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International Journal of Paleopathology

Susan Pfeiffer, Lesley Harrington, Marlize Lombard
PURPOSE: Skeletons sampled for ancient human DNA analysis are sometimes complete enough to provide information about the lives of the people they represent. We focus on three Later Stone Age skeletons, ca. 2000 B.P., from coastal KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, whose ancient genomes have been sequenced (Schlebusch et al., 2017). METHODS: Bioarchaeological approaches are integrated with aDNA information. RESULTS: All skeletons are male. Dental development shows that the boy, with prominent cribra orbitalia, died at age 6-7 years...
November 3, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Ángel Rubio Salvador, Sylvia Alejandra Jiménez-Brobeil, Lydia Paz Sánchez-Barba Muñoz, Fernando Molina
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to expand knowledge of Concha bullosa in a prehistoric population. MATERIALS: The skull of an adult female from the Bronze Age archeological site ofCastellón Alto (Granada, Spain), dated between 1900 and 1600 BCE. METHODS: The diagnosis of middle turbinateconcha bullosa was based on macroscopic, radiographic, and computed tomography studies. RESULTS: This is one of the oldest findings ofconcha bullosa in Europe...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Andrew D Wade, Ronald Beckett, Gerald Conlogue, Greg Garvin, Sahar Saleem, Gianfranco Natale, Davide Caramella, Andrew Nelson
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to demonstrate the need for interdisciplinary consensus and inclusion of mummy radiology specialists in analyses of mummified remains. MATERIALS: This study uses paleoimaging data for an ancient Egyptian mummy at the Museum of Human Anatomy "Filippo Civinini". METHODS: This study demonstrates the benefit of evaluation of mummified remains in a multi-disciplinary interpretive team. RESULTS: The authors propose a diagnosis of DISH, additional signs of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, and lumbarisation of S1...
October 30, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Mario Castro, Marcos Goycoolea, Marcelo Galvez, Veronica Silva, Carlos Montoya, Jorge Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Osteomas are slow-growing benign tumors that can affect the skull, most frequently the parietal and frontal. Temporal bone osteomas are more common in the external acoustic meatus and exceptional in the mastoid region. The rarity of mastoid osteomas is confirmed by the fact that very few cases have been reported in the clinical and paleopathological literature. The aim of this paper is to report a new paleopathological case of mastoid tumor in a Pre-Hispanic adult cranium. MATERIALS: The skull derives from the Chunchuri (today Dupont-1 site) Pre-Hispanic site in Northern Chile (1390 A...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Gaia Giordano, Cristina Cattaneo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide additional documentation of bone metastases to help anthropologists recognize the condition and potentially suggest the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma in differential diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen individuals clinically diagnosed with bladder carcinoma from the 20th century Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection were macroscopically studied to document bone metastases in bladder cancer. RESULTS: Bone metastases were found through macroscopic observation in three individuals or 23% of the study sample...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Rebecca J Gilmour, Megan B Brickley, Erik Jurriaans, Tracy L Prowse
OBJECTIVE: This study uses biomechanical data from tibiae to investigate the functional consequences of lower limb fractures. Adults with malunited fractures are hypothesized to have experienced altered mobility, indicated by asymmetric tibial cross-sectional geometries (CSG). MATERIALS: Ninety-three adults from Roman (1st to 4th centuries CE) Ancaster, UK and Vagnari, Italy (Ancaster n = 16 adults with lower limb fracture:53 without fracture; Vagnari n = 5:19) METHODS: Biplanar radiographs were used to quantify and compare tibial CSG properties and asymmetries between individuals with and without fractures to femora, tibiae, and/or fibulae...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Tamás Szeniczey, Antónia Marcsik, Zsófia Ács, Tímea Balassa, Zsolt Bernert, Katalin Bakó, Tamás Czuppon, Anna Endrődi, Sándor Évinger, Zoltán Farkas, Lucia Hlavenková, Krisztina Hoppál, Csaba Kálmán Kiss, Krisztián Kiss, Kinga Kocsis, Loránd Olivér Kovács, Péter F Kovács, Kitti Köhler, László Költő, Ivett Kővári, Orsolya László, Gabriella Lovász, Júlia Lovranits, József Lukács, Zsófia Masek, Mónika Merczi, Erika Molnár, Csilla Emese Németh, János Gábor Ódor, László Paja, Ildikó Pap, Róbert Patay, István Rácz, Zsófia Rácz, Ágnes Ritoók, Gergely Szenthe, Gábor Szilas, Béla Miklós Szőke, Zoltán Tóth, Tivadar Vida, Katalin Wolff, Michael Finnegan, Tamás Hajdu
