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AMB Express

Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
Yanyan Zhao, Min Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jiayi Wang, Jinxiu Peng, Ping Zhao, Ranran Zhu, Hailin Wang, Yuan Li, Kairong Wang, Wenjin Yan, Rui Wang
Antimicrobial peptide has the potential to be developed as new kind of antimicrobial agents with novel action mechanism. However, the susceptibility to protease is a drawback for potential peptides to be clinical used. D-amino acid substitution can be one way to increase the proteolytic stability of peptides. In the present study, we synthesized the D-lysines substituted analog (D-lys-MPI) and the D-enantiomer of polybia-MPI (D-MPI) to improve the proteolytic resistance of polybia-MPI. Our results showed that, the stability of its D-amino acid partially substituted analog D-lys-MPI was increased...
December 2016: AMB Express
Xuzhen Zhang, Man Wang, Tuanjie Li, Lixia Fu, Wei Cao, Hao Liu
Biosynthesis of polysaccharide hyaluoronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus is a carbon-intensive process. The carbon flux and factor(s) restricting HA yield were not well understood. Here, we investigated the function of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and identified targets limiting HA yield, which were exploited to construct efficient S. zooepidemicus strains for HA production. The sucrose uptake was addressed by deletion of scrA and scrB, which encodes sucrose-PTS permease and sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase, respectively...
December 2016: AMB Express
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
Masato Kabata, Erina Hase, Kouta Kimura, Yuka Kobayashi, Yasushi Ueno, Kazuaki Yoshimune
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has an N-terminal fructosyl valine on the β-chain, and this modification is caused by the non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin (Hb). The relative concentration ratio of HbA1c to total Hb is an important biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c-binding lectins were screened from 29 sources of lectin, and the lectin from Aleuria aurantia (AAL) was revealed to have higher affinity to HbA1c than to Hb. The concentration of HbA1c was determined by lectin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the AAL lectin...
December 2016: AMB Express
M Zahmatkesh, H Spanjers, M J Toran, P Blánquez, J B van Lier
Twelve white rot fungi (WRF) strains were screened on agar plates for their ability to bleach humic acid (HA). Four fungal strains were selected and tested in liquid media for removal of HA. Bioremediation was investigated by HA color removal and changes in the concentration and molecular size distribution of HA by size exclusion chromatography. Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed the highest HA removal efficiency, reaching about 80%. Laccase and manganese peroxidase were measured as extracellular enzymes and their relation to the HA removal by WRF was investigated...
December 2016: AMB Express
Ge Ren, Anzhou Ma, Weifeng Liu, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
The bacterial quorum sensing signals N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are able to regulate a diverse array of physiological activities, such as symbiosis, virulence and biofilm formation, depending on population density. Recently, it has been discovered that the bacterial quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules can induce extensive response of higher eukaryotes including plants and mammalian cells. However, little is known about the response of fungi reacting to these bacterial signals. Here we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an ancient eukaryote and widely used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production, exposed to short-chain 3-OC6-HSL and long-chain C12-HSL appeared obvious changes in morphology and ethanol tolerance...
December 2016: AMB Express
J Satya Eswari, Kannekanti Kavya
Rhamnolipids are bio surfactants which are extra-cellular glycolipids composed of L-rhamnose and 3-hydroxyalkanoics. Rhamnolipids are produced through fermentation process by using Pseudomonas sp. as the species. An alteration to the traditional procedures in order to achieve increase in the production of biosurfactants, a numerous process technologies have been adopted in fed batch mode. Fed batch mode facilitates the high production of product by avoiding the substrate or product inhibition line of attack...
December 2016: AMB Express
Alexandra Bergman, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen, Yun Chen
Phosphoketolases catalyze an energy- and redox-independent cleavage of certain sugar phosphates. Hereby, the two-carbon (C2) compound acetyl-phosphate is formed, which enzymatically can be converted into acetyl-CoA-a key precursor in central carbon metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not demonstrate efficient phosphoketolase activity naturally. In this study, we aimed to compare and identify efficient heterologous phosphoketolase enzyme candidates that in yeast have the potential to reduce carbon loss compared to the native acetyl-CoA producing pathway by redirecting carbon flux directly from C5 and C6 sugars towards C2-synthesis...
December 2016: AMB Express
Kailas D Sonawane, Narayan R Dandagal, Akibjaved G Naikwadi, Piyush T Gurav, Samar V Anapat, Naiem H Nadaf, Deepak B Jadhav, Shailesh R Waghmare
Fungal chitinase have tremendous applications in biotech industries, with this approach we focused on extracellular chitinase from Rhizopus stolonifer NCIM 880 for the formation of fungal protoplasts. The maximum chitinase production reached after 24 h at 2.5% colloidal chitin concentration in presence of starch as an inducer. Chitinase was extracted efficiently at 65% cold acetone concentration and then purified by using DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. Purified chitinase having molecular weight 22 kDa with single polypeptide chain was optimally active at pH 5...
December 2016: AMB Express
James N Benardini, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) measures and validates the biological cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces by counting endospores using the NASA standard assay (NSA). NASA has also approved an adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-based detection methodology as a means to prescreen surfaces for the presence of microbial contamination, prior to the spore assay. During Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft assembly, test, and launch operations, 4853 surface samples were collected to verify compliance with the bioburden requirement at launch...
