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AMB Express

Yuli Hu, Xinglong Yu, Dun Zhao, Runcheng Li, Yang Liu, Meng Ge, Huican Hu
Environmental exposure is considered to be responsible for nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in humans. To facilitate the isolation of mycobacteria from soil, Middlebrook 7H10 agar was optimized as an enhanced selective medium by increasing the concentration of malachite green. A series of modified Middlebrook 7H10 agar media with malachite green concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 2500 mg/L was evaluated using 20 soil samples decontaminated with 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate plus 2% NaOH for 30 min. Among these modified Middlebrook 7H10 media, the medium with malachite green at a concentration of 250 mg/L, i...
December 2017: AMB Express
Mohammad H Ehrampoush, Abbas Sadeghi, Mohammad T Ghaneian, Ziaeddin Bonyadi
Diazinon is an organophosphate compound that inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Standards of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency for diazinon concentration in water are 0.1 and 9 × 10(-6) mg/L, respectively. The aim of this study was the optimization of diazinon biodegradation from aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the response surface methodology (RSM). Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae were locally purchased from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology...
December 2017: AMB Express
Raúl Andrés Cuello, Karina Johana Flores Montero, Laura Analía Mercado, Mariana Combina, Iván Francisco Ciklic
We propose an alternative GMO based strategy to obtain Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains with a slight reduction in their ability to produce ethanol, but with a moderate impact on the yeast metabolism. Through homologous recombination, two truncated Pdc2p proteins Pdc2pΔ344 and Pdc2pΔ519 were obtained and transformed into haploid and diploid lab yeast strains. In the pdc2Δ344 mutants the DNA-binding and transactivation site of the protein remain intact, whereas in pdc2Δ519 only the DNA-binding site is conserved...
December 2017: AMB Express
Parin C Shah, V Ravi Kumar, Syed G Dastager, Jayant M Khire
The production of phytase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation conditions was studied using protein rich chickpea flour as substrate. Employing a hybrid statistical media optimization strategy of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental designs in shake-flasks gave an increased phytase activity from an initial 66 IU/mL in 216 h to 160 IU/mL in a reduced time of 132 h. Productivity, thus increased by 3.97 times from 7.3 to 29 IU/mL/day. Using the optimized media, the production was successfully scaled-up further and improved up to 164 IU/mL in 96 h by studies carried out employing 2 and 10-L fermenters...
December 2017: AMB Express
Guangyao Ying, Shanshan Zhang, Yuli Hu, Meihua Yang, Ping Chen, Xiaoru Wu, Weiying Guo, Weijun Kong
For seeking novel antibacterial agents with high efficacy and low toxicity to deal with drug resistance, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae from various sources on Escherichia coli were evaluated by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics. Firstly, the heat-flow power-time curves of E. coli growth affected by different S. miltiorrhizae samples were recorded. Then, some crucial quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters including growth rate constant, heat-flow power and heat output, etc. were obtained from theses curves and were further investigated by some powerful chemometric techniques including similarity analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical clustering analysis and principle component analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
Young Soo Kim, Chung-Jo Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
Geniposide is an iridoid glycoside, which is abundant in Gardeniae Fructus. Despite the various pharmaceutical effects of geniposide on a human body, its hydrolysis into a smaller molecule, genipin, by β-glucosidase produced by bacteria in the intestines is particularly important to improve geniposide uptake into the body. Since geniposide is much more abundant in Gardeniae Fructus than its aglycone genipin, we herein transformed geniposide into genipin using purified recombinant β-glucosidase from Lactobacillus antri (rBGLa), which was expressed in Escherichia coli to enhance the genipin content...
December 2017: AMB Express
I Kamika, M Tekere
Rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, but the effects of inorganic nanoparticles on bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the microbiome of activated sludge system. The results showed that 18,330 over 28,201 reads generated from control samples were assigned to Proteobacteria while 5527 reads (19.6%), 3260 reads (11.567%), and 719 reads (2.55%) were assigned to unclassified_Bacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, respectively...