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) was examined in different periods of the Carpathian Basin from 4900 BCE to 17th century AD. The study seeks to evaluate temporal changes in HFI and the possible impact of lifestyle on it. MATERIALS: The studied material consisted of 4668 crania from Hungary and Serbia. METHODS: The crania were analyzed employing macroscopic and endoscopic examination. RESULTS: In historic periods, sex and age played a pivotal role in HFI development...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Tony Chevalier
The impact of injury on the health and activities of human foragers is of great interest for understanding the adaptability of past populations to their environments. For the Gravettian female of Caviglione 1, a violent blow has been suggested as the origin of the left radial fracture, and abnormal body asymmetry has been observed. Access to high resolution CT-scans of the upper limb allows us to address new etiologic considerations and assess the after-effects of trauma on bone biomechanical properties by focusing on cortical and trabecular bones and conducting a comparative analysis of cross-sectional geometric properties in an Upper Paleolithic context...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Petra Rajić Šikanjić, Zrinka Premužić, Senka Meštrović
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyse the dental remains of an adult male with three impacted canines from the Roman period cemetery in Osijek, Croatia. MATERIALS: The dental remains of an adult male aged 35-45 years at the time of death were analysed. METHODS: Macroscopic analysis of dental remains was accompanied by radiographic examination. RESULTS: The individual also had additional dental pathologies (carious lesion, antemortem tooth loss)...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Elizabeth Berger, Liping Yang, Wa Ye
This paper describes the morphology of the feet of a population of elite women from the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 CE) in Shaanxi province. This is a social stratum, time, and place in which foot binding was practiced. Among a group of 31 skeletons exhumed from the cemetery, eight were women with well-preserved foot bones. Macroscopic examination revealed that half these women (4/8) had clearly altered foot bones: the metatarsal bones, and the few observable phalanges, were gracile and small, while the tarsal bones exhibited a slight reduction in size but no dramatic change in morphology...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jeanna Loyer, Eileen Murphy, Mary Ruppe, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Valery Khartanovich, Jean Zammit, Stephane Rottier, Nikolay Potrakhov, Victor Bessonov, Anatoliy Obodovskiy
PURPOSE: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a condition that can be inherited or acquired. It causes diffuse periosteal new bone formation on the long bones, with a predilection for the appendicular skeleton. When acquired, it is a nonspecific indicator of systemic disease that arises following a primary condition. This paper reviews the palaeopathological literature associated with this rare condition. It also describes the first possible case of co-morbidity associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in an adult skeleton (cal...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Lucie Biehler-Gomez, Emanuela Maderna, Gloria Brescia, Annalisa Cappella, Agostino Rizzi, Cristina Cattaneo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide information on the morphology and composition of gallstones based on clinical samples in order to assist paleopathologists and bioarchaeologists in recognizing their presence in archaeological contexts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 270 gallstones were extracted and macerated from autopsies conducted at the Istituto di Medicina Legale in Milan (Italy) in order to simulate a dry bone recovered from archaeological contexts. Morphological, histological, and elemental variation was documented...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Felipe Cárdenas-Arroyo, Maria Cristina Martina
Results involving the analysis of gallstones found in two pre-Hispanic Colombian mummies are presented. By applying SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), sectioning, and CT-scan Hounsfield Units, we were able to identify these choleliths as mainly formed by cholesterol. The number of reports on gallstones in archaeological human remains from South America is very small, making these two cases an important addition to what little is known about ancient gallstone disease on the continent.
