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Arab Journal of Urology

Mehmet G Sönmez, Ahmet H Haliloğlu
Objective: In this review, we investigate the advantage of varicocele repair prior to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for infertile couples and provide cost analysis information. Materials and methods: We searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The following search strategy was modified for the various databases and search engines: 'varicocele', 'varicocelectomy', 'varicocele repair', 'ART', ' in vitro fertilisation (IVF)', 'intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)'...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Ahmed M Al-Kandari, Abdulnasser Khudair, Abdelghaffar Arafa, Fouad Zanaty, Ahmed Ezz, Mohamed El-Shazly
Objective: To evaluate the detailed vascular anatomy of the spermatic cord during subinguinal microscopic varicocelectomy and to assess the outcome of the cases with regard to varicocele recurrence and hydrocele formation. Patients and methods: In all, 100 varicocele cases including 74 left-sided and 26 bilateral, comprising 126 spermatic cord units with clinically palpable varicoceles underwent microscopic subinguinal varicocelectomy. Detailed description of vascular anatomy of the spermatic cords was reported...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Connor M Forbes, Ryan Flannigan, Peter N Schlegel
Objective: To summarise the current state of research into spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) therapies with a focus on future directions, as SSCs show promise as a source for preserving or initiating fertility in otherwise infertile men. Materials and methods: We performed a search for publications addressing spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the treatment of male infertility. The search engines PubMed and Google Scholar were used from 1990 to 2017. Search terms were relevant for spermatogonial stem cell therapies...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Scott D Lundy, Edmund S Sabanegh
Despite being first described two thousand years ago, the varicocele remains a controversial multifaceted disease process with numerous biological consequences including infertility, hypogonadism, and chronic orchidalgia. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and likely include hypoxia, oxidative stress, hyperthermia, anatomical aberrations, and genetics as primary components. Despite a high prevalence amongst asymptomatic fertile men, varicoceles paradoxically also represent the most common correctable cause for male infertility...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Mohamed Etafy, Ahmet Gudeloglu, Jamin V Brahmbhatt, Sijo J Parekattil
Objectives: To present the current state of the art in various robot-assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and review the latest literature, as the technology in infertility procedures has substantially developed since the incorporation of the Vinci® robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Materials and methods: The search strategy in this review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Amr El Meliegy, Ahmad Motawi, Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam
Objectives: To highlight alternative treatment options other than exogenous testosterone administration for hypogonadal men with concomitant infertility or who wish to preserve their fertility potential, as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) inhibits spermatogenesis, representing a problem for hypogonadal men of reproductive age. Materials and methods: We performed a comprehensive literature review for the years 1978-2017 via PubMed. Also abstracts from major urological/surgical conferences were reviewed...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Mohamed M Arafa, Ahmad Majzoub, Sami S AlSaid, Walid ElAnsari, Abdulla Al Ansari, Yara Elbardisi, Haitham T Elbardisi
Objective: To study the types and incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia in Qatar, and to compare the hormonal changes, testicular sperm retrieval rate, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome between patients with chromosomal abnormalities and patients with idiopathic infertility. Patients and methods: This study involved the retrospective chart review of 625 infertile male patients attending an academic tertiary medical centre in Qatar...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Rupin Shah, Chirag Gupta
Objective: To evaluate various methods of operative sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and to determine the optimal surgical approach in terms of effectiveness, morbidity, and complications. Materials and methods: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to identify five recent reviews and meta-analyses evaluating outcomes for sperm retrieval in men with NOA. Results and Conclusion: Micro-TESE is the most efficient method for retrieving sperm but requires special expertise and can be traumatic for the testes...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Ahmad Majzoub, Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To explore the current evidence concerning the effect of oral antioxidant supplementation on various male fertility outcomes, as antioxidants are widely available compounds that are commonly used for the treatment of male infertility. Materials and methods: PubMed, Medline and Cochrane electronic databases were searched according to a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines looking for studies investigating the effect of antioxidant therapy on infertile men...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To assess the role of differentially expressed proteins as a resource for potential biomarker identification of infertility, as male infertility is of rising concern in reproductive medicine and evidence pertaining to its aetiology at a molecular level particularly proteomic as spermatozoa lack transcription and translation. Proteomics is considered as a major field in molecular biology to validate the target proteins in a pathophysiological state. Differential expression analysis of sperm proteins in infertile men and bioinformatics analysis offer information about their involvement in biological pathways...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Amir S Patel, Joon Yau Leong, Ranjith Ramasamy
