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AMB Express

Ya-Qin Wei, Hong-Jian Yang, Rui-Jun Long, Zhi-Ye Wang, Bin-Bin Cao, Qin-Chang Ren, Tian-Tian Wu
Anaerobic fungi reside in the gut of herbivore and synergize with associated methanogenic archaea to decompose ingested plant biomass. Despite their potential for use in bioconversion industry, only a few natural fungus-methanogen co-cultures have been isolated and characterized. In this study we identified three co-cultures of Piromyces with Methanobrevibacter ruminantium from the rumen of yaks grazing on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. The representative co-culture, namely (Piromyces + M. ruminantium) Yak-G18, showed remarkable polysaccharide hydrolase production, especially xylanase...
December 2017: AMB Express
Ali Toolabi, Mohammad Malakootian, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Ali Esrafili, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Maesome Tabatabaei, Mohsen AskarShahi
Contamination of water resources by acetamiprid pesticide is considered one of the main environmental problems. The aim of this study was the optimization of acetamiprid removal from aqueous solutions by TiO2/Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocomposite using the response surface methodology (RSM) with toxicity assessment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCRC. To obtain the optimum condition for acetamiprid degradation using RSM and central composite design (CCD). The magnetic TiO2/Fe3O4/SiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized using co-precipitation and sol-gel methods...
December 2017: AMB Express
Amir Hussain, Martin Kangwa, Marcelo Fernandez-Lahore
The successful industrial production of ethanol and fine chemicals requires the development of new biocatalytic reactors and support materials to achieve economically viable processes. In this work, a Stirred-Catalytic-Basket-BioReactor using various immobilizing foams as support material and compared to free cells were used, focusing mainly on; (i) effect of mass-transfer on cells physiology and (ii) ethanol productivity. The performance of the reactor was further evaluated by ethanol volumetric productivity, yield and time for process completion and it was found that the variation of ethanol production and diffusion of the substrate in fermentation process are co-related with the stirrer speed and initial glucose concentration...
December 2017: AMB Express
Elisabeth Eschlbeck, Simon A W Bauer, Ulrich Kulozik
Bacillus subtilis spores are often used as biological indicators (BI) to monitor decontamination processes with gaseous hydrogen peroxide. Results in practical inactivation validation tests, however, vary considerably with no available explanation so far. This study reports on the effect of cultivation pH on spore surface hydrophobicity. Surface hydrophobicity is suspected to have an impact on the decontamination of technical surfaces such as packaging material when gaseous, condensing hydrogen peroxide is applied...
December 2017: AMB Express
Mingzhan Toh, Shao Quan Liu
This study evaluated the influence of three inactivated yeast derivatives (IYDs) used in wine production, namely OptiRed(®), OptiWhite(®) and Noblesse(®), on the viability of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in an acidic environment. Addition of the IYDs at 3 g/L significantly enhanced the survival of the probiotic bacteria by 2.75-4.05 log cycles after 10-h exposure in a pH 3.0 buffer. Acid stress assay with IYD components obtained after centrifugation and filtration revealed that water-soluble compounds were responsible for improving the acid tolerance of L...
December 2017: AMB Express
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
Cheng Zeng, Rongbin Zhao, Maomao Ma, Zheling Zeng, Deming Gong
The purpose of the present study was to increase the proteinase activity of the strain NCU116 by combining ultraviolet irradiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine treatment, in order to enhance the efficiency of Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) extraction by aqueous enzymatic method (AEM). The mutated strain, designated as NCU116-1, was screened out by the ratio of hydrolytic zone diameter to colony diameter on skim milk plate. The proteinase activity (9116.1 U/ml) of NCU116-1 was increased by 31...
December 2017: AMB Express
Josiane Fukami, Francisco Javier Ollero, Manuel Megías, Mariangela Hungria
Azospirillum spp. are plant-growth-promoting bacteria used worldwide as inoculants for a variety of crops. Among the beneficial mechanisms associated with Azospirillum inoculation, emphasis has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation process and to the synthesis of phytohormones. In Brazil, the application of inoculants containing A. brasilense strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6 to cereals is exponentially growing and in this study we investigated the effects of maize inoculation with these two strains applied on seeds or by leaf spray at the V2...
December 2017: AMB Express
Song Wang, Mingqiang Shen, Shilei Chen, Cheng Wang, Fang Chen, Mo Chen, Gaomei Zhao, Xinze Ran, Tianmin Cheng, Yongping Su, Yang Xu, Junping Wang
dTMP-GH is a chimeric protein containing a tandem dimer of thrombopoietin mimetic peptide (dTMP) fused to human growth hormone (hGH) prepared previously by our team. It shows significant bioactivity in promoting thrombocytopoiesis, but detection of intact dTMP-GH in plasma is still a challenge due to the presence of endogenous hGH. In this study, a rabbit polyclonal antibody with high affinity to dTMP was obtained with a BSA-conjugated immunogen composed of 20 amino acids sequence spanning two TMP and the linker...
December 2017: AMB Express
Hey Young Yoon, Hyung Jun Kim, Soojin Jang, Jong-In Hong
Bacterial arylsulfatases are crucial to biosynthesis in many microorganisms, as bacteria often utilize aryl sulfates as a source of sulfur. The bacterial sulfatases are associated with pathogenesis and are applied in many areas such as industry and agriculture. We developed an activity-based probe 1 for detection of bacterial sulfatase activity through liquid- and solid-phase colony-based assays. Probe 1 is hydrolyzed by sulfatase to generate fluorescent N-methyl isoindole, which is polymerized to form colored precipitates...
