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Translational Psychiatry

S Sani, J Busnello, R Kochanski, Y Cohen, R D Gibbons
Although there have been previous studies of deep-brain stimulation (DBS), we present, to our knowledge, the first example of high-frequency depressive severity measurement-based DBS treatment in particular and psychiatric treatment in general. Daily post-surgical e-mail prompts for a period of 6 months resulted in 93 administrations of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) of depression severity (CAT-Depression Inventory or CAT-DI) via the internet. There was an average of 3.37 weekly measurements with an average separation of 2...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
J A Bell, M Kivimäki, E T Bullmore, A Steptoe, L A Carvalho
Evidence on systemic inflammation as a risk factor for future depression is inconsistent, possibly due to a lack of regard for persistency of exposure. We examined whether being inflamed on multiple occasions increases risk of new depressive symptoms using prospective data from a population-based sample of adults aged 50 years or older (the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing). Participants with less than four of eight depressive symptoms in 2004/05 and 2008/09 based on the Eight-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale were analysed...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
E M Wigmore, T-K Clarke, D M Howard, M J Adams, L S Hall, Y Zeng, J Gibson, G Davies, A M Fernandez-Pujals, P A Thomson, C Hayward, B H Smith, L J Hocking, S Padmanabhan, I J Deary, D J Porteous, K K Nicodemus, A M McIntosh
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heritable and highly debilitating condition. It is commonly associated with subcortical volumetric abnormalities, the most replicated of these being reduced hippocampal volume. Using the most recent published data from Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) consortium's genome-wide association study of regional brain volume, we sought to test whether there is shared genetic architecture between seven subcortical brain volumes and intracranial volume (ICV) and MDD...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
F Serpeloni, K Radtke, S G de Assis, F Henning, D Nätt, T Elbert
Stress during pregnancy may impact subsequent generations, which is demonstrated by an increased susceptibility to childhood and adulthood health problems in the children and grandchildren. Although the importance of the prenatal environment is well reported with regards to future physical and emotional outcomes, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that mediate the long-term consequences of early stress across generations. Recent studies have identified DNA methylation as a possible mediator of the impact of prenatal stress in the offspring...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
T Seredenina, S Sorce, F R Herrmann, X-J Ma Mulone, O Plastre, A Aguzzi, V Jaquet, K-H Krause
Neuroinflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the development of psychiatric diseases. Animal studies have implicated NADPH oxidases (NOX) as relevant sources of reactive oxygen species in the brain. We have analyzed the expression of NOX isoforms in post-mortem brain samples from patients with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and non-psychiatric subjects. Two collections from the Stanley Medical Research Institute were studied: the Array Collection (RNA, 35 individuals per group), and a neuropathology consortium collection (paraffin-embedded sections, 15 individuals per group)...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
L Mason, E Peters, S C Williams, V Kumari
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/tp.2016.263.
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, M A Butters, S Walker, H J Aizenstein, C Andreescu
Severe worry includes a complex blend of maladaptive affective and cognitive processes. Contrary to other forms of anxiety, there is no consensus in the field regarding the neural basis of worry. To date, no study has looked at neural patterns associated specifically with in-scanner induction and reappraisal of worry. In this study, we attempt to describe distinct components of the 'neural phenomenology' of worry: induction, maintenance, severity and reappraisal, by using a personalized, in-scanner worry script...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
X Chang, Y Liu, C-G Hahn, R E Gur, P M A Sleiman, H Hakonarson
The amygdala brain region has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through emotion processing. However, transcriptome messages in the amygdala of schizophrenia patients have not been well studied. We used RNA sequencing to investigate gene-expression profiling in the amygdala tissues, and identified 569 upregulated and 192 downregulated genes from 22 schizophrenia patients and 24 non-psychiatric controls. Gene functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that the downregulated genes were enriched in pathways such as 'synaptic transmission' and 'behavior', whereas the upregulated genes were significantly over-represented in gene ontology pathways such as 'immune response' and 'blood vessel development'...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
L Liu, L Zhang, H M Li, Z R Wang, X F Xie, J P Mei, J L Jin, J Shi, L Sun, S C Li, Y L Tan, L Yang, J Wang, H M Yang, Q J Qian, Y F Wang
Genome-wide association studies, which detect the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease susceptibility, have been extensively applied to study attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but genome-wide significant associations have not been found yet. Genetic heterogeneity and insufficient genomic coverage may account for the missing heritability. We performed a two-stage association study for ADHD in the Han Chinese population. In the discovery stage, 1033 ADHD patients and 950 healthy controls were genotyped using both the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
S M Saini, S G Mancuso, Md S Mostaid, C Liu, C Pantelis, I P Everall, C A Bousman
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) evidence has identified the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) gene as a potential harbor for schizophrenia risk variants. However, previous meta-analyses have refuted the association between GRM3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and schizophrenia risk. To reconcile these conflicting findings, we conducted the largest and most comprehensive meta-analysis of 14 SNPs in GRM3 from a total of 11 318 schizophrenia cases, 13 820 controls and 486 parent-proband trios...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
C Makowski, M Bodnar, J J Shenker, A K Malla, R Joober, M M Chakravarty, M Lepage
