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Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125343/advances-in-nanotechnology-as-they-pertain-to-food-and-agriculture-benefits-and-risks
#1
Rohollah Sadeghi, Randol J Rodriguez, Yuan Yao, Jozef L Kokini
Nanotechnology is an emerging and rapidly developing toolbox that has novel and unique applications to food science and agriculture. Fast and impressive developments in nanotechnology for food and agriculture have led to new experimental prototype technologies and products. Developing various types of nanodelivery systems, detection tools, nanoscale modifications of bulk or surface properties, fabrication of wide-range bionanosensors, and biodegradable nanoplatforms can potentially improve consumer health and safety, product shelf life and stability, bioavailability, environmental sustainability, efficiency of processing and packaging, and real-time monitoring...
January 25, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125347/gastric-mixing-during-food-digestion-mechanisms-and-applications
#2
Gail M Bornhorst
Gastric mixing is a complex process that is governed by meal properties, such as food buffering capacity, physical properties, and the rate of breakdown as well as physiological factors, such as the rate of gastric secretions, gastric emptying, and gastric motility. Gastric mixing processes have been studied through the use of experimental and computational methods. Gastric mixing impacts the intragastric pH distribution and residence time in the stomach for ingested materials. Development of a fundamental understanding of the advective and diffusion processes and their roles in gastric mixing will be important in furthering our understanding of food breakdown, microbial survival, and drug dissolution during gastric digestion...
January 23, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125351/in-vitro-release-kinetics-of-microencapsulated-materials-and-the-effect-of-the-food-matrix
#3
Floirendo P Flores, Fanbin Kong
Many biomaterials are encapsulated to preserve their health-promoting properties and promote targeted delivery. Numerous papers have been published about extraction and purification methods, encapsulation techniques, and release properties of encapsulated biomaterials. Despite the abundant information, the food applications of encapsulated materials are currently limited. One approach to increase the food applications is to investigate the mathematical aspects of release behavior and the effect of the food matrix...
January 18, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125345/application-of-microrheology-in-food-science
#4
Nan Yang, Ruihe Lv, Junji Jia, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Yapeng Fang
Microrheology provides a technique to probe the local viscoelastic properties and dynamics of soft materials at the microscopic level by observing the motion of tracer particles embedded within them. It is divided into passive and active microrheology according to the force exerted on the embedded particles. Particles are driven by thermal fluctuations in passive microrheology, and the linear viscoelasticity of samples can be obtained on the basis of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation. In active microrheology, tracer particles are controlled by external forces, and measurements can be extended to the nonlinear regime...
January 12, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125354/engineered-probiotics-applications-and-biological-containment
#5
Babasola Sola-Oladokun, Eamonn P Culligan, Roy D Sleator
Bioengineered probiotics represent the next generation of whole cell-mediated biotherapeutics. Advances in synthetic biology, genome engineering, and DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled scientists to design and develop probiotics with increased stress tolerance and the ability to target specific pathogens and their associated toxins, as well as to mediate targeted delivery of vaccines, drugs, and immunomodulators directly to host cells. Herein, we review the most significant advances in the development of this field...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125353/recent-advances-in-the-utilization-of-natural-emulsifiers-to-form-and-stabilize-emulsions
#6
David Julian McClements, Long Bai, Cheryl Chung
Consumer concern about human and environmental health is encouraging food manufacturers to use more natural and sustainable food ingredients. In particular, there is interest in replacing synthetic ingredients with natural ones, and in replacing animal-based ingredients with plant-based ones. This article provides a review of the various types of natural emulsifiers with potential application in the food industry, including phospholipids, biosurfactants, proteins, polysaccharides, and natural colloidal particles...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125352/who-would-have-thought-the-story-of-a-food-engineer
#7
Daryl B Lund
Food engineering is a hybrid of food science and an engineering science, like chemical engineering in my particular case, resulting in the application of chemical engineering principles to food systems and its constituents. With the complexity of food and food processing, one generally narrows his or her interests, and my primary interests were in the kinetics of reactions important in foods, thermal processing, deposition of unwanted materials from food onto heated surfaces (fouling), and microwave heat transfer in baking...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125350/the-challenges-of-eliminating-or-substituting-antimicrobial-preservatives-in-foods
#8
Marilyn C Erickson, Michael P Doyle
Consumers' criteria for evaluating food safety have evolved recently from considering the food's potential to cause immediate physical harm to considering the potential long-term effects that consumption of artificial ingredients, including antimicrobial preservatives, would have on health. As bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents to prevent microbial spoilage, antimicrobials not only extend shelf life, but they also enhance the product's safety. Antimicrobials and their levels that may be used in foods are specified by regulatory agencies...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125349/mass-transport-phenomena-in-lipid-oxidation-and-antioxidation
