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Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580141/lactic-acid-bacteria-exopolysaccharides-in-foods-and-beverages-isolation-properties-characterization-and-health-benefits
#1
Kieran M Lynch, Emanuele Zannini, Aidan Coffey, Elke K Arendt
Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides produced by many species. They vary widely in their molecular, compositional, and structural characteristics, including mechanisms of synthesis. The physiochemical properties of these polymers mean that they can be exploited for the sensorial and textural enhancement of a variety of food and beverage products. Traditionally, lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides have an important role in fermented dairy products and more recently are being applied for the improvement of bakery products...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580140/uptake-of-engineered-nanoparticles-by-food-crops-characterization-mechanisms-and-implications
#2
Chuanxin Ma, Jason C White, Jian Zhao, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
With the rapidly increasing demand for and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture and related sectors, concerns over the risks to agricultural systems and to crop safety have been the focus of a number of investigations. Significant evidence exists for NP accumulation in soils, including potential particle transformation in the rhizosphere and within terrestrial plants, resulting in subsequent uptake by plants that can yield physiological deficits and molecular alterations that directly undermine crop quality and food safety...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580139/use-of-natural-selection-and-evolution-to-develop-new-starter-cultures-for-fermented-foods
#3
Eric Johansen
The fermented foods industry is constantly seeking new starter cultures to deal with changing consumer preferences and new fermentation processes. New cultures can either be composed of strains isolated from nature or improved derivatives of existing isolates. A variety of techniques involving natural selection and evolution are available to enhance the performance of existing strains, including the isolation of mutants with desired properties, adaptive laboratory evolution, genome shuffling, and genome editing...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580138/stability-and-stabilization-of-enzyme-biosensors-the-key-to-successful-application-and-commercialization
#4
José I Reyes-De-Corcuera, Hanna E Olstad, Rosalía García-Torres
Fifty-five years have passed and more than 100,000 articles have been published since the first report of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. However, very few biosensors have reached practical application and commercialization. The bulk of the research effort has been on increasing sensitivity and selectivity. In contrast, the number of publications dealing with stability or stabilization of enzyme biosensors is very small. Here, we critically review enzyme stabilization strategies as well as the progress that has been done in the past 20 years with respect to enzyme biosensor stabilization...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580137/natural-diversity-in-heat-resistance-of-bacteria-and-bacterial-spores-impact-on-food-safety-and-quality
#5
Heidy M W den Besten, Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Marcel H Zwietering
Heat treatments are widely used in food processing often with the aim of reducing or eliminating spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in food products. The efficacy of applying heat to control microorganisms is challenged by the natural diversity of microorganisms with respect to their heat robustness. This review gives an overview of the variations in heat resistances of various species and strains, describes modeling approaches to quantify heat robustness, and addresses the relevance and impact of the natural diversity of microorganisms when assessing heat inactivation...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580136/milk-glycans-and-their-interaction-with-the-infant-gut-microbiota
#6
Nina Kirmiz, Randall C Robinson, Ishita M Shah, Daniela Barile, David A Mills
Human milk is a unique and complex fluid that provides infant nutrition and delivers an array of bioactive molecules that serve various functions. Glycans, abundant in milk, can be found as free oligosaccharides or as glycoconjugates. Milk glycans are increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in neonates through protection from pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Indeed, these glycans influence the development of the infant and the infant-gut microbiota. Bifidobacterium species commonly are enriched in breastfed infants and are among a limited group of bacteria that readily consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk glycoconjugates...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400995/use-of-electrohydrodynamic-processing-for-encapsulation-of-sensitive-bioactive-compounds-and-applications-in-food
#7
Charlotte Jacobsen, Pedro J García-Moreno, Ana C Mendes, Ramona V Mateiu, Ioannis S Chronakis
The use of vitamins, polyphenolic antioxidants, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and probiotics for the fortification of foods is increasing. However, these bioactive compounds have low stability and need to be protected to avoid deterioration in the food system itself or in the gastrointestinal tract. For that purpose, efficient encapsulation of the compounds may be required. Spray drying is one of the most commonly used encapsulation techniques in the food industry, but it uses high temperature, which can lead to decomposition of the bioactive compounds...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400994/advances-in-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-mediterranean-diet-effect
#8
Dolores Corella, Oscar Coltell, Fernando Macian, José M Ordovás
Increasingly, studies showing the protective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on different diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, some cancers, and even total mortality and aging indicators) are being published. The scientific evidence level for each outcome is variable, and new studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms whereby the MedDiet may exercise its effects. Here, we present recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of MedDiet effects, mainly focusing on cardiovascular diseases but also discussing other related diseases...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350563/dietary-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-dages-and-melanoidins-formed-through-the-maillard-reaction-physiological-consequences-of-their-intake