December 2017: AMB Express
Nancy Hachicho, Astrid Birnbaum, Hermann J Heipieper
Planktonic cells and those grown on surfaces (or as colony biofilm) are known to show significant differences regarding growth behavior, cell physiology, gene expression and stress tolerance. In order to compare stress behavior of different growth forms, shake cultures for planktonic growth and agar plate cultivation for colony growth, were carried out with the well investigated model organism, Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Cells were exposed to sodium chloride to cause osmotic stress as one main environmental stressor bacteria have to cope with when growing in soil...
December 2017: AMB Express
Donatella Cimini, Ileana Dello Iacono, Elisabetta Carlino, Rosario Finamore, Odile F Restaino, Paola Diana, Emiliano Bedini, Chiara Schiraldi
Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate, are not only more and more required as main ingredients in cosmeceutical and nutraceutical preparations, but also as active principles in medical devices and pharmaceutical products. However, while biotechnological production of hyaluronic acid is industrially established through fermentation of Streptococcus spp. and recently Bacillus subtilis, biotechnological chondroitin is not yet on the market. A non-hemolytic and hyaluronidase negative S...
December 2017: AMB Express
Galina Khokhlova, Mikhail Vainshtein
The paper presents effects of different magnetic fields (MFs) (static-SMF and impulse-IMF) on bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum VKM B-1621. The MFs had different magnetic strength: SMF-up to 173 mT; IMF-25 mT. The studied object was amylase activity which was measured by decrease in the starch concentration during incubation in the MFs. The term of incubation in the MFs was limited with 2 h. The SMF affected neither amylase activity of R. rubrum nor standard deviation in distribution of the residual starch concentration along the plate but the IMF did...
December 2017: AMB Express
Wendan Chi, Li Zheng, Changfei He, Bin Han, Minggang Zheng, Wei Gao, Chengjun Sun, Gefei Zhou, Xiangxing Gao
Quorum sensing (QS) systems play important roles in regulating many physiological functions of microorganisms, such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence, and antibiotic production. One marine algicidal bacterium, Ponticoccus sp. PD-2, was isolated from the microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense, and its N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS system was verified. In this study, we analyzed the AHLs profile of strain PD-2. Two AHLs, 3-oxo-C8-HSL and 3-oxo-C10-HSL, were detected using a biosensor overlay assay and GC-MS methods...
December 2017: AMB Express
Ming Liu, Marcel T Ale, Bartłomiej Kołaczkowski, Dinesh Fernando, Geoffrey Daniel, Anne S Meyer, Anders Thygesen
Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. By phylogenetic frequency mapping, different types of fungi, many belonging to the Ascomycota phylum were found on the fibres during the first 2 weeks of field retting, and thereafter, different types of bacteria, notably Proteobacteria, also proliferated on the field retted fibres...
December 2017: AMB Express
Yang Bai, Xu-Jing Guo, Yun-Zhen Li, Tao Huang
Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a common occurrence of geochemistry influences in many fields, such as biological, geographical, and engineering systems. However, the processes that control interactions between carbonate biomineralization and biofilm properties are poorly understood. We develop a method for real time, in situ and nondestructive imaging with confocal scanning microscopy. This method provides a possible way to observe biomineralization process and the morphology of biomineralized deposits within biofilms...
December 2017: AMB Express
Azadeh Babaei, Karolína Ranglová, Jose R Malapascua, Jiří Masojídek
Microalgae are able to metabolize inorganic selenium (Se) to organic forms (e.g. Se-proteins); nevertheless at certain Se concentration culture growth is inhibited. The aim of this work was to confirm the hypothesis that the limit of Se tolerance in Chlorella cultures is related to photosynthetic performance, i.e. depends on light intensity. We studied the relation between the dose and irradiance to find the range of Se tolerance in laboratory and outdoor cultures. At low irradiance (250 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), the daily dose of Se below 8...