#9
Mickaël Laguerre, Antoine Bily, Marc Roller, Simona Birtic
In lipid dispersions, the ability of reactants to move from one lipid particle to another is an important, yet often ignored, determinant of lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants. This review describes three putative interparticle transfer mechanisms for oxidants and antioxidants: (a) diffusion, (b) collision-exchange-separation, and (c) micelle-assisted transfer. Mechanism a involves the diffusion of molecules from one particle to another through the intervening aqueous phase. Mechanism b involves the transfer of molecules from one particle to another when the particles collide with each other...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125348/anthocyanins-and-flavanones-are-more-bioavailable-than-previously-perceived-a-review-of-recent-evidence
#10
Colin D Kay, Gema Pereira-Caro, Iziar A Ludwig, Michael N Clifford, Alan Crozier
This review considers recent investigations on the bioavailability of anthocyanins and flavanones. Both flavonoids are significant dietary components and are considered to be poorly bioavailable, as only low levels of phase II metabolites appear in the circulatory system and are excreted in urine. However, when lower molecular weight phenolic and aromatic ring-fission catabolites, produced primarily by the action of the colonic microbiota, are taken into account, it is evident that anthocyanins and flavanones are much more bioavailable than previously envisaged...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125346/natural-colorants-food-colorants-from-natural-sources
#11
Gregory T Sigurdson, PeiPei Tang, M Mónica Giusti
The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125344/translating-omics-to-food-microbiology
#12
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
This review examines the applications of omics technologies in food microbiology, with a primary focus on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. We discuss the different sequencing approaches applicable to the study of food-related microbial isolates and mixed microbial communities in foods, and we provide an overview of the sequencing platforms suitable for each approach. We highlight the potential for genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to guide efforts to optimize food fermentations. Additionally, we explore the use of comparative and functional genomics to further our understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action and we describe the applicability of HTS as a food safety measure...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125342/edible-nanoemulsions-as-carriers-of-active-ingredients-a-review
#13
Laura Salvia-Trujillo, Robert C Soliva-Fortuny, M Alejandra Rojas-Graü, D Julian McClements, Olga Martín-Belloso
There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125341/from-bits-and-pieces-to-whole-phage-to-nanomachines-pathogen-detection-using-bacteriophages
#14
H Anany, Y Chou, S Cucic, R Derda, S Evoy, M W Griffiths
The innate specificity of bacteriophages toward their hosts makes them excellent candidates for the development of detection assays. They can be used in many ways to detect pathogens, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Whole bacteriophages can carry reporter genes to alter the phenotype of the target. Bacteriophages can act as staining agents or the progeny of the infection process can be detected, which further increases the sensitivity of the detection assay. Compared with whole-phage particles, use of phage components as probes offers other advantages: for example, smaller probe size to enhance binding activity, phage structures that can be engineered for better affinity, as well as specificity, binding properties, and robustness...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068492/enzyme-based-strategies-for-structuring-foods-for-improved-functionality
#15
Benjamin Zeeb, David Julian McClements, Jochen Weiss
Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize foodgrade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structure, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068491/bioavailabilty-of-nutrients-and-micronutrients-advances-in-modeling-and-in-vitro-approaches
#16
Sébastien Marze
The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions.Onone hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#17
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068489/legumes-as-functional-ingredients-in-gluten-free-bakery-and-pasta-products
#18
Martina Foschia, Stefan W Horstmann, Elke K Arendt, Emanuele Zannini
The increasing demand of gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068488/side-streams-of-plant-food-processing-as-a-source-of-valuable-compounds-selected-examples
#19
Andreas Schieber
Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068487/a-new-look-at-kinetics-in-relation-to-food-storage
#20
Micha Peleg, Mark D Normand, Maria G Corradini
Modern mathematical software and user-friendly interactive programs can simplify and speed up kinetics calculations. They also open the way for new approaches to storage data gathering and analysis. This is demonstrated with a recently introduced simple exponential model that is interchangeable with the Arrhenius equation and endpoints and successive points methods. This model estimates chemical degradation kinetics parameters from a small number of isothermal or nonisothermal experimental data and determines shelf life using two chemical markers, and it is a global phenomenological model for peaked reactions, such as those encountered in lipid oxidation...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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