#9
Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Vincenzo Fogliano
The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) is harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively)...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#10
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine and for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350561/recent-past-present-and-future-of-the-food-microbiome
#11
Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini
Sequencing technologies have deeply changed our approach to the study of food microbial communities. This review describes recent exploitations of high-throughput sequencing applications to improve our knowledge of food microbial consortia. In the past 10 years, target amplicon sequencing has become routinely used in many food microbiology laboratories, providing a detailed picture of food-associated microbiota. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches are still underexploited in food microbial ecology, despite their potential to uncover the functionality of complex communities...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350560/formation-structure-and-functionality-of-interfacial-layers-in-food-emulsions
#12
Claire C Berton-Carabin, Leonard Sagis, Karin Schroën
Emulsions, i.e., the dispersion of liquid droplets in a nonmiscible liquid phase, are overwhelmingly present in food products. In such systems, both liquid phases (generally, oil and water) are separated by a narrow region, the oil-water interface. Despite the fact that this interface is very thin (in the nanometer range), it represents a large surface area and controls to a great extent the physicochemical stability of emulsions. This review provides an overview of the aspects that govern the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of interfaces in food emulsions, taking into account the complexity of such systems (presence of numerous surface-active molecules, influence of processing steps, and dynamic evolution due to chemical changes)...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350559/visualizing-3d-food-microstructure-using-tomographic-methods-advantages-and-disadvantages
#13
Zi Wang, Els Herremans, Siem Janssen, Dennis Cantre, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï
X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) provides the unique ability to capture intact internal microstructure data without significant preparation of the sample. The fundamentals of micro-CT technology are briefly described along with a short introduction to basic image processing, quantitative analysis, and derivative computational modeling. The applications and limitations of micro-CT in industries such as meat, dairy, postharvest, and bread/confectionary are discussed to serve as a guideline to the plausibility of utilizing the technique for detecting features of interest...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350558/synbiotics-for-improved-human-health-recent-developments-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Janina A Krumbeck, Jens Walter, Robert W Hutkins
Research on combining pro- and prebiotics as synbiotics to enhance human and animal health has accelerated in the past 10 years, including many clinical trials that have assessed a diverse range of synbiotic formulations. In this review, we summarize these studies as well as the commercial applications of synbiotics that are available. In particular, we critically assess the claimed health benefits of synbiotic applications and the ecological and therapeutic factors to consider when designing synbiotics and discuss the implications of these concepts for future research in this field...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350557/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-health-benefits
#15
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual and neurological development, and maternal and child health...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328810/shelf-life-of-food-products-from-open-labeling-to-real-time-measurements
#16
Maria G Corradini
The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328809/methods-for-the-control-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-low-moisture-foods
#17
Alma Fernanda Sánchez-Maldonado, Alvin Lee, Jeffrey M Farber
Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (aw ) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328808/effective-prevention-of-oxidative-deterioration-of-fish-oil-focus-on-flavor-deterioration
#18
Kazuo Miyashita, Mariko Uemura, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328807/conversion-of-agricultural-streams-and-food-processing-by-products-to-value-added-compounds-using-filamentous-fungi
#19
Lauryn G Chan, Joshua L Cohen, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell
The design of new food products and increased agricultural activities have produced a diversity of waste streams or by-products that contain a high load of organic matter. The underutilization of these streams presents a serious threat to the environment and to the financial viability of the agricultural sector and the food industry. Oleaginous microorganisms, such as yeast and microalgae, have been used to convert the organic matter present in many agricultural waste streams into an oil-rich biomass. Filamentous fungi are promising oleaginous microorganisms because of their high lipid accumulation potential and simple biomass recovery, the latter being related to their pellet-like growth morphology in submerged cultivation...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328806/tailoring-delivery-system-functionality-using-microfluidics
#20
Giovana Bonat Celli, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Various methods are currently used by the food industry to investigate and prepare emulsions, encapsulates, and other structures. However, these techniques do not allow accurate control over processing variables, which can negatively impact the resultant product properties. In this context, microfluidic technology has been proposed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative food structures, given its use of small amounts of fluids and high reproducibility, resulting in monodisperse droplets and particles...
March 25, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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