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Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934174/bacterial-spores-in-food-survival-emergence-and-outgrowth
#1
REVIEW
Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Robyn T Eijlander, Heidy M W den Besten, Erwin M Berendsen, Alicja K Warda, Antonina O Krawczyk, Masja N Nierop Groot, Yinghua Xiao, Marcel H Zwietering, Oscar P Kuipers, Tjakko Abee
Spore-forming bacteria are ubiquitous in nature. The resistance properties of bacterial spores lie at the heart of their widespread occurrence in food ingredients and foods. The efficacy of inactivation by food-processing conditions is largely determined by the characteristics of the different types of spores, whereas food composition and storage conditions determine the eventual germination and outgrowth of surviving spores. Here, we review the current knowledge on variation in spore resistance, in germination, and in the outgrowth capacity of spores relevant to foods...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934173/food-allergy
#2
REVIEW
Shridhar K Sathe, Changqi Liu, Valerie D Zaffran
Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934172/infant-formula-fat-analogs-and-human-milk-fat-new-focus-on-infant-developmental-needs
#3
REVIEW
Long Zou, Garima Pande, Casimir C Akoh
Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934171/designing-whey-protein-polysaccharide-particles-for-colloidal-stability
#4
REVIEW
Ty Wagoner, Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti, E Allen Foegeding
Interactions between whey proteins and polysaccharides, in particular the formation of food-grade soluble complexes, are of interest because of potential functional and health benefits. A specific application that has not received much attention is the use of complexes for enhanced colloidal stability of protein sols, such as protein-containing beverages. In beverages, the primary goal is the formation of complexes that remain dispersed after thermal processing and extended storage. This review highlights recent progress in the area of forming whey protein-polysaccharide soluble complexes that would be appropriate for beverage applications...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934170/bosom-buddies-the-symbiotic-relationship-between-infants-and-bifidobacterium-longum-ssp-longum-and-ssp-infantis-genetic-and-probiotic-features
#5
REVIEW
Silvia Arboleya, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, Eugene Dempsey, Paul R Ross
The intestinal microbiota is a complex community that plays an important role in human health from the initial steps of its establishment. Its microbial composition has been suggested to result from selective pressures imposed by the host and is modulated by competition among its members. Bifidobacterium longum is one of the most abundant species of the Bifidobacterium genus in the gut microbiota of healthy breast-fed infants and adults. The recent advancements of 'omics techniques have facilitated the genetic and functional studies of different gut microbiota members...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772415/genomic-epidemiology-whole-genome-sequencing-powered-surveillance-and-outbreak-investigation-of-foodborne-bacterial-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Xiangyu Deng, Henk C den Bakker, Rene S Hendriksen
As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772414/impact-of-pathogen-population-heterogeneity-and-stress-resistant-variants-on-food-safety
#7
REVIEW
T Abee, J Koomen, K I Metselaar, M H Zwietering, H M W den Besten
This review elucidates the state-of-the-art knowledge about pathogen population heterogeneity and describes the genotypic and phenotypic analyses of persister subpopulations and stress-resistant variants. The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of persister phenotypes and genetic variants are identified. Zooming in on Listeria monocytogenes, a comparative whole-genome sequence analysis of wild types and variants that enabled the identification of mutations in variants obtained after a single exposure to lethal food-relevant stresses is described...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772413/metabolomic-technologies-for-improving-the-quality-of-food-practice-and-promise
#8
REVIEW
Suzanne D Johanningsmeier, G Keith Harris, Claire M Klevorn
It is now well documented that the diet has a significant impact on human health and well-being. However, the complete set of small molecule metabolites present in foods that make up the human diet and the role of food production systems in altering this food metabolome are still largely unknown. Metabolomic platforms that rely on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analytical technologies are being employed to study the impact of agricultural practices, processing, and storage on the global chemical composition of food; to identify novel bioactive compounds; and for authentication and region-of-origin classifications...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772412/food-antioxidants-chemical-insights-at-the-molecular-level
#9
REVIEW
Annia Galano, Gloria Mazzone, Ruslán Alvarez-Diduk, Tiziana Marino, J Raúl Alvarez-Idaboy, Nino Russo
In this review, we briefly summarize the reliability of the density functional theory (DFT)-based methods to accurately predict the main antioxidant properties and the reaction mechanisms involved in the free radical-scavenging reactions of chemical compounds present in food. The analyzed properties are the bond dissociation energies, in particular those involving OH bonds, electron transfer enthalpies, adiabatic ionization potentials, and proton affinities. The reaction mechanisms are hydrogen-atom transfer, proton-coupled electron transfer, radical adduct formation, single electron transfer, sequential electron proton transfer, proton-loss electron transfer, and proton-loss hydrogen-atom transfer...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772411/crispr-based-typing-and-next-generation-tracking-technologies
#10
REVIEW
Rodolphe Barrangou, Edward G Dudley
Bacteria occur ubiquitously in nature and are broadly relevant throughout the food supply chain, with diverse and variable tolerance levels depending on their origin, biological role, and impact on the quality and safety of the product as well as on the health of the consumer. With increasing knowledge of and accessibility to the microbial composition of our environments, food supply, and host-associated microbiota, our understanding of and appreciation for the ratio of beneficial to undesirable bacteria are rapidly evolving...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772410/unraveling-anthocyanin-bioavailability-for-human-health
#11
REVIEW
Mary Ann Lila, Britt Burton-Freeman, Mary Grace, Wilhelmina Kalt
