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International Journal of Paleopathology

Martha R Palma Málaga, Krzysztof Makowski
This paper presents a bioarchaeology of care case study based on the skeletonized remains of an elderly female with a congenital condition that compromised both mobility and independence in undertaking certain basic tasks, and which generated requirements for long-term care in the form of both direct support and accommodation. The remains show evidence of bilateral cervical ribs, severe osteoarthritic destruction in the right shoulder joint, and a healed skull trepanation. The remains were recovered from a cemetery dating to the initial part of the Late Intermediate Period at the archaeological site of Pachacamac, Peru...
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Kirsten A Verostick, Isabel Teixeira-Santos, Vaughn M Bryant, Karl J Reinhard
The Skiles Mummy (SMM), a naturally mummified adult male from the late archaic period of Lower Pecos Canyonlands of South Texas, represents a unique case of care. SMM is an exceptional mummy within this region due to both the retention of a full head of hair, and having a diagnosed case of megacolon, a complication commonly associated with Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Stable isotopic analysis of his hair is consistent with a diet incorporating of C4 /CAM plants with some C3 plants, freshwater resources, and higher trophic level animals...
September 7, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Emma L Brown, Andrew S Wilson
The Bioarchaeology of Care approach developed by Tilley is usually applied to skeletalized human remains, given the usual constraints of preservation bias that are seen with archaeological assemblages. However, other tissues, such as hair are sometimes preserved and can provide a wealth of information that can supplement the skeletal data. Archaeological hair has been analysed for drug compounds for almost thirty years. This article integrates data from hair analyses for coca metabolites, stable light isotope analysis and aDNA to expand the potential of the Bioarchaeology of Care approach using the example of a spontaneously mummified adult female from northern Chile...
August 31, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Matthew J Kesterke, Margaret A Judd
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a metabolic bone disease that has been present in human populations for over 2000 years, with the earliest cases reported in Western Europe. Now present globally, PDB is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases in modern populations. This study details possible PDB of an adult male (MNR-EN Skull 3) with abnormally thickened cranial bones (17 mm). The skull was recovered from commingled skeletal remains excavated from the Robebus crypt at the Byzantine monastery of Mount Nebo, Jordan (c...
August 25, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Eve Rannamäe, Vladimir Andrianov, Eha Järv, Aleksandr Semjonov, Arvi Haak, Juhan Kreem
The remains of a horse's hind foot - a third metatarsal bone and three phalanges - were found in a presumed waste pit of a prosperous medieval household in Viljandi, Estonia, dated from the second half of the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The metatarsal bone had been broken during the horse's lifetime and showed evidence of partial healing. Using archaeological, zooarchaeological, morphological, microscopic, densitometric and radiographic analyses, we investigated the bones and the healing process in order to understand animal treatment in a medieval urban context...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Maciej Janeczek, Aleksandra Skalec, Rafał Ciaputa, Aleksander Chrószcz, Valeria Grieco, Grzegorz Rozwadowski, Dominik Poradowski, Przemysław Spychalski
This report presents canid cranial skeletal pathology from an excavation associated with the Przeworsk culture (III c. BC - V c. AD). The dog skull, an intentional inhumation, was dated to the Roman influence and the Migration period (I - V c. AD. The dog was a relatively large animal with a shoulder height calculated as approximately 60 cm. Massive bone changes localized on the facial surface of the left maxilla required a multistage diagnostic protocol. In addition to traditional macroscopic and morphometric evaluation, we used modern diagnostic imaging techniques such as digital radiography, computed tomography and 3D reconstruction...
August 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Lorna Tilley, Kenneth Nystrom
In 1973, analysis of the mummified remains of a young boy dated to 700AD and from the Late Nasca period (Peru) identified (i) chronic Pott's disease, leading to loss of lower body mobility, and (ii) acute miliary tuberculosis, affecting most organs and the immediate cause of death (Allison et al., 1973). This report was the first to establish, beyond dispute, the presence of tuberculosis in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. Here, we revisit the 'Nasca Boy' from a bioarchaeology of care perspective...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Albert Zink, Marco Samadelli, Paul Gostner, Dario Piombino-Mascali
The Tyrolean Iceman is the world's oldest glacier mummy. He was found in September 1991 in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps. Since his discovery a variety of morphological, radiological and molecular analyses have been performed that revealed detailed insights into his state of health. Despite the various pathological conditions found in the Iceman, little is known about possible forms of care and treatment during the Copper Age in Northern Italy. A possible approach to this topic is the presence of tattoos on the mummified body...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
S Mays, M Brickley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Kenneth C Nystrom, Lorna Tilley
The bioarchaeology of care is a framework through which researchers can begin to infer the level of care an individual may have required based on the presence of paleopathological evidence. To date, all of the research that has employed the framework has been based on evidence derived from skeletal material. This special issue was organized in order to highlight how the analysis of mummified soft tissue, as well as other sources of data commonly associated with mummified remains, such as coprolites and intestinal contents, has the potential to provide valuable insight into the reconstruction of care in the past...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Ronald G Beckett, Gerald J Conlogue
