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Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

Xingyun Peng, Yuan Yao
The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Jiyoung Lee, Seungjun Lee, Xuewen Jiang
A recent ecological study demonstrated a significant association between an increased risk of nonalcoholic liver disease mortality and freshwater cyanobacterial blooms. Moreover, previous epidemiology studies highlighted a relationship between cyanotoxins in drinking water with liver cancer and damage and colorectal cancer. These associations identified cyanobacterial blooms as a global public health and environmental problem, affecting freshwater bodies that are important sources for drinking water, agriculture, and aquafarms...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Emily Stout, Todd Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems that occur in many bacteria and most archaea. In addition to protecting bacteria from phages and other invasive mobile genetic elements, CRISPR-Cas molecular machines can be repurposed as tool kits for applications relevant to the food industry. A primary concern of the food industry has long been the proper management of food-related bacteria, with a focus on both enhancing the outcomes of beneficial microorganisms such as starter cultures and probiotics and limiting the presence of detrimental organisms such as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Sara E Shinn, Chuan Min Ruan, Andrew Proctor
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is in ruminant-derived foods and is known to combat obesity-related diseases. However, CLA levels in a healthy diet are too low to produce a clinical effect. Therefore, CLA has been produced by linoleic isomerization through fermentation and chemical catalysis. Many of these techniques are not practical for food production, but a recent development has enabled production of CLA-rich triglyceride vegetable oils from high linoleic acid oils by a minor modification of conventional food-oil processing techniques...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Babasola Sola-Oladokun, Eamonn P Culligan, Roy D Sleator
Bioengineered probiotics represent the next generation of whole cell-mediated biotherapeutics. Advances in synthetic biology, genome engineering, and DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled scientists to design and develop probiotics with increased stress tolerance and the ability to target specific pathogens and their associated toxins, as well as to mediate targeted delivery of vaccines, drugs, and immunomodulators directly to host cells. Herein, we review the most significant advances in the development of this field...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
David Julian McClements, Long Bai, Cheryl Chung
Consumer concern about human and environmental health is encouraging food manufacturers to use more natural and sustainable food ingredients. In particular, there is interest in replacing synthetic ingredients with natural ones, and in replacing animal-based ingredients with plant-based ones. This article provides a review of the various types of natural emulsifiers with potential application in the food industry, including phospholipids, biosurfactants, proteins, polysaccharides, and natural colloidal particles...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Daryl B Lund
Food engineering is a hybrid of food science and an engineering science, like chemical engineering in my particular case, resulting in the application of chemical engineering principles to food systems and their constituents. With the complexity of food and food processing, one generally narrows his or her interests, and my primary interests were in the kinetics of reactions important in foods, thermal processing, deposition of unwanted materials from food onto heated surfaces (fouling), and microwave heat transfer in baking...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Floirendo P Flores, Fanbin Kong
Many biomaterials are encapsulated to preserve their health-promoting properties and promote targeted delivery. Numerous papers have been published about extraction and purification methods, encapsulation techniques, and release properties of encapsulated biomaterials. Despite the abundant information, the food applications of encapsulated materials are currently limited. One approach to increase the food applications is to investigate the mathematical aspects of release behavior and the effect of the food matrix...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Marilyn C Erickson, Michael P Doyle
Consumers' criteria for evaluating food safety have evolved recently from considering the food's potential to cause immediate physical harm to considering the potential long-term effects that consumption of artificial ingredients, including antimicrobial preservatives, would have on health. As bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents to prevent microbial spoilage, antimicrobials not only extend shelf life, but they also enhance the product's safety. Antimicrobials and their levels that may be used in foods are specified by regulatory agencies...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Mickaël Laguerre, Antoine Bily, Marc Roller, Simona Birtić
In lipid dispersions, the ability of reactants to move from one lipid particle to another is an important, yet often ignored, determinant of lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants. This review describes three putative interparticle transfer mechanisms for oxidants and antioxidants: (a) diffusion, (b) collision-exchange-separation, and (c) micelle-assisted transfer. Mechanism a involves the diffusion of molecules from one particle to another through the intervening aqueous phase. Mechanism b involves the transfer of molecules from one particle to another when the particles collide with each other...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Colin D Kay, Gema Pereira-Caro, Iziar A Ludwig, Michael N Clifford, Alan Crozier