Objective: To discuss the role, reliability and limitations of the semen analysis in the evaluation of fertility with reference to the World Health Organization (WHO) fifth edition guidelines, with semen analysis reference values published in 2010. We also discuss the limitations of using a single threshold value to distinguish 'abnormal' and 'normal' parameters. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to search the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane electronic database for articles discussing the effectiveness of semen analysis...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Ahmad Majzoub, Mohamad Arafa, Mohamed Mahdi, Ashok Agarwal, Sami Al Said, Ibrahim Al-Emadi, Walid El Ansari, Alia Alattar, Khalid Al Rumaihi, Haitham Elbardisi
Objective: To assess seminal oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in male infertility and their relationships with sperm morphology in fertile and infertile men. Patients and methods: Prospective case-control study comparing the findings of infertile men ( n  = 1168) to those of men with confirmed fertility ( n  = 100) regarding demographics and semen characteristics (conventional and advanced semen tests). Spearman rank correlation assessed the correlation between ORP, SDF, and different morphological indices...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Ashok Agarwal, Emily Qiu, Rakesh Sharma
Objectives: To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS) in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals and antioxidants; otherwise, excessive OS could lead to sperm damage and result in male infertility. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through a MedLine database search using the keywords 'semen' AND 'oxygen reduction potential'...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To review sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) testing as an important sperm function test in addition to conventional semen analysis. High SDF is negatively associated with semen quality, the fertilisation process, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcome. Over recent decades, different SDF assays have been developed and reviewed extensively to assess their applicability and accuracy as advanced sperm function tests. Amongst them, the standardisation of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay with a bench top flow cytometer in clinical practice deserves special mention with a threshold value of 16...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Amal Robay, Saleha Abbasi, Ammira Akil, Haitham El-Bardisi, Mohamed Arafa, Ronald G Crystal, Khalid A Fakhro
Objectives: To identify the role of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in male infertility, as advances in NGS technologies have contributed to the identification of novel genes responsible for a wide variety of human conditions and recently has been applied to male infertility, allowing new genetic factors to be discovered. Materials and methods: PubMed was searched for combinations of the following terms: 'exome', 'genome', 'panel', 'sequencing', 'whole-exome sequencing', 'whole-genome sequencing', 'next-generation sequencing', 'azoospermia', 'oligospermia', 'asthenospermia', 'teratospermia', 'spermatogenesis', and 'male infertility', to identify studies in which NGS technologies were used to discover variants causing male infertility...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Zeinab Dabbous, Stephen L Atkin
Objective: To explore the evaluation, treatment and impact of hyperprolactinaemia on male infertility and testicular function, as hyperprolactinaemia is commonly detected during the evaluation of infertile men. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify all studies exploring hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility. Results: Elevated levels of serum prolactin have a detrimental effect on male reproduction through inhibition of the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary gland, and a direct effect on spermatogenesis...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Hillary Wagner, Julie W Cheng, Edmund Y Ko
Objectives: To review the literature and provide an updated summary on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in male infertility. Methods: A review of PubMed, Cochrane review, and Web of Science databases for full-text English-language articles published between 1943 and 2017 was performed, focusing on the aetiology of ROS, physiological role of ROS on spermatic function, pathological role of ROS in infertility, evaluation of ROS, and role of antioxidants in oxidative stress...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Chak-Lam Cho, Ashok Agarwal
Objective: To summarise the latest evidence on the role of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in male factor infertility, as SDF has been emerging as a valuable tool for male infertility evaluation. Methods: A search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords 'sperm DNA fragmentation' and 'male infertility'. Studies in languages other than English were excluded. All identified studies were screened and clinical studies in humans were included. Results: In all, 150 articles were included for analysis...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Damayanthi Durairajanayagam
Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Haitham Elbardisi, Ahmad Majzoub, Sami Al Said, Khalid Al Rumaihi, Walid El Ansari, Alia Alattar, Mohamed Arafa
Objective: To assess the relationship between geographical differences and all semen parameters, across 13,892 infertile men of 84 diverse nationalities, recruited at a specialised tertiary hospital that represents the main healthcare provider in Qatar. Male infertility is an important and global public health problem. Despite this, there is a significant scarcity of epidemiological male infertility and semen analysis research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, as well as geographical comparisons with other parts of the world...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
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