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Nucleic Acid Therapeutics

Aaron J Donner, Thomas A Bell, Sarah Greenlee, Mark J Graham, Rosanne M Crooke
To determine if the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), containing phosphorothioate backbones and 2'-O-methoxyethyl RNA modifications (2'-MOE ASOs), can be altered by renal disease, a series of experiments were performed in models of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). In an adenine diet model of CKD, 2'-MOE ASO activity in the whole kidney was preserved and the reduction in target RNA was sustained for 2-4 weeks postdose. Additionally, 2'-MOE ASO distribution within the kidney was altered in mice with CKD, in that ASO delivery to cortical regions with tubular damage was reduced while distribution to the medulla was increased...
August 22, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Jessica Chery, Andreas Petri, Alexandre Wagschal, Sun-Young Lim, James Cunningham, Shobha Vasudevan, Sakari Kauppinen, Anders M Näär
The Ebola virus is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% lethality. The deadly 2014 Ebola outbreak quickly made an unprecedented impact on human lives. While several vaccines and therapeutics are under development, current approaches contain several limitations, such as virus mutational escape, need for formulation or refrigeration, poor scalability, long lead-time, and high cost. To address these challenges, we developed locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to target critical Ebola viral proteins and the human intracellular host protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), required for viral entry into infected cells...
August 22, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Ivana Domljanovic, Anders Højgaard Hansen, Lykke H Hansen, Janne Kudsk Klitgaard, Maria Taskova, Kira Astakhova
Synthetic oligonucleotides, their complexes and conjugates with other biomolecules represent valuable research tools and therapeutic agents. In spite of growing applications in basic research and clinical science, only few studies have addressed the issue of such compounds' stability in biological media. Herein, we studied the stability of two therapeutically relevant oligonucleotide probes in simulated biofluids; the 21 nucleotide-long DNA/locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide ON targeted toward cancer-associated BRAF V600E mutation, and a longer DNA analog (TTC) originating from BRAF gene...
August 14, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Takeshi Kasuya, Akira Kugimiya
Gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (gapmers) sometimes cleave nontarget pre-mRNAs by recognizing target-like intronic/exonic portions. This off-target RNA cleavage could be a major cause of the hepatotoxicity that is induced by gapmers. In line with these findings, we hypothesized that gapmers with higher specificity have less hepatotoxicity, and that those with lower specificity have greater toxicity. To examine this concept, we investigated various Malat1-targeting gapmers with various computationally evaluated target specificities...
August 10, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Ruchi Jain, Josh P Frederick, Eric Y Huang, Kristine E Burke, David M Mauger, Elizaveta A Andrianova, Sam J Farlow, Summar Siddiqui, Jeffrey Pimentel, Kahlin Cheung-Ong, Kristine M McKinney, Caroline Köhrer, Melissa J Moore, Tirtha Chakraborty
The advent of therapeutic mRNAs significantly increases the possibilities of protein-based biologics beyond those that can be synthesized by recombinant technologies (eg, monoclonal antibodies, extracellular enzymes, and cytokines). In addition to their application in the areas of vaccine development, immune-oncology, and protein replacement therapies, one exciting possibility is to use therapeutic mRNAs to program undesired, diseased cells to synthesize a toxic intracellular protein, causing cells to self-destruct...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Yoshiaki Masaki, Yusuke Iriyama, Hiroyuki Nakajima, Yusuke Kuroda, Tatsuro Kanaki, Satoshi Furukawa, Mitsuo Sekine, Kohji Seio
An RNase H-dependent antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), having the 2'-O-(2-N-methylcarbamoylethyl) (MCE) modification, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The antisense activities of an ASO having the MCE modification were comparable with those of an ASO having the 2'-O-methoxyethyl (MOE) modification in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In contrast, the hepatotoxic potential of the ASO having the MCE modification was lower than that of the ASO having the MOE modification. Thus, these findings suggested that the MCE modification could be used as an alternative to the MOE modification...