This review considers recent investigations on the bioavailability of anthocyanins and flavanones. Both flavonoids are significant dietary components and are considered to be poorly bioavailable, as only low levels of phase II metabolites appear in the circulatory system and are excreted in urine. However, when lower molecular weight phenolic and aromatic ring-fission catabolites, produced primarily by the action of the colonic microbiota, are taken into account, it is evident that anthocyanins and flavanones are much more bioavailable than previously envisaged...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Gail M Bornhorst
Gastric mixing is a complex process that is governed by meal properties, such as food buffering capacity, physical properties, and the rate of breakdown as well as physiological factors, such as the rate of gastric secretions, gastric emptying, and gastric motility. Gastric mixing processes have been studied through the use of experimental and computational methods. Gastric mixing impacts the intragastric pH distribution and residence time in the stomach for ingested materials. Development of a fundamental understanding of the advective and diffusion processes and their roles in gastric mixing will be important in furthering our understanding of food breakdown, microbial survival, and drug dissolution during gastric digestion...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Gregory T Sigurdson, Peipei Tang, M Mónica Giusti
The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Nan Yang, Ruihe Lv, Junji Jia, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Yapeng Fang
Microrheology provides a technique to probe the local viscoelastic properties and dynamics of soft materials at the microscopic level by observing the motion of tracer particles embedded within them. It is divided into passive and active microrheology according to the force exerted on the embedded particles. Particles are driven by thermal fluctuations in passive microrheology, and the linear viscoelasticity of samples can be obtained on the basis of the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation. In active microrheology, tracer particles are controlled by external forces, and measurements can be extended to the nonlinear regime...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Aaron M Walsh, Fiona Crispie, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
This review examines the applications of omics technologies in food microbiology, with a primary focus on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. We discuss the different sequencing approaches applicable to the study of food-related microbial isolates and mixed microbial communities in foods, and we provide an overview of the sequencing platforms suitable for each approach. We highlight the potential for genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to guide efforts to optimize food fermentations. Additionally, we explore the use of comparative and functional genomics to further our understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action and we describe the applicability of HTS as a food safety measure...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Rohollah Sadeghi, Randol J Rodriguez, Yuan Yao, Jozef L Kokini
Nanotechnology is an emerging and rapidly developing toolbox that has novel and unique applications to food science and agriculture. Fast and impressive developments in nanotechnology for food and agriculture have led to new experimental prototype technologies and products. Developing various types of nanodelivery systems, detection tools, nanoscale modifications of bulk or surface properties, fabrication of wide-range bionanosensors, and biodegradable nanoplatforms can potentially improve consumer health and safety, product shelf life and stability, bioavailability, environmental sustainability, efficiency of processing and packaging, and real-time monitoring...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Laura Salvia-Trujillo, Robert Soliva-Fortuny, M Alejandra Rojas-Graü, D Julian McClements, Olga Martín-Belloso
There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
H Anany, Y Chou, S Cucic, R Derda, S Evoy, M W Griffiths
The innate specificity of bacteriophages toward their hosts makes them excellent candidates for the development of detection assays. They can be used in many ways to detect pathogens, and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Whole bacteriophages can carry reporter genes to alter the phenotype of the target. Bacteriophages can act as staining agents or the progeny of the infection process can be detected, which further increases the sensitivity of the detection assay. Compared with whole-phage particles, use of phage components as probes offers other advantages: for example, smaller probe size to enhance binding activity, phage structures that can be engineered for better affinity, as well as specificity, binding properties, and robustness...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Benjamin Zeeb, David Julian McClements, Jochen Weiss
Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize food-grade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structures, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Sébastien Marze
The bioavailability of food nutrients and microconstituents is recognized as a determinant factor for optimal health status. However, human and animal studies are expensive and limited by the large amount of potential food bioactive compounds. The search for alternatives is very active and raises many questions. On one hand, in vitro digestion systems are good candidates, but to date only bioaccessibility has been correctly assessed. To go further, to what degree should natural processes be reproduced? What techniques can be used to measure the changes in food properties and structures in situ in a noninvasive way? On the other hand, modeling approaches have good potential, but their development is time-consuming...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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