December 2017: AMB Express
Johnny Maciel de Souza, Dannylo Oliveira de Sousa, Bruno Souza de Mesquita, Lígia Garcia Mesquita, Luis Felipe Prada Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sugarcane neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), conservation method, and concentrate level on the ruminal microbial population of steers. Eight ruminal-cannulated Nellore steers were distributed in two contemporary 4 × 4 Latin Square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experiment 1: diets were formulated with 60% of concentrate level, and two sugarcane genotypes (high or low NDFD) either freshly cut or as silage. Experiment 2: diets were formulated with two levels of concentrate (60 or 80%), and two sugarcane genotypes (high or low NDFD) offered as freshly cut...
December 2017: AMB Express
Taswar Ahsan, Jianguang Chen, Xiuxiang Zhao, Muhammad Irfan, Yuanhua Wu
Streptomyces strain KX852460 having antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 KX852461 that is the causal agent of target spot disease in tobacco leaf. The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces strain KX852460 extract against R. solani AG-3 and to identify bioactive antifungal compounds produced by strain KX852460. Crude substance was produced by submerged fermentation process from Streptomyces strain KX852460. Various solvent was used to extract the culture filtrate...
December 2017: AMB Express
Meisam Jeiranikhameneh, Mohamad Reza Razavi, Shiva Irani, Seyed Davar Siadat, Mana Oloomi
Today, transference of recombinant protein on the outer surface of bacteria is deemed as a valuable process for various applications in biotechnology including preparation of vaccines. In this study, Lpp-OmpA structure was used to present outer membrane protein E of Haemophilus influenzae on E. coli outer membrane. Also, a structure was designed according to Lpp-OmpA based on non-classical secretion pathway using bioinformatics software such as MEMSAT-SVM, ScrotumP and SignalP where it lacked any signal peptide at its N-terminal...
December 2017: AMB Express
Liping Chen, Xiaoxiao Yang, Xiujun Tian, Song Yao, Jiuyi Li, Aimin Wang, Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng
The combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been proposed as an ideal process for nitrogen removal from source-separated urine, while the high organic matters in urine cause instability of single-stage PN-anammox process. This study aims to remove the organic matters and partially nitrify the nitrogen in urine, producing an ammonium/nitrite solution suitable for anammox. The organic matters in stored urine were used as the electron donors to achieve 40% total nitrogen removal in nitritation-denitrification process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)...
December 2017: AMB Express
Shotaro Honda, Toshiyuki Kunii, Kenta Nohara, Satoshi Wakita, Yasusato Sugahara, Masao Kawakita, Fumitaka Oyama, Masayoshi Sakaguchi
Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that is known to be a bacterial biopesticide that produces insecticidal proteins called crystal proteins (Cry). In the insecticidal process, chitinases are suggested to perforate the peritrophic membrane barrier to facilitate the invasion of the Cry proteins into epithelial membranes. A chitinase gene from B. thuringiensis was successfully expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and characterized. The purified recombinant enzyme, BthChi74, hydrolyzed an artificial substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside [4NP-(GlcNAc)2], and the natural substrates, colloidal chitin and crystalline α-chitin, but it did not hydrolyze cellulose...
December 2017: AMB Express
Yang Wang, Yanping Wu, Baikui Wang, Xuefang Cao, Aikun Fu, Yali Li, Weifen Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Ba) as a substitute for antibiotics on growth performance, antioxidant ability and intestinal autophagy of piglets. Ninety piglets were divided into three groups: G1 (containing 150 mg/Kg aureomycin in the diet); G2 (containing 75 mg/Kg aureomycin and 1 × 10(8) cfu/Kg Ba in the diet); G3 (containing 2 × 10(8) cfu/Kg Ba in the diet without any antibiotics). Each treatment had three replications of ten pigs per pen...
December 2017: AMB Express
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