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International Journal of Paleopathology

Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Stephanie E Calce, Helen K Kurki, Darlene A Weston, Lisa Gould
This study examined the simultaneous impact of multiple underlying factors on OA expression in weight-bearing joints of the vertebrae and lower limb of a modern European skeletal sample (Lisbon and Sassari). OA was evaluated using standard ranked categorical scoring; composite OA scores derived through principal component analysis. Body size was calculated from postcranial measurements; torsional strength (J) of the femoral midshaft was calculated from three-dimensional surface models, size standardized and used as a proxy for activity...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
A E van der Merwe, B Veselka, H A van Veen, R R van Rijn, K L Colman, H H de Boer
Rickets and residual rickets are often encountered in Dutch archeological skeletal samples. However, no archeological Dutch paleopathological case of adult osteomalacia has been described in literature to date. This paper describes the first four archeological Dutch paleopathological cases of osteomalacia and assesses the value of the various modalities (macroscopic assessment, radiology and histology) that may be used for diagnosis. The skeletal remains investigated originate from the Meerenberg psychiatric hospital cemetery in Bloemendaal, the Netherlands, and date from 1891 - 1936...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Sergey Slepchenko, Karl Reinhard
Russia, both as the USSR and the Russian federation, provided a source of parasitological theory for decades. A key figure in Russian parasitology was Yevgeny Pavlovsky. He developed the nidus concept of Pavlovsky provided the conceptual basis for the field of pathoecology. He also coined the term "Paleoparasitology". Pathoecology is a foundation concept in archaeological parasitology. Paleoparasitology, as defined by Pavlovsky, is an avenue for understanding of host parasite evolution over very long time periods...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Leslie Quade, Michaela Binder
On the 21st-22nd of May 1809, French and Austrian soldiers engaged in battle near the village of Aspern on the outskirts of Vienna. This battle, the first defeat of Napoleon's army on land, was one of the largest and deadliest encounters during the Napoleonic Wars (1798-1815). Salvage excavations between 2009 and 2016 have revealed several battlefield burial sites in Aspern. The remains of 30 individuals were evaluated for a series of pathological conditions which develop during childhood and adulthood to elucidate the impact of Napoleonic military conditions on health...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Nathalie Antunes-Ferreira, Carlos Prates, Francisco Curate
In modern populations, hip fractures in older people are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Their incidence is rising; notwithstanding, fractures of the proximal femur are still relatively uncommon in archeological contexts. This case study represents a well-healed hip fracture in an aged male skeleton from Church of Nossa Senhora da Anunciada (16th-19th centuries AD) in Setúbal (Portugal). The individual was also diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Fractures of the proximal femur are usually associated with bone loss but in this case other causes are proposed, including the anatomy of the proximal femur, and the potential combined effect of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and falls...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Alexandra Amoroso, Susana J Garcia
This study tests the association of vertebral neural canal (VNC) size and age-at-death in a Portuguese skeletal collection from the 19th -20th century. If the plasticity and constraint model best explains this association, VNC size would be negatively related to mortality risk. If the predictive adaptive response (PAR) model is a better fit, no association can be inferred between VNC size and age-at-death. Ninety individuals were used in this study. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of all vertebrae were measured...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Samantha L Yaussy, Sharon N DeWitte
Famine has the potential to target frail individuals who are at greater risk of mortality than their peers. Although children have been at elevated risk of mortality during recent famines, little is known about the risks posed to children during the medieval period. This study uses burials from the St. Mary Spital cemetery (SRP98), London (c. 1120-1540) to examine the relationships among non-adult age at death, burial type (attritional or famine), and four skeletal lesions (porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia [LEH], and periosteal new bone formation)...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Nina G Jablonski, George Chaplin
Most of the vitamin D necessary for the maintenance of human health and successful reproduction is made in the skin under the influence of a narrow portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted from the sun, namely ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). During the course of human evolution, skin pigmentation has evolved to afford protection against high levels of UVR while still permitting cutaneous production of vitamin D. Similar pigmentation phenotypes evolved repeatedly as the result of independent genetic events when isolated human populations dispersed into habitats of extremely low or high UVB...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jane E Buikstra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
El Molto, Peter Sheldrick