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Melissa Dobson, Tony Waldron
An evaluation of the method used to diagnose sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) osteoarthritis (OA) in skeletal remains is presented, with particular attention given to the anatomy of the joint. The current palaeopathological diagnostic criteria used to identify SCJ OA were found to be appropriate for both the sternal and clavicular surfaces of the SCJ, with eburnation indicating perforation of the intra-articular disc and advanced disease. Eburnation was found to occur rarely in the SCJ, and if used as the sole diagnostic criterion would result in an underestimation of SCJ OA prevalence in archaeological assemblages...
September 29, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Sarah Hoffman, Laurie Sadler, Trevor Totman, Lea Bagne
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a possible case of Facio-Auriculo-Vertebral sequence (FAVs) in an adult female from Haffjarðarey, Western Iceland (1200-1563 CE) and a brief review of associated terminology. MATERIALS: The skeletal remains of a single adult female (HFE-A-34, 18-24 years old), excavated in 1945 by the National Museum of Iceland. METHODS: We carried out macroscopic examination of the cranium and mandible in 2017. RESULTS: Right side unilateral asymmetric craniofacial dysplasia was identified on the cranium and mandible of HFE-A-34...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Robert J Stark, Joanna Ciesielska
PURPOSE/RESEARCH QUESTION: This article examines pronounced osteoblastic-osteolytic vertebral lesions in a middle adult male (Ghz-2-033), from the Christian Nubian monastic settlement of Ghazali (ca. 670-1270 CE), Sudan, to explore their potential etiology. METHODS: Morphological assessments of sex and age were undertaken in conjunction with macroscopic and radiological methods of assessment for the skeletal lesions documented. RESULTS: Macroscopic assessment of Ghz-2-033 identified mixed osteoblastic-osteolytic lesions in L2-L3 with minor foci in T12-L1, while radiological assessment identified no further lesions...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Madeleine Mant
Investigating injury recidivism and individuals with multiple injuries is an area of growing interest in bioarchaeology. Differentiating between whether an individual sustained multiple injuries, represented by antemortem healed fractures, in one incident or in multiple incidents over the life course, is a major challenge. This research analyzed the skeletal remains of 721 adults (402 males, 319 females) from five post-medieval cemeteries from London, UK, known to include working class individuals for evidence of skeletal trauma - fractures, myositis ossificans, subluxations/dislocations, blunt force trauma, and sharp force trauma...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Ileana Micarelli, Robert R Paine, Mary Anne Tafuri, Giorgio Manzi
An examination of an adult male buried from the post-classical necropolis of La Selvicciola (Viterbo, Latium, Italy; 4th -6th centuries AD) revealed a series of skeletal lesions. The lesions, both proliferative and lytic, ranging in size from small (around 0.01 mm) to extensive (up to 16.00 mm) pits, occurred at multiple sites. A holistic approach assessed lesion type, frequency and location in a differential diagnosis, which included myeloma, metastatic carcinoma, tuberculosis, leukemia, osteomyelitis, and mycoses...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Anne R Titelbaum, Bebel Ibarra Asencios, Bronwyn E McNeil
While intraosseous cysts have been described in the paleopathological literature, it is rare to find reports concerning effects of soft tissue cysts, although they are relatively common in clinical contexts. Here we present plausible evidence of an extraosseous paralabral cyst, seen in an adult scapula from a Late Intermediate period commingled tomb (ca. AD 1200) at the northern highland site of Marcajirca, Ancash, Peru. The scapula demonstrated a smooth-sided concave depression at the spinoglenoid notch. The depression was notable for its regular appearance, with no bone deposition or destruction...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Evan Hardy, Deborah C Merrett, Hua Zhang, Quanchao Zhang, Hong Zhu, Dongya Y Yang
Osteoarthritis, one of the most common pathological conditions observed in human skeletal remains, is traditionally thought to only affect the structures within the joint capsule. We examined the osteoarthritic distal femora of an individual from Ancient North China, ca. 475-221 BCE. The standard signs of osteoarthritis, marginal lipping and extensive eburnation, were observed in the patellofemoral compartment of the knee joint. In addition however were bilateral pressure-caused fossae on the extra-articular anterior surfaces of the distal femora 10 mm proximal to the large osteophytes at the apex of the patellar surfaces...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
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