This review considers the bioavailability of health-protective anthocyanin pigments from foods, in light of the multiple molecular structures and complicated traffic patterns taken by anthocyanins both as flavonoid metabolites and as phenolic acid metabolites within the body. Anthocyanins have generally been considered to have notoriously poor bioavailability, based on the very low levels typically detected in routine human blood draws after ingestion. Although some investigations have assessed anthocyanin bioavailability solely based on the measurement of parent anthocyanins or phenolic acid breakdown products, more recent research has increasingly revealed the presence, qualitative diversity, relatively high concentrations, and tenacity of molecular intermediates of anthocyanins that retain the unique flavonoid C6-C3-C6 backbone structure...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772409/bile-acid-modifications-at-the-microbe-host-interface-potential-for-nutraceutical-and-pharmaceutical-interventions-in-host-health
#12
REVIEW
Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Bile acids have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host, as they interact either locally or systemically with specific cellular receptors, in particular the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. These signaling functions influence systemic lipid and cholesterol metabolism, energy metabolism, immune homeostasis, and intestinal electrolyte balance. Through defined enzymatic activities, the gut microbiota can significantly modify the signaling properties of bile acids and therefore can have an impact upon host health...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26772408/antimicrobial-resistance-food-safety-and-one-health-the-need-for-convergence
#13
REVIEW
Samantha L Lammie, James M Hughes
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex, multifaceted, urgent global health problem. There is increasing concern about the emergence of multidrug-resistant superbugs. These superbugs result in infections responsive to treatment with few if any currently available antimicrobial agents, reviving memories of the preantibiotic era and evoking concerns about a postantibiotic era. Use of antibiotics exerts selective pressure on pathogens as well as on commensal organisms that are part of the normal flora of humans, animals, and the environment; this favors the emergence of resistant strains and sometimes involves the food supply...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735801/a-critical-look-at-prebiotics-within-the-dietary-fiber-concept
#14
REVIEW
Joran Verspreet, Bram Damen, Willem F Broekaert, Kristin Verbeke, Jan A Delcour, Christophe M Courtin
This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735800/caffeine-friend-or-foe
#15
REVIEW
Candace Doepker, Harris R Lieberman, Andrew Paul Smith, Jennifer D Peck, Ahmed El-Sohemy, Brian T Welsh
The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735799/development-characterization-and-utilization-of-food-grade-polymer-oleogels
#16
REVIEW
M Davidovich-Pinhas, Shai Barbut, A G Marangoni
The potential of organogels (oleogels) for oil structuring has been identified and investigated extensively using different gelator-oil systems in recent years. This review provides a comprehensive summary of all oil-structuring systems found in the literature, with an emphasis on ethyl-cellulose (EC), the only direct food-grade polymer oleogelator. EC is a semicrystalline material that undergoes a thermoreversible sol-gel transition in the presence of liquid oil. This unique behavior is based on the polymer's ability to associate through physical bonds...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735798/phage-host-interactions-of-cheese-making-lactic-acid-bacteria
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer Mahony, Brian McDonnell, Eoghan Casey, Douwe van Sinderen
Cheese production is a global biotechnological practice that is reliant on robust and technologically appropriate starter and adjunct starter cultures to acidify the milk and impart particular flavor and textural properties to specific cheeses. To this end, lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp., are routinely employed. However, these bacteria are susceptible to infection by (bacterio)phages. Over the past decade in particular, significant advances have been achieved in defining the receptor molecules presented by lactococcal host bacteria and in the structural analysis of corresponding phage-encoded receptor-binding proteins...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735797/organic-nanoparticles-in-foods-fabrication-characterization-and-utilization
#18
REVIEW
Kang Pan, Qixin Zhong
In the context of food systems, organic nanoparticles (ONPs) are fabricated from proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other organic compounds to a characteristic dimension, such as a radius smaller than 100 nm. ONPs can be fabricated with bottom-up and top-down approaches, or a combination of both, on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the source materials and the fundamental principles of physical chemistry, colloidal and polymer sciences, and materials science and engineering. ONPs are characterized for dimension, morphology, surface properties, internal structures, and biological properties to understand structure-function correlations and to explore their applications...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735796/conjugated-linoleic-acid-potential-health-benefits-as-a-functional-food-ingredient
#19
REVIEW
Jun Ho Kim, Yoo Kim, Young Jun Kim, Yeonhwa Park
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention since the 1980s for its various biological activities. CLA consists mainly of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, and the mixture of these two (CLA mix or 50:50) has been approved for food as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) in the United States since 2008. Along with its original discovery as an anticancer component, CLA has been shown to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, reduce body fat while improving lean body mass, and modulate immune and/or inflammatory responses...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735795/high-intensity-ultrasound-to-improve-physical-and-functional-properties-of-lipids
#20
REVIEW
Ashwini Wagh, Peter Birkin, Silvana Martini
High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) has been used in recent years to change the crystallization behavior of edible lipids. This technique can be used in combination with other processing technologies to tailor lipids' functional properties and broaden their application for various food products. In general, sonication induces crystallization, increases crystallization rate, and generates a harder and more elastic crystalline network characterized by smaller crystals with a sharper melting profile. An important application of HIU is to improve the hardness and elasticity of shortenings that have a low content of saturated fatty acids and are free of trans-fats...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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