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AMB Express

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641406/novel-antimicrobial-activities-of-a-peptide-derived-from-a-japanese-soybean-fermented-food-natto-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-bacillus-subtilis-group-strains
#1
Manabu Kitagawa, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Soh Yamamoto, Ryosuke Kutomi, Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Hideki Wakui, Hideaki Itoh, Atsushi Miyamoto, Shin-Ichi Yokota
We recently isolated a tumoricidal peptide from Natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the Natto peptide was examined. The peptide consisted of 45 amino acid residues, and its structure was predicted to be rich in α-helix. It excreted antimicrobial activity only against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis group (B. subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus licheniformis). Lesser antimicrobial activity was observed for Streptococcus species other than S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641405/biotransformation-of-ferulic-acid-to-protocatechuic-acid-by-corynebacterium-glutamicum-atcc-21420-engineered-to-express-vanillate-o-demethylase
#2
Naoko Okai, Takaya Masuda, Yasunobu Takeshima, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Masanori Miyamoto, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a lignin-derived phenolic compound abundant in plant biomass. The utilization of FA and its conversion to valuable compounds is desired. Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a precursor of polymers and plastics and a constituent of food. A microbial conversion system to produce PCA from FA was developed in this study using a PCA-producing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum F (ATCC 21420). C. glutamicum strain F grown at 30 °C for 48 h utilized 2 mM each of FA and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, VA) to produce PCA, which was secreted into the medium...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641404/ph-rather-than-nitrification-and-urease-inhibitors-determines-the-community-of-ammonia-oxidizers-in-a-vegetable-soil
#3
Ruijiao Xi, Xi-En Long, Sha Huang, Huaiying Yao
Nitrification inhibitors and urease inhibitors, such as nitrapyrin and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), can improve the efficiencies of nitrogen fertilizers in cropland. However, their effects on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) across different soil pH levels are still unclear. In the present work, vegetable soils at four pH levels were tested to determine the impacts of nitrification and urease inhibitors on the nitrification activities, abundances and diversities of ammonia oxidizers at different pHs by real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641403/a-molasses-habitat-derived-fungus-aspergillus-tubingensis-xg21-with-high-%C3%AE-fructofuranosidase-activity-and-its-potential-use-for-fructooligosaccharides-production
#4
Yijia Xie, Huanxia Zhou, Caixia Liu, Jing Zhang, Ning Li, Zhanli Zhao, Guoyong Sun, Yaohua Zhong
The industrial microorganisms used for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) synthesis are generally fermented with sucrose as carbon source to induce the production of β-fructofuranosidase (FFase) having transfructosylation activity. Consequently, isolation of novel FFase producers from a sucrose-enriched biotope would help improve FOS productivity and reduce the process cost. Here, three fungi isolated from a unique sugarcane molasses habitat were found to possess FFase activity and one of them, XG21, exhibited a high capacity to synthesize FOS...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633512/media-optimization-for-economic-succinic-acid-production-by-enterobacter-sp-lu1
#5
Marcin Podleśny, Agnieszka Kubik-Komar, Jagoda Kucharska, Jakub Wyrostek, Piotr Jarocki, Zdzisław Targoński
Enterobacter sp. LU1 could efficiently convert glycerol to succinic acid under anaerobic conditions after the addition of lactose. In this study, media constituents affecting both Enterobacter sp. LU1 biomass and succinic acid production were investigated employing response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. Statistical methods led to the development of an efficient and inexpensive microbiological media based on crude glycerol, whey permeate as carbon sources and urea as a nitrogen source...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629207/h2o2-as-a-candidate-bottleneck-for-mnp-activity-during-cultivation-of-agaricus-bisporus-in-compost
#6
Aurin M Vos, Edita Jurak, Jordi F Pelkmans, Koen Herman, Gill Pels, Johan J Baars, Ed Hendrix, Mirjam A Kabel, Luis G Lugones, Han A B Wösten
Degradation of lignin by fungi enhances availability of cellulose and hemicellulose in plant waste and thereby increases the amount of carbon source available to these microorganisms. The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus degrades only about half of the lignin in compost and about 40% of the carbohydrates remain unutilized during mushroom cultivation. Here it was assessed whether over-expression of the manganese peroxidase gene mnp1 improves lignin degradation and, as a consequence, carbohydrate breakdown by A...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629206/an-enhanced-vector-free-allele-exchange-vfae-mutagenesis-protocol-for-genome-editing-in-a-wide-range-of-bacterial-species
#7
Ahmed E Gomaa, Chen Zhang, Zhimin Yang, Liguo Shang, Shijie Jiang, Zhiping Deng, Yuhua Zhan, Wei Lu, Min Lin, Yongliang Yan