This article presents a partial bioarchaeology of care case study of a mummified adult female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from late historic period United States. It examines likely clinical and functional impacts of disease and corresponding need for provision of care, stopping short of Stage 4 Interpretation/analysis. The case study illustrates and argues for the importance of an interdisciplinary research team for achieving a comprehensive understanding of disability and care. The article highlights the necessity of knowledge of pathophysiology for identifying the potential interventions (supports) dictated by the associated functional limitations...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Beatriz Sánchez-Aparcero, Inmaculada Alemán, Miguel C Botella
Traumatic injuries are commonly reported in paleopathology. However, fractures of the odontoid process in past populations are uncommon and therefore such injuries may be easily overlooked. This paper describes alterations of the first and second cervical vertebrae, the atlas and axis, of a male individual of advanced age from the medieval necropolis of Maro (Málaga, Spain). These alterations were observed through macroscopic evaluation and radiological analysis. This individual's skeleton is well-preserved, with degenerative changes present in the appendicular skeleton and the rest of the vertebrae...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Sandra Assis, Sílvia Casimiro, Francisca Alves Cardoso
Cystic and cyst-like lesions of the jaw are a recurrent finding in routine dental radiography but not in paleopathology. This paper describes a large oval osteolytic cavity (23 × 14 mm) observed in the mandible of a middle-aged female unearthed from the Roman necropolis of Quinta da Torrinha/Quinta de Santo António (Almada, Portugal, 3rd-5th centuries AD). The lesion was located in the body of the mandible, inferior to the alveolus of the first left molar. The associated tooth exhibited a carious lesion that destroyed the tooth crown and exposed the pulp cavity...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Victoria E Gibbon, Kristian J Carlson, Anne-Marie Grimoud, Tea Jashashvili
Dental root fractures are rarely documented in past human populations, but when they are observed, diagnosing ante-mortem events as causal factors can be difficult due to postmortem alteration. Can high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) improve our ability to diagnose if a dental fracture was caused ante- or post-mortem? To test this, a case study of two individuals with previously diagnosed dental root fractures were re-examined with high resolution CT to confirm or refute the original diagnoses. For individual 4170, use of high resolution CT supported the original diagnosis of an ante-mortem root fracture on the right mandibular central incisor that was made based on planar X-ray...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Ian Towle, Joel D Irish, Marina Elliott, Isabelle De Groote
Tooth root grooves and other ante-mortem dental tissue loss, not associated with caries found on or near the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), are commonly termed non-carious cervical lesions. Three main processes are implicated in forming these lesions: abrasion, dental erosion, and abfraction. As yet, these lesions have not been described in non-Homo hominins. In this study, South African fossil hominin collections were examined for evidence of any type of non-carious cervical lesion. Only one individual shows ante-mortem root grooves consistent with non-carious cervical lesions...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Richard Thomas, Naomi Sykes, Sean Doherty, David Smith
In this short communication we call attention to the discovery of a ring depression (a circumferential constriction) in the horncore of a feral bull. This discovery casts doubt on the attribution of similar lesions in archaeological deposits as conclusive evidence of 'cord impressions' resulting from yoking or reining cattle for traction. Drawing upon evidence of horncore depressions in other species, we suggest that they reflect metabolic problems following horn development; additional research is required to test this hypothesis...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Aurélia Borvon, Claude Guintard, Hervé Monchot
Archaeozoology provides bones, which quite regularly present traces of fractures. These fractures are more or less at an advanced level of healing and bear witness to traumas or pathologies. These cases of palaeopathology are not always the subject of publications, which further restricts our knowledge about them. This short note allows the scientific community to be aware of an original case from an archaeological context in Jordan of a fracture on a hen's femur, consolidated by a callus and with displacement of the distal ends...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Chryssi Bourbou
The study of Roman childhood has been the focus of research primarily using documentary and archaeological evidence, while relatively few non-adult skeletal assemblages have been analyzed. This paper presents the study of 93 non-adult individuals from four cemeteries in the Roman (1st-3rd c. CE) civitas capital of Aventicum (Avenches), Switzerland. The results of the analysis offer a new bioarchaeological perspective on mortality and disease patterns during childhood in Roman Switzerland, adding to the discussion regarding living conditions in the urban centers at the periphery of the Roman Empire...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Carmen Alonso-Llamazares, Carlos Gómez, Pablo García-Manrique, Antonio F Pardiñas, Belén López
Vitamin D deficiency is a pathological condition that affects bone metabolism by preventing proper mineralization, which eventually leads to bone deformities and other pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, increased bone fragility and fractures. The aim of this study is to present a case of vitamin D deficiency, but also to note how the application of several complementary techniques is a fundamental step in the establishing an accurate diagnosis. These techniques range from classical palaeopathological analysis to modern clinical practice...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Lori D'Ortenzio, Bonnie Kahlon, Taylor Peacock, Hana Salahuddin, Megan Brickley
PURPOSE: This study provides guidelines on how IGD can be differentiated from other microstructures that naturally occur in dentine. Interglobular dentine (IGD) has recently been linked to disruption in vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorous pathways offering a valuable method to investigate vitamin D deficiency in archaeological individuals, but not all dentine defects are IGD. METHODS: A detailed review of dental literature and dental histology cases gathered from known living and archaeological individuals were incorporated into interpretations...
September 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
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