Early persistent negative symptoms (PNS) following a first episode of psychosis (FEP) are linked to poor functional outcome. Reports of reduced amygdalar and hippocampal volumes in early psychosis have not accounted for heterogeneity of symptoms. Age is also seldom considered in this population, a factor that has the potential to uncover symptom-specific maturational biomarkers pertaining to volume and shape changes within the hippocampus and amygdala. T1-weighted volumes were acquired for early (N=21), secondary (N=30), non-(N=44) PNS patients with a FEP, and controls (N=44)...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
F Biundo, C d'Abramo, M D Tambini, H Zhang, D Del Prete, F Vitale, L Giliberto, O Arancio, L D'Adamio
TAU mutations are genetically linked to fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and hyper-phosphorylated aggregates of Tau form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that constitute a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD. These observations indicate that Tau has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Tau is cleaved by caspases at Aspartate(421), to form a Tau metabolite known as δTau; δTau is increased in AD, due to the hyper-activation of caspases in AD brains. δTau is considered a critical toxic moiety underlying neurodegeneration, which initiates and facilitates NFT formation...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
B M Sharp
The amygdala integrates and processes incoming information pertinent to reward and to emotions such as fear and anxiety that promote survival by warning of potential danger. Basolateral amygdala (BLA) communicates bi-directionally with brain regions affecting cognition, motivation and stress responses including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hindbrain regions that trigger norepinephrine-mediated stress responses. Disruption of intrinsic amygdala and BLA regulatory neurocircuits is often caused by dysfunctional neuroplasticity frequently due to molecular alterations in local GABAergic circuits and principal glutamatergic output neurons...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
T V Nguyen, J M Reuter, N W Gaikwad, D M Rotroff, H R Kucera, A Motsinger-Reif, C P Smith, L K Nieman, D R Rubinow, R Kaddurah-Daouk, P J Schmidt
Clinical evidence suggests that symptoms in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) reflect abnormal responsivity to ovarian steroids. This differential steroid sensitivity could be underpinned by abnormal processing of the steroid signal. We used a pharmacometabolomics approach in women with prospectively confirmed PMDD (n=15) and controls without menstrual cycle-related affective symptoms (n=15). All were medication-free with normal menstrual cycle lengths. Notably, women with PMDD were required to show hormone sensitivity in an ovarian suppression protocol...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
A K Tay, R Jayasuriya, D Jayasuriya, D Silove
We conducted a 12-month follow-up of a population sample of adults from districts (Mannar, Killinochi, Mullaitivu and Jaffna) exposed to high levels of mass conflict in Sri Lanka, the aim of the present analysis being to identify trajectories of depression and anxiety symptoms and their associations with exposure to psychological trauma and ongoing living adversities. The cohort of 1275 adults (response 86%) followed-up in 2015 was a structured subsample drawn from the baseline nationally representative survey conducted in 2014 across 25 districts in Sri Lanka...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
S Barbash, A Simchovitz, A S Buchman, D A Bennett, S Shifman, H Soreq
MicroRNAs orchestrate brain functioning via interaction with microRNA recognition elements (MRE) on target transcripts. However, the global impact of potential competition on the microRNA pool between coding and non-coding brain transcripts that share MREs with them remains unexplored. Here we report that non-coding pseudogene transcripts carrying MREs (PSG(+MRE)) often show duplicated origin, evolutionary conservation and higher expression in human temporal lobe neurons than comparable duplicated MRE-deficient pseudogenes (PSG(-MRE))...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
N Boddaert, A Salvador, M O Chandesris, H Lemaître, D Grévent, C Gauthier, O Naggara, S Georgin-Lavialle, D S Moura, F Munsch, N Jaafari, M Zilbovicius, O Lortholary, R Gaillard, O Hermine
Mastocytosis is a rare disease in which chronic symptoms are related to mast cell accumulation and activation. Patients can display depression-anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms may be associated with tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release or both. The objective of this study is to perform morphological or functional brain analyses in mastocytosis to identify brain changes associated with this mast cell disorder. We performed a prospective and monocentric comparative study to evaluate the link between subjective psycho-cognitive complaints, psychiatric evaluation and objective medical data using magnetic resonance imaging with morphological and perfusion sequences (arterial spin-labeled perfusion) in 39 patients with mastocytosis compared with 33 healthy controls...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
L J Glass, D Sinclair, D Boerrigter, K Naude, S J Fung, D Brown, V S Catts, P Tooney, M O'Donnell, R Lenroot, C Galletly, D Liu, T W Weickert, C Shannon Weickert
The immune system is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, with elevated proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs found in the brains of ~40% of individuals with the disorder. However, it is not clear if antibodies (specifically immunoglobulin-γ (IgG)) can be found in the brain of people with schizophrenia and if their abundance relates to brain inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. Therefore, we investigated the localization and abundance of IgG in the frontal cortex of people with schizophrenia and controls, and the impact of proinflammatory cytokine status on IgG abundance in these groups...
August 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
K Xia, J Zhang, M Ahn, S Jha, J J Crowley, J Szatkiewicz, T Li, F Zou, H Zhu, D Hibar, P Thompson, P F Sullivan, M Styner, J H Gilmore, R C Knickmeyer
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of adolescents and adults are transforming our understanding of how genetic variants impact brain structure and psychiatric risk, but cannot address the reality that psychiatric disorders are unfolding developmental processes with origins in fetal life. To investigate how genetic variation impacts prenatal brain development, we conducted a GWAS of global brain tissue volumes in 561 infants. An intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in IGFBP7 (rs114518130) achieved genome-wide significance for gray matter volume (P=4...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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