Vector-free allele exchange (VFAE) is a newly developed protocol for genome editing in Pseudomonas species. Although several parameters have been determined to optimize the procedures for obtaining a stable and high-frequency mutation, numerous false-positive clones still appear on the plate, which increases the difficulty of finding the desired mutants. It has also not been established whether this protocol can be used for genome editing in other bacterial species. In the current study, the protocol was modified to dramatically decrease the occurrence of false-positive colonies using Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 as a model strain...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618714/lsp-family-proteins-regulate-antibiotic-biosynthesis-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11
#8
Ruping Wang, Huiyong Xu, Yangyang Zhao, Juan Zhang, Gary Y Yuen, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Ax21 family proteins have been shown to play regulatory roles in plant- and animal-pathogenic species in the bacterial family Xanthomonadaceae, but the protein have not been investigated previously in the non-pathogenic members of this bacterial family. Lysobacter enzymogenes, is a non-pathogenic species known for its capacity as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogens. It is also noted for the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites, heat stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and WAP-8294A2, that have potential for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605882/toward-a-cell-free-hydantoinase-process-screening-for-expression-optimization-and-one-step-purification-as-well-as-immobilization-of-hydantoinase-and-carbamoylase
#9
Christin Slomka, Georg Paris Späth, Phillip Lemke, Marc Skoupi, Christof M Niemeyer, Christoph Syldatk, Jens Rudat
The hydantoinase process is applied for the industrial synthesis of optically pure amino acids via whole cell biocatalysis, providing a simple and well-established method to obtain the catalyst. Nevertheless, whole cell approaches also bear disadvantages like intracellular degradation reactions, transport limitations as well as low substrate solubility. In this work the hydantoinase and carbamoylase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes DSM 20117 were investigated with respect to their applicability in a cell-free hydantoinase process...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605881/scorpion-neurotoxin-aait-expressing-beauveria-bassiana-enhances-the-virulence-against-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes
#10
Sheng-Qun Deng, Qun-Di Cai, Ming-Zhi Deng, Qiang Huang, Hong-Juan Peng
To improve the insecticidal efficacy of this entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, the fungus was genetically modified to express an insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin AaIT. The virulence of the recombinant B. bassiana strain (Bb-AaIT) against Aedes albopictus adults (which occurs via penetration through the cuticle during spore germination or by conidia ingestion), and the larvae (by conidia ingestion) was measured with bioassays. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bb-AaIT against A. albopictus larvae was 313...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599506/a-novel-rhamnolipid-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-zs1-isolate-derived-from-petroleum-sludge-suitable-for-bioremediation
#11
Tao Cheng, Jibei Liang, Jing He, Xingcui Hu, Zhiwei Ge, Jianhua Liu
Petroleum pollutants emulsified by biosurfactants facilitate uptake and biodegradation by environmental microbes. In this report, we show the characterization of an indigenous surfactant-producing crude-oil-eating microbe isolated from petroleum-sludge in Zhoushan islands, China, where one of the national strategic petroleum reservoirs is located. We examined biosurfactant activities using surface tension analysis on mixed culture originated from oil-sludge microbes. In parallel, dynamics of individual microbial populations in cultures were monitored using the terminal fluorescence labeled (TFL)-RFLP method...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591979/investigation-into-the-antimicrobial-action-and-mechanism-of-a-novel-endogenous-peptide-%C3%AE-casein-197-from-human-milk
#12
Yanrong Fu, Chenbo Ji, Xiaohui Chen, Xianwei Cui, Xing Wang, Jie Feng, Yun Li, Rui Qin, Xirong Guo
A novel endogenous peptide cleaved from 197-213 AA of β-casein, named β-casein 197, was identified by tandem mass spectrometry. β-casein 197 constituted a significant proportion of the peptide content in preterm milk. This study investigated the antibacterial effects and mechanisms against common pathogenic bacteria. Six bacterial strains were selected for this study: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis. After synthesis, serial twofold dilutions of β-casein 197 were added to select for sensitive bacteria...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587444/assessment-of-changes-in-the-content-of-anthocyanins-phenolic-acids-and-antioxidant-property-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-mediated-fermented-black-rice-bran
#13
Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Noppawat Pengkumsri, Sasithorn Sirilun, Sartjin Peerajan, Suchanat Khongtan, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
Studies on phytochemical properties and bioactivities of rice bran revealed the wealth of natural complex antioxidant compounds. The composition and the properties of the rice bran get altered after fermentation by several microbes. This study was designed to optimize the black rice bran fermentation conditions for the total anthocyanin (ACN) content, total antioxidant properties, and relative activity of β-glucosidase (BGS) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology was employed to achieve the maximum response in fermentation...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587443/in-vitro-antimicrobial-potential-of-extracts-and-phytoconstituents-from-gymnema-sylvestre-r-br-leaves-and-their-biosafety-evaluation
