZ 100 mg was started...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Surface antigen protein 2 (Csa2) is a member of the Candida albicans Common in Fungal Extracellular Membranes (CFEM) protein superfamily. We previously established its role in iron acquisition in C. albicans. However, the other roles of Csa2 remain unknown. Here, we compared growth, morphological transition, and biofilm formation among wild-type, Csa2-mutant, and complemented strains of C. albicans. Deletion of the Csa2 gene resulted in smaller and reduced colony growth, significant attenuation of the dimorphic transition under serum-inducing conditions, and reduced biofilm formation; complementation restored these levels to those of the wild-type...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Yuichiro Kurone, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Noriko N Miura, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
Aspergillus is a medically important fungal genus that causes a life-threatening infection known as aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. β-1,3-Glucan is detected in the plasma of patients with aspergillosis and appears to be useful for the diagnosis of aspergillosis. In this study, we cultured Aspergillus spp. in a chemically defined liquid medium and prepared an Aspergillus water-soluble fraction (ASWS) from the culture supernatants. ASWS was found to be primarily composed of polysaccharides and proteins...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Naoto Shimetani
Real-time test results are necessary for early diagnosis and in determining treatment orientation in medical practice. Point of Care Testing (POCT) is a testing system that provides beneficial and helpful information for diagnosis and treatment through real-time testing at the bedside. Therefore, POCT has high utility value in the field of infectious diseases as a rapid test that provides, within the consultation hours, useful information for initial treatment.Infectious disease rapid test kits are commercially available for a wide variety of prophlogistic pathogen targets, including bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and other disease agents...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Ko Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-type opportunistic fungal pathogen with a capsule structure consisting of polysaccharides, such as glucuronoxylomannan and galactoxylomannan, and infects the lungs via an air-borne route. Most healthy individuals undergo asymptomatic infection with granulomatous lesions in the lungs caused by C. neoformans. However, immunocompromised hosts with severely impaired cellular immunity, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), often suffer from disseminated infection into the central nervous system, leading to life-threatening meningoencephalitis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Takashi Sugita, Otomi Cho, Masako Takashima
Fungal taxonomy has been reconstructed on the basis of genome information, and new nomenclatural rules have been enacted from 2013. It has been proposed that Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii be reclassified into two species (C. neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans) and five species (C. gattii, Cryptococcus bacillisporus, Cryptococcus deuterogattii, Cryptococcus tetragattii, and Cryptococcus decagattii), respectively. The genus Trichosporon has been reclassified into five genera. Trichosporon asahii, which is the causative agent of trichosporonosis, has been retained in the genus Trichosporon, while Trichosporon cutaneum has been transferred into a new genus, Cutaneotrichosporon...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Tomomichi Ono
Masao Ota was a Professor of Dermatology at Tokyo Imperial University. He is known to dermatologists around the world as the researcher who identified Nevus of Ota. He is also known for his research on Hansen's Disease. He was critical of the forced isolation policy and the sterilization law. He dreamt of developing chemotherapeutic measures and dedicated himself to cultivating Mycobacterium leprae. Among his accomplishments, those in the area of medical mycology are particularly remarkable. His discovery of Microsporum ferrugineum, his proposal for Trichophytia pompholyciformis, and his work on Ota-Langeron taxonomy based on the findings on fungus colonies are highly regarded and earned him the Ordre Royale de la Legion D'honneur...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Hiroki Kageshima, Kazumi Hayama, Miki Takahashi, Miho Abe, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Akira Saito, Shoichiro Hirano, Yoichi Murakami, Shigeru Abe
A lysozyme-chitosan conjugate preparation (LYZOX), produced from egg white lysozyme and chitosan by Maillard reaction, is a commercial product developed as a cosmetic ingredient or food additive. Effects of LYZOX on in vitro growth of Candida albicans were examined. C. albicans cells were treated with LYZOX for 3 hrs, and then washed and cultured for an additional 16 hrs in modified RPMI1640 medium. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was clearly inhibited by more than 100 μg/ml of LYZOX in a concentration-dependent manner...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with invasive aspergillosis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Yuhko Suzuki, Hikaru Kume, Tomiteru Togano, Hitoshi Ohto
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: To identify recent trends in the frequency of zygomycosis in autopsy cases, we conducted epidemiological analysis every four years from 1989 to 2009 using national data reported in the "Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan." RESULTS: 153,615 cases were autopsied, of which 6622 (4.3%) were found to have had mycosis. Among these, there were 243 cases (3.7%) of zygomycosis, which was the fourth most predominant causative agent of mycoses among the monopathogen mycoses...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Teru Fukutomi, Rui Kano, Hiroshi Kamata
Morphology and molecular characteristics of Microsporum gypseum clinical isolates obtained from the fur of a normal rabbit (n=1) and the soil from 10 different rabbit hutches in six elementary schools (n=10) were examined. Isolates were also identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. All 11 isolates demonstrated homology with the Arthroderma fulvum ITS sequence. Furthermore, PCR analysis for the presence of mating type genes detected positivity for MAT1-1 (n=10) and MAT1-2 (n=1)...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
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