July 18, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Francesco Mainini, David S Larsen, Gill A Webster, Sarah L Young, Michael R Eccles
MIS416 is a microparticulate formulation derived from propionibacterium acnes cell wall skeletons with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Conjugates of MIS416-SS-peptide containing a disulfide linkage facilitate the cytoplasmic delivery and release of peptides in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We hypothesized that MIS416-siRNA (small interfering RNA) conjugates, containing a disulfide linkage between MIS416 and the siRNA, would allow cytoplasmic release of siRNA in APCs. MIS416-SS-siStat3 conjugates added to cell culture medium of monolayers of DCs in culture flasks successfully targeted Stat3 mRNA in DCs in vitro without transfection, downregulating Stat3 mRNA and protein levels...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
José J Pérez-Trujillo, Olivia A Robles-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Garza-Morales, Aracely García-García, Humberto Rodríguez-Rocha, Arnulfo Villanueva-Olivo, Juan C Segoviano-Ramírez, Sandra C Esparza-González, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, María J Loera-Arias
Directing an antigen to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) improves the antigen-specific immune response, revealing a potentially useful strategy in cancer immunotherapy using tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). This can be achieved by fusing the antigen to an ER chaperone protein, such as calreticulin (CRT). We previously reported the antitumor response by fusing the CRT signal peptide (SP) and its ER retention sequence (KDEL) to full-length human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 antigens, obtaining a potent antitumoral effect...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Louis Chonco, Gerónimo Fernández, Rahul Kalhapure, María J Hernáiz, Cecilia García-Oliva, Victor M Gonzalez, M Elena Martín, Thirumala Govender, Raveen Parboosing
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) is a cytokine that attracts CCR7-positive cells to the T cell (paracortical) zone of lymph nodes by directional migration of these cells along the CCL21 gradient. In this article, we sought to mimic this chemotactic mechanism, by identifying a novel aptamer that binds CCL21 with high affinity. In vitro selection of DNA aptamers was performed by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay were used to screen for high-affinity aptamers against human and mouse CCL21 protein, respectively...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Thomas A Zanardi, Tae-Won Kim, Lijiang Shen, David Serota, Chris Papagiannis, Shin-Young Park, Yunlip Kim, Scott P Henry
Advances in antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) chemistry and screening have enabled the design and selection of molecules that are optimized for a particular therapeutic application in terms of both potency and tolerability. The most-well studied of the chemically modified ASOs are single-stranded antisense inhibitors with phosphorothioate backbones and 2'-O-methoxyethyl modifications (2'-MOE ASO). The 2'-MOE chemical modification in the design of the ASO has conferred increased hybridization affinity, increased stability, and/or enhanced tissue residence time, resulting in better potency and pharmacokinetics...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Pooja Dua, Sinae Kang, Hye-Soo Shin, Soyoun Kim, Dong-Ki Lee
Increased interest and insights gained by researchers on the roles of endothelial cells in the pathophysiology of cancer, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases have led to the design of pharmacological interventions aimed at the endothelium lining in the diseased sites. Toward this end, we used established brain microvascular endothelial cell lines mouse (bEND3), human (hCMEC/D3), and Toggle Cell-SELEX to identify a species cross-reactive, endothelial cell-internalizing aptamer R11-3. This 2'F-modified RNA aptamer is specific for endothelial cells as no internalization was seen with cells of nonendothelial origin...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Rahul R Nikam, Kiran R Gore
Since the evolutionary discovery of RNA interference and its utilization for gene knockdown in mammalian cell, a remarkable progress has been achieved in small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics. siRNA is a promising tool, utilized as therapeutic agent against various diseases. Despite its significant potential benefits, safe, efficient, and target oriented delivery of siRNA is one of the major challenges in siRNA therapeutics. This review covers major achievements in clinical trials and targeted delivery of siRNAs using various targeting ligand-receptor pair...
August 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Ludger Johannes, Marco Lucchino
RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental cellular process for the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. RNAi can exogenously be modulated by small RNA oligonucleotides, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), or by antisense oligonucleotides. These small oligonucleotides provided the scientific community with powerful and versatile tools to turn off the expression of genes of interest, and hold out the promise of new therapeutic solutions against a wide range of gene-associated pathologies...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Amy C Yan, Matthew Levy
Targeting cells with aptamers for the delivery of therapeutic cargoes, in particular oligonucleotides, represents one of the most exciting applications of the aptamer field. Perhaps nowhere has there been more excitement in the field than around the targeted delivery of siRNA or miRNA. However, when industry leaders in the field of siRNA delivery have tried to recapitulate aptamer-siRNA delivery results, they have failed. This problem stems from more than just the age-old problem of delivery to the cytoplasm, a challenge that has stymied the targeted delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides since its inception...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Aaron D Springer, Steven F Dowdy
Short-interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced RNAi responses have great potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases from cancer to pandemic viral outbreaks to Parkinson's Disease. However, before siRNAs can become drugs, they must overcome a billion years of evolutionary defenses designed to keep invading RNAs on the outside cells from getting to the inside of cells. Not surprisingly, significant effort has been placed in developing a wide array of delivery technologies. Foremost of these has been the development of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Steven F Dowdy, Matthew Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Maire F Osborn, Anastasia Khvorova
RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics are approaching clinical approval for genetically defined diseases. Current clinical success is a result of significant innovations in the development of chemical architectures that support sustained, multi-month efficacy in vivo following a single administration. Conjugate-mediated delivery has established itself as the most promising platform for safe and targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. Lipophilic conjugates represent a major class of modifications that improve siRNA pharmacokinetics and enable efficacy in a broad range of tissues...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Johannes Winkler
Although recent clinical successes of antisense, splice-switching, and siRNA oligonucleotides have established the therapeutic utility of this novel class of medicines, the efficient systemic application for non-liver targets remains elusive. Exploitation of active receptor-mediated targeting followed by efficient and productive cellular uptake is required for enabling the therapy of extrahepatic diseases on the expressional level. Evasion of liver accumulation and organ-specific targeting and also efficient cytosolic delivery after endosomal internalization are currently insufficiently solved issues...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
R L Juliano
Understanding the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of oligonucleotides provides an important basic underpinning for the developing field of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. Whether delivered as "free" oligonucleotides, as ligand-oligonucleotide conjugates, or in association with various nanocarriers, all forms of oligonucleotide enter cells by endocytosis and are initially ensconced within membrane-limited vesicles. Accordingly, the locus and extent of release to the cytosol and nucleus are key determinants of the pharmacological actions of oligonucleotides...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Matthew G Stanton
Messenger RNA is emerging as a highly versatile biological construct for creation of impactful medicines. mRNA vaccines directed toward infectious disease and cancer are in clinical development with encouraging early reads on tolerability and efficacy. The use of mRNA to direct intense but transient expression of paracrine factors is finding utility in reprogramming progenitor cells for wound healing and cardiac regeneration and for stimulation of antitumor immune responses, at least preclinically as we await clinical results...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
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