December 2016: AMB Express
Jitendra Upadhyaya, Min-Sun Yoon, Min-Ji Kim, Nam-Soo Ryu, Young-Eun Song, Young-Hoi Kim, Myung-Kon Kim
Ginsenosides are the principal compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and health benefits of Panax ginseng root. Among protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, minor ginsenosides such as ginsenoside (G)-F2, G-Rh2, compound (C)-Mc1, C-Mc, C-O, C-Y, and C-K are known to be more pharmacologically active constituents than major ginsenosides such as G-Rb1, G-Rb2, G-Rc, and G-Rd. A novel ginsenoside Rc-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase (BG-1) from Armillaria mellea mycelia was purified as a single protein band with molecular weight of 121...
December 2016: AMB Express
Amrita Kumari Panda, Satpal Singh Bisht, Surajit De Mandal, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
Bacterial and archaeal diversity of two alkaline Indian hot springs, Jakrem (Meghalaya) and Yumthang (Sikkim), were studied. Thirteen major bacterial phyla were identified of which Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Thermi were dominant in Jakrem and Proteobacteria in Yumthang. The dominant genera were Clostridium, Chloroflexus and Meiothermus at Jakrem (water temperature 46 °C, pH 9) and Thiobacillus, Sulfuritalea at Yumthang (water temperature 39 °C, pH 8) hot springs. The four Euryarchaeota taxa that were observed in both the hot springs were Methanoculleus, Methanosaeta, Methanosarcina and Methanocorposculum...
December 2016: AMB Express
Hai Wang, Hongping Wu, Kejun Wang, Zhichen Cao, Kun Yu, Ling Lian, Zhengxing Lian
Lysozyme is one kind of antimicrobial proteins and often used as feed additive which can defend against pathogenic bacteria and enhance immune function of animals. In this study, we have injected the lentiviral vector expressing recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the blastoderm of chicken embryo to investigate the effect of recombinant human lysozyme on postnatal intestinal microbiota distribution and growth performance of chicken. Successfully, we generated 194 transgenic chickens identified by Southern blot with a positive transgenic rate of 24%...
December 2016: AMB Express
Ting Li, Xiaoxi Niu, Xu Zhang, Suxia Wang, Zhaohui Liu
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly caused by Candida albicans affecting a significant number of women of reproductive age. The Chinese medicine, the Baofukang suppository is widely used in the clinic for its antimicrobial activity and is therefore of great interest as a potential antifungal drug for the prevention of VVC. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of the Baofukang suppository using the VK2/E6E7 vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) line. When treated with the Baofukang suppository, all of the immunocompetent cytokines and chemokines (e...
December 2016: AMB Express
Rong Zeng, Qiao Hu, Xiao-Yan Yin, Hao Huang, Jia-Bao Yan, Zhi-Wei Gong, Zhong-Hua Yang
Endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase (EG), as a key constituent of cellulase taking the responsibility of cutting β-1,4 glycosidic bonds, plays the essential role in the process of degrading cellulose by cellulase. Cloning and expressing the EG gene is important to the cellulase research and application. In this work, a novel EG gene was cloned from Trichoderma virens ZY-01, which was a cellulase secreting microbe isolated by our laboratory. The DNA sequence showed that the length of the cloned EG is 1069 bp, which had 95...
December 2016: AMB Express
Yasin Kitichantaropas, Chuenchit Boonchird, Minetaka Sugiyama, Yoshinobu Kaneko, Satoshi Harashima, Choowong Auesukaree
High-temperature ethanol fermentation has several benefits including a reduction in cooling cost, minimizing risk of bacterial contamination, and enabling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. To achieve the efficient ethanol fermentation at high temperature, yeast strain that tolerates to not only high temperature but also the other stresses present during fermentation, e.g., ethanol, osmotic, and oxidative stresses, is indispensable. The C3253, C3751, and C4377 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, which have been previously isolated as thermotolerant yeasts, were found to be multiple stress-tolerant...
December 2016: AMB Express
Jin-Xin Che, Jun-Ling Shi, Yao Lu, Yan-Lin Liu
Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus isolated from Vitis vinifera, can independently produce resveratrol, indicating that this species contains the key genes for resveratrol biosynthesis. Identification of these key genes is essential to understand the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain, which is currently unknown in microorganisms. qRT-PCR is an efficient and widely used method to identify the key genes related to unknown pathways at the level of gene expression. Verification of stable reference genes in this strain is essential for qRT-PCR data normalization, although results have been reported for other Alternaria sp...
December 2016: AMB Express
Sae-Byuk Lee, Won-Seok Choi, Hyun-Jung Jo, Soo-Hwan Yeo, Heui-Dong Park
Wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D8) and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum S6 and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL5774) were studied using air-blast drying instead of the conventional drying methods (such as freeze and spray drying). Skim milk-a widely used protective agent-was used and in all strains, the highest viabilities following air-blast drying were obtained using 10% skim milk. Four excipients (wheat flour, nuruk, artichoke powder, and lactomil) were evaluated as protective agents for yeast strains during air-blast drying...
December 2016: AMB Express
S Elgueta, C Santos, N Lima, M C Diez
Herbicides cause environmental concerns because they are toxic and accumulate in the environment, food products and water supplies. There is a need to develop safe, efficient and economical methods to remove them from the environment, often by biodegradation. Atrazine is such herbicide. White-rot fungi have the ability to degrade herbicides of potential utility. This study formulated a novel pelletized support to immobilize the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to improve its capability to degrade the atrazine using a biopurification system (BS)...
December 2016: AMB Express
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