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Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350563/dietary-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-dages-and-melanoidins-formed-through-maillard-reaction-physiological-consequences-of-their-intake
#1
Cristina Delgado-Andrade, Vincenzo Fogliano
The main purpose of this review is to clarify whether the consumption of food rich in melanoidins and dietary advanced glycosylation end-products (dAGEs) are harmful or beneficial for human health. There are conflicting results on their harmful effects in the literature, partly due to a methodological issue in how dAGEs are determined in food. Melanoidins have positive functions particularly within the gastrointestinal tract, whereas the intake of dAGEs has controversial physiological consequences. Most of the in vivo intervention trials were done comparing boiled versus roasted diet (low and high dAGE, respectively)...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#2
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350561/recent-past-present-and-future-of-the-food-microbiome
#3
Francesca De Filippis, Eugenio Parente, Danilo Ercolini
Sequencing technologies have deeply changed our approach to the study of food microbial communities. This review describes recent exploitations of high-throughput sequencing applications to improve our knowledge of food microbial consortia. In the past 10 years, target amplicon sequencing has become routinely used in many food microbiology laboratories, providing a detailed picture of food-associated microbiota. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches are still underexploited in food microbial ecology, despite their potential to uncover the functionality of complex communities...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350560/formation-structure-and-functionality-of-interfacial-layers-in-food-emulsions
#4
Claire C Berton-Carabin, Leonard Sagis, Karin Schroën
Emulsions, i.e., the dispersion of liquid droplets in a nonmiscible liquid phase, are overwhelmingly present in food products. In such systems, both liquid phases (generally, oil and water) are separated by a narrow region, the oil-water interface. Despite the fact that this interface is very thin (in the nanometer range), it represents a large surface area and controls to a great extent the physicochemical stability of emulsions. This review provides an overview of the aspects that govern the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of interfaces in food emulsions, taking into account the complexity of such systems (presence of numerous surface-active molecules, influence of processing steps, and dynamic evolution due to chemical changes)...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350559/visualizing-3d-food-microstructure-using-tomographic-methods-advantages-and-disadvantages
#5
Zi Wang, Els Herremans, Siem Janssen, Dennis Cantre, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï
X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) provides the unique ability to capture intact internal microstructure data without significant preparation of the sample. The fundamentals of micro-CT technology are briefly described along with a short introduction to basic image processing, quantitative analysis, and derivative computational modeling. The applications and limitations of micro-CT in industries such as meat, dairy, postharvest, and bread/confectionary are discussed to serve as a guideline to the plausibility of utilizing the technique for detecting features of interest...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350558/synbiotics-for-improved-human-health-recent-developments-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Janina A Krumbeck, Jens Walter, Robert W Hutkins
Research on combining pro- and prebiotics as synbiotics to enhance human and animal health has accelerated in the past 10 years, including many clinical trials that have assessed a diverse range of synbiotic formulations. In this review, we summarize these studies as well as the commercial applications of synbiotics that are available. In particular, we critically assess the claimed health benefits of synbiotic applications and the ecological and therapeutic factors to consider when designing synbiotics and discuss the implications of these concepts for future research in this fiel Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 9 is March 25, 2018...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350557/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-health-benefits
#7
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual, and neurological development, as well as maternal and child health...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328810/shelf-life-of-food-products-from-open-labeling-to-real-time-measurements
#8
Maria G Corradini
The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328809/methods-for-the-control-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-low-moisture-foods
#9
Alma Fernanda Sánchez-Maldonado, Alvin Lee, Jeffrey M Farber
Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (aw) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328808/effective-prevention-of-oxidative-deterioration-of-fish-oil-focus-on-flavor-deterioration
#10
Kazuo Miyashita, Mariko Uemura, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328807/conversion-of-agricultural-streams-and-food-processing-by-products-to-value-added-compounds-using-filamentous-fungi
#11
Lauryn G Chan, Joshua L Cohen, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell
The design of new food products and increased agricultural activities have produced a diversity of waste streams or by-products that contain a high load of organic matter. The underutilization of these streams presents a serious threat to the environment and to the financial viability of the agricultural sector and the food industry. Oleaginous microorganisms, such as yeast and microalgae, have been used to convert the organic matter present in many agricultural waste streams into an oil-rich biomass. Filamentous fungi are promising oleaginous microorganisms because of their high lipid accumulation potential and simple biomass recovery, the latter being related to their pellet-like growth morphology in submerged cultivation...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328806/tailoring-delivery-system-functionality-using-microfluidics
#12
Giovana Bonat Celli, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Various methods are currently used by the food industry to investigate and prepare emulsions, encapsulates, and other structures. However, these techniques do not allow accurate control over processing variables, which can negatively impact the resultant product properties. In this context, microfluidic technology has been proposed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative food structures, given its use of small amounts of fluids and high reproducibility, resulting in monodisperse droplets and particles...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328805/recent-advances-in-the-application-of-cold-plasma-technology-in-foods
#13
Chaitanya Sarangapani, Apurva Patange, Paula Bourke, Kevin Keener, P J Cullen
The past decade has seen a surge in the scientific literature investigating the potential food-related applications of plasma. A multidisciplinary scientific effort has started to demonstrate process efficacy for a range of plasma applications, including antimicrobial, pesticidal, food functionalization, and waste treatment. Insights into the interactions of plasma species with food and the mechanisms of action are also emerging. This review examines the current status of cold plasma technology within the food sector with a particular emphasis on emerging applications...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298101/diet-microbiota-and-metabolic-health-trade-off-between-saccharolytic-and-proteolytic-fermentation
#14
Katri Korpela
The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a central regulator of host metabolism and immune function, mediating the effects of diet on host health. However, the large diversity and individuality of the gut microbiota have made it difficult to draw conclusions about microbiota responses to dietary interventions. In the light of recent research, certain general patterns are emerging, revealing how the ecology of the gut microbiota profoundly depends on the quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrates and proteins...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298100/radio-frequency-applications-for-food-processing-and-safety
#15
Yang Jiao, Juming Tang, Yifen Wang, Tony L Koral
Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages against conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272187/updates-on-the-cronobacter-genus
#16
Stephen J Forsythe
There has been considerable concern related to Cronobacter spp. in foods, especially due to their highlighted association with neonatal infections through the ingestion of reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF). This concern resulted in improved microbiological criteria recommendations by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and revised WHO advice on the preparation of infant feeds. In recent years, the diversity of the genus has been well described, and various detection and typing methods have been developed...
December 22, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272186/role-of-proteins-on-formation-drainage-and-stability-of-liquid-food-foams
#17
Ganesan Narsimhan, Ning Xiang
Foam is a high-volume fraction dispersion of gas into a liquid or a solid. It is important to understand the effect of formulation on shelf life and texture of food foams. The objective of this review is to elucidate mechanisms of formation and stability of foams and relate them to the formulations. Emulsifiers are important in foam formation, whereas proteins are generally preferred to provide long-term stability. Syneresis in foams is a precursor to their collapse in many instances. Intermolecular forces, conformation, and flexibility of proteins play an important role in foam stabilization...
December 22, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261338/caenorhabditis-elegans-a-convenient-in-vivo-model-for-assessing-the-impact-of-food-bioactive-components-on-obesity-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Peiyi Shen, Yiren Yue, Jolene Zheng, Yeonhwa Park
Caenorhabditis elegans is a small free-living nematode that lives in temperate soil environments. It has been widely employed as an animal model in research involving obesity, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, because of its various advantages, such as small size, large number of progeny production, completely sequenced genome, and short life span, over traditional animal models of vertebrates. These benefits contribute to an ideal research model organism. In this review, we provide an introduction to C...
December 20, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245156/carbohydrates-as-fat-replacers
#19
Xingyun Peng, Yuan Yao
The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245155/cyanobacterial-toxins-in-freshwater-and-food-important-sources-of-exposure-to-humans
#20
Jiyoung Lee, Seungjun Lee, Xuewen Jiang
A recent ecological study demonstrated a significant association between an increased risk of nonalcoholic liver disease mortality and freshwater cyanobacterial blooms. Moreover, previous epidemiology studies highlighted a relationship between cyanotoxins in drinking water with liver cancer and damage and colorectal cancer. These associations identified cyanobacterial blooms as a global public health and environmental problem, affecting freshwater bodies that are important sources for drinking water, agriculture, and aquafarms...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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