This article describes six cases of cancer from the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. A mummy had a confirmed 'primary' diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The remaining diagnoses were based on the distribution and types of skeletal lesions in conjunction with age, sex, and/or the molecular phylogeny of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a confirmed cause of cancer of the uterine cervix (UC) and testes (TC) and it evolved in Africa long before Homo sapiens emerged. Today these cancers are common in young adult females and males, a fact which was pivotal in respectively including them in the differential diagnosis of UC and TC...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Margaret A Judd
Styloid process (SP) development and its role in an individual's lived experience plays a negligible role in paleopathological research, although a handful of possible Eagle's syndrome cases have been reported. Here, the development of the stylohyoid chain and the medical research of SP variants are reviewed to inform the differential diagnosis of a probable SP fracture in a young adult male associated with the Ottoman Period (13-19thC) in Jordan. The fracture surface of the right SP is smooth rather than irregular, the coloration is uniform with the surrounding cortical bone staining, and no new bone formation is visible...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Julia Gresky, Alexey Kalmykov, Natalia Berezina
A discrete dysplastic lesion of the mandible found in a skeleton of a young adult male of the Middle Bronze Age in the Northern Caucasus/Russia is described. The periapical lesion of the right lower canine alveolus was examined by digital microscopy, plain radiology, and plain and polarizing microscopy. Its macroscopic, radiologic and microscopic characteristics are discussed in reference to different fibro-osseous lesions arising from the odontogenic apparatus and maxillofacial skeleton. Periapical osseous dysplasia was considered to be the most likely diagnosis...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Hannah K M McGlynn, Miriam Montanes-Gonzalvo, Assumpció Malgosa, Giampaolo Piga, Albert Isidro
Enchondromas occur with an estimated modern incidence rate of 27.7% of benign bone tumors (Hauben and Hogendoorn, 2010), but few are represented in the paleopathological record. The medieval site of St. Pere in Spain has produced a convincing case. The diagnosis was confirmed by X-Ray, CT-scan and μ-CT scan. Therefore UF 755 from St. Pere - a male of more than 60 years old - can be confirmed as a femoral case of enchondroma, supported by evidence, in the paleopathological record.
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Saradee Sengupta
This report describes two adjacent, longitudinally-fused anterior cervical vertebrae from a basal archosauromorph. The specimen was collected from the Denwa Formation, Satpura Gondwana Basin, India. The differential diagnosis of the fusion includes genetic or environmentally-mediated congenital malformations, nonspecific spondyloarthopathy, and various infectious agents. These observations represent the first published recognition of archosauromorph vertebral pathology from specimens that were discovered in India...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Stefan Flohr, Isabelle Jasch, Antje Langer, Martin Riesenberg, Julia Hahn, Axel Wisotzki, Horst Kierdorf, Uwe Kierdorf, Joachim Wahl
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is rarely diagnosed in archaeological human skeletons. Here, we report on the well-preserved skeleton of a middle-adult man from the early Medieval settlement site of Lauchheim (Germany) that exhibits pronounced multi-layered shell-like periosteal new bone formation in a bilaterally symmetric fashion on the long bones, the skeletal elements of the pelvis and those of the pectoral girdle. In addition, the two distal phalanges recovered show signs of osteoclastic resorption on their distal tuberosities...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Antony Colombo, Menno Hoogland, Hélène Coqueugniot, Olivier Dutour, Andrea Waters-Rist
A 66 year-old woman with a disproportionate dwarfism and who bore seven children was discovered at the Middenbeemster archaeological site (The Netherlands). Three are perinates and show no macroscopic or radiological evidence for a FGFR3 mutation causing hypo-or achondroplasia. This mutation induces dysfunction of the growth cartilage, leading to abnormalities in the development of trabecular bone. Because the mutation is autosomal dominant, these perinates have a 50% risk of having been affected. This study determines whether trabecular bone microarchitecture (TBMA) analysis is useful for detecting genetic dwarfism...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Giulia Riccomi, Simona Minozzi, Walter Pantano, Paola Catalano, Giacomo Aringhieri, Valentina Giuffra
The archaeological excavations carried out in 1999 in the Collatina necropolis of the Roman Imperial Age (1st-3rd centuries AD) (Rome, Italy) discovered the skeletal remains of two adult males with evidence of paranasal lesions. Both individuals showed postmortem damage in the frontal bone, through which it was possible to macroscopically detect an oblong new bone formation. In both specimens, radiological examination of the defects' morphology showed new pediculated-based bone formations. Radiology also confirmed the presence of benign osseous masses arising from the right frontal sinus and interpreted as osteomata...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Stephanie Panzer, Peter Augat, Albert R Zink, Dario Piombino-Mascali
In this study we applied the recently developed "Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in Human Mummies" to catacomb mummies from Palermo, Sicily. Data from twenty-three full-body computed tomography (CT) examinations were available. These consisted of seventeen adults and six children dating from the late 18th to the late 19th centuries AD. Seventeen of these mummies were anthropogenically mummified, and six spontaneously. Based on the checklist and scoring system, soft tissue preservation varied between both mummification groups, among mummies with the same type of mummification, and within individual mummies at different anatomical locations...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
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