#14
Daljit Singh Arora, Henna Sood
The in vitro antimicrobial screening of Gymnema sylvestre leaves against 13 test pathogens established its broad spectrum activity with average inhibition zone ranging from 14 to 23 mm. The antimicrobial activity of the classically- optimized aqueous extract was enhanced up to 1.45 folds, when subjected to statistical optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was thermostable. Ethyl acetate was found to be the best organic extractant with Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (31.5 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (25...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587442/expanding-the-range-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-synthesized-by-methanotrophic-bacteria-through-the-utilization-of-omega-hydroxyalkanoate-co-substrates
#15
Jaewook Myung, James C A Flanagan, Robert M Waymouth, Craig S Criddle
The first methanotrophic syntheses of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) that contain repeating units beyond 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are reported. New PHAs synthesized by methanotrophs include poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-4HB)), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-5-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-5HV-co-3HV)), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-6-hydroxyhexanoate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB-co-6HHx-co-4HB)). This was achieved from a pure culture of Methylocystis parvus OBBP where the primary substrate is methane and the corresponding ω-hydroxyalkanoate monomers are added as a co-substrate after the cells are subjected to nitrogen-limited conditions...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587441/evaluation-of-brewers-spent-grain-as-a-novel-media-for-yeast-growth
#16
Sachindra T Cooray, Jaslyn J L Lee, Wei Ning Chen
Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is a by-product generated from the beer manufacturing industry, which is extremely rich in protein and fiber. Here we use low cost BSG as the raw material for the production of a novel growth media, through a bioconversion process utilizing a food grade fungi to hydrolyze BSG. The novel fermentation media was tested on the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides, a natural yeast producing carotenoid. The yeast growth was analysed using the growth curve and the production of intracellular fatty acids and carotenoids...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587440/comparative-metabolomics-in-vanilla-pod-and-vanilla-bean-revealing-the-biosynthesis-of-vanillin-during-the-curing-process-of-vanilla
#17
Fenglin Gu, Yonggan Chen, Yinghua Hong, Yiming Fang, Lehe Tan
High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used for comprehensive metabolomic fingerprinting of vanilla fruits prepared from the curing process. In this study, the metabolic changes of vanilla pods and vanilla beans were characterized using MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the biosynthesis of vanillin. The vanilla pods were significantly different from vanilla beans. Seven pathways of vanillin biosynthesis were constructed, namely, glucovanillin, glucose, cresol, capsaicin, vanillyl alcohol, tyrosine, and phenylalanine pathways...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582973/a-novel-anti-cd22-scfv-apoptin-fusion-protein-induces-apoptosis-in-malignant-b-cells
#18
Solmaz Agha Amiri, Soraya Shahhosseini, Najmeh Zarei, Dorsa Khorasanizadeh, Elahe Aminollahi, Faegheh Rezaie, Mehryar Zargari, Mohammad Azizi, Vahid Khalaj
CD22 marker is a highly internalizing antigen which is located on the surface of B-cells and is being used as a promising target for treatment of B cell malignancies. Monoclonal antibodies targeting CD22 have been introduced and some are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Building on the success of antibody drug conjugates, we developed a fusion protein consisting of a novel anti-CD22 scFv and apoptin and tested binding and therapeutic effects in lymphoma cells. The recombinant protein was expressed in E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582972/the-impact-of-do-and-salinity-on-microbial-community-in-poly-butylene-succinate-denitrification-reactors-for-recirculating-aquaculture-system-wastewater-treatment
#19
Ya-Le Deng, Yun-Jie Ruan, Song-Ming Zhu, Xi-Shan Guo, Zhi-Ying Han, Zhang-Ying Ye, Gang Liu, Ming-Ming Shi
The interactions between environmental factors and bacterial community shift in solid-phase denitrification are crucial for optimum operation of a reactor and to achieve maximum treatment efficiency. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was applied to reveal the effects of different operational conditions on bacterial community distribution of three continuous operated poly(butylene succinate) biological denitrification reactors used for recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) wastewater treatment...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582971/degradation-of-aflatoxin-b1-from-naturally-contaminated-maize-using-the-edible-fungus-pleurotus-ostreatus
#20
Lauren W Jackson, Barry M Pryor
Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments...
December 2017: AMB Express
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