December 2017: AMB Express
Xiangsheng Zhao, Jianhe Wei, Yakui Zhou, Weijun Kong, Meihua Yang
In the storage of Alpinia oxyphylla, growth of mildew (especially toxic fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus) is a potential safety risk. Few reports have investigated how A. oxyphylla storage conditions impact mold growth or how mold growth impacts the bioactive components of A. oxyphylla. In this study, sterilized A. oxyphylla samples were contaminated by artificial inoculation of A. flavus spores. The main chemical components and aflatoxin levels in the infected A. oxyphylla samples were characterized. Central composite design-response surface methodology was used to study the effects of different temperature and humidity of storage conditions on the fungal growth in A...
December 2017: AMB Express
Aneta K Urbanek, Waldemar Rymowicz, Mateusz C Strzelecki, Waldemar Kociuba, Łukasz Franczak, Aleksandra M Mirończuk
The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms (95.87%), on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) for 73 microorganisms (60...
December 2017: AMB Express
Christine Muth, Meike Buchholz, Christina Schmidt, Sonja Volland, Friedhelm Meinhardt
Natural genetic competence renders bacteria able to take up and, in case there is sufficient homology to the recipient's chromosome, integrate exogenously supplied DNA. Well studied in Bacillus subtilis, genetic competence is-in several aspects-known to be differently regulated in Bacillus licheniformis. We now report on the identification of a novel, chromosomally encoded homolog of a competence inhibitor in B. licheniformis (ComI) that has hitherto only been described as a plasmid borne trait in the ancestral B...
December 2017: AMB Express
Yao Zhao, Wanqiang Wang, Fen Zhu, Xiaoyun Wang, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei
House fly larvae provide a prolific and sustainable source of proteins used in poultry and fish feed. Wheat bran is a superior diet for house fly larvae and has been widely investigated to exploit its potential in the food and feed area. Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing, this study investigated the gut microbiota of house fly larvae feeding on wheat bran and the bacterial community in the wheat bran. The bacterial communities in the house fly larvae were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes...
December 2017: AMB Express
Kristie Stauch-White, Varun N Srinivasan, W Camilla Kuo-Dahab, Chul Park, Caitlyn S Butler
Recently, the use of phototrophs for wastewater treatment has been revisited because of new approaches to separate them from effluent streams. One manifestation uses oxygenic photogranules (OPGs) which are dense, easily-settleable granular biofilms of cyanobacteria, which surrounding populations of heterotrophs, autotrophs, and microalgae. OPGs can remove COD and nitrogenous compounds without external aeration. To better grow and maintain biomass in the proposed wastewater process, this study seeks to understand the factors that contribute to successful granulation...
December 2017: AMB Express
Seon Hwa Kim, Vladimir Vujanovic
A fungus Sphaerodes mycoparasitica SMCD 2220-01 is a host specific mycoparasite against plant pathogenic Fusarium species. Fusarium spp. are producing a plethora of mycotoxins including zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON). The SMCD 2220-01 strain substantially reduced DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, and ZEN production capacity in co-culture system. Degradation and detoxification of the pure mycotoxins were also achieved when exposed to SMCD 2220-01 in shake flasks...
December 2017: AMB Express
Donya Kamravamanesh, Stefan Pflügl, Winfried Nischkauer, Andreas Limbeck, Maximilian Lackner, Christoph Herwig
Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from CO2 has the potential to reduce the production cost of this biodegradable polyesters, and also to make the material more sustainable compared to utilization of sugar feedstocks. In this study the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 has been identified as an unexplored potential organism for production of PHB. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 was studied under various cultivation conditions and nutritional limitations. Combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency led to highest PHB accumulation under photoautotrophic conditions...
December 2017: AMB Express
Fereshteh Ansari, Hadi Pourjafar, Vahid Jodat, Javad Sahebi, Amir Ataei
In this study, we examined a novel method of microencapsulation with calcium alginate-chitosan and Eudragit S100 nanoparticles for the improving viability of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Extrusion technique was carried out in microencapsulation process. The viability of two probiotics in single coated beads (with only chitosan), double coated beads (with chitosan and Eudragit nanoparticles), and as free cells (unencapsulated) were conducted in simulated gastric juice (pH 1...
December 2017: AMB Express
Asanga Sampath, Manjula Weerasekera, Ayomi Dilhari, Chinthika Gunasekara, Uditha Bulugahapitiya, Neluka Fernando, Lakshman Samaranayake
Candida dubliniensis shares a wide range of phenotypic characteristics with Candida albicans including a common trait called germ tube positivity. Hence, laboratory differentiation of these two species is cumbersome. Duplex PCR analyses for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis was performed directly on DNA extracted from a total of 122 germ tube positive isolates derived from 100 concentrated oral rinse samples from a random cohort of diabetics attending a clinic in Sri Lanka. These results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of the yeasts...
December 2017: AMB Express
Tomo Aoyagi, Takaya Hamai, Tomoyuki Hori, Yuki Sato, Mikio Kobayashi, Yuya Sato, Tomohiro Inaba, Atsushi Ogata, Hiroshi Habe, Takeshi Sakata
For acceleration of removing toxic metals from acid mine drainage (AMD), the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the reactor performance and microbial community structure in the depth direction of a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor containing rice bran as waste organic material were investigated. The HRT was shortened stepwise from 25 to 12 h, 8 h, and 6 to 5 h under the neutral condition using AMD neutralized with limestone (pH 6.3), and from 25 to 20 h, 12 h, and 8 to 7 h under the acid condition using AMD (pH 3...
December 2017: AMB Express
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