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AMB Express

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097594/mechanism-of-anti-vibrio-activity-of-marine-probiotic-strain-bacillus-pumilus-h2-and-characterization-of-the-active-substance
#1
Xi-Yan Gao, Ying Liu, Li-Li Miao, Er-Wei Li, Ting-Ting Hou, Zhi-Pei Liu
Vibriosis is a major epizootic disease that impacts free-living and farmed fish species worldwide. Use of probiotics is a promising approach for prevention of Vibrio infections in aquaculture. A probiotic anti-Vibrio strain, Bacillus pumilus H2, was characterized, and the mechanism of its effect was investigated. All 29 Vibrio strains tested were growth-inhibited by H2. The anti-Vibrio substance present in cell-free supernatant of H2 was purified and characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the purified substance, determined in liquid media for various Vibrio strains, ranged from 0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070827/glutamic-acid-promotes-monacolin-k-production-and-monacolin-k-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-expression-in-monascus
#2
Chan Zhang, Jian Liang, Le Yang, Shiyuan Chai, Chenxi Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Chengtao Wang
This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063148/development-of-a-sybr-green-i-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-the-orf-virus
#3
Yong Wang, Kankan Yang, Caixia Bai, Dongdong Yin, Gang Li, Kezong Qi, Guijun Wang, Yongdong Li
Orf is a non-systemic, ubiquitous disease of sheep and goats caused by the orf virus (ORFV). ORFV occasionally causes cutaneous lesions in humans in contact with infected animals. In the present study, a real-time PCR method was established for detection of ORFV using the fluorescent chimeric dye SYBR Green I. Specific primers were designed to target a highly conserved region of the ORFV B2L gene. This method was able to detect a minimum of 20 copies of ORFV genomic DNA. The results showed no cross-reactions with other common DNA viruses...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063147/genetic-relatedness-of-faecal-coliforms-and-enterococci-bacteria-isolated-from-water-and-sediments-of-the-apies-river-gauteng-south-africa
#4
Mutshiene Deogratias Ekwanzala, Akebe Luther King Abia, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Jitendra Keshri, Ndombo Benteke Maggy Momba
To date, the microbiological quality of river sediments and its impact on water resources are not included in the water quality monitoring assessment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish genetic relatedness between faecal coliforms and enterococci isolated from the river water and riverbed sediments of Apies River to better understand the genetic similarity of microorganisms between the sediment and water phases. Indicator bacteria were subjected to a molecular study, which consisted of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene using specific primers for faecal coliforms and enterococci, respectively...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063146/pretreatment-optimization-of-the-biomass-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-for-efficient-bioethanol-production
#5
Muhammad Imran Khan, Moon Geon Lee, Jin Hyuk Shin, Jong Deog Kim
Microalgae are considered to be the future promising sources of biofuels and bio products. The algal carbohydrates can be fermented to bioethanol after pretreatment process. Efficient pretreatment of the biomass is one of the major requirements for commercialization of the algal based biofuels. In present study the microalga, M. aeruginsa was used for pretreatment optimization and bioethanol production. Treatment of algal biomass with CaO before acid and/or enzymatic hydrolysis enhanced the degradation of algal cells...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058634/alkane-biosynthesis-by-aspergillus-carbonarius-item-5010-through-heterologous-expression-of-synechococcus-elongatus-acyl-acp-coa-reductase-and-aldehyde-deformylating-oxygenase-genes
#6
Malavika Sinha, István Weyda, Annette Sørensen, Kenneth S Bruno, Birgitte K Ahring
In this study we describe the heterologous expression of the recently identified cyanobacterial pathway for long chain alkane biosynthesis, involving the reduction of fatty acyl-ACP to fatty aldehyde and the subsequent conversion of this into alkanes, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010. Genes originating from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC7942, encoding acyl-ACP/CoA reductase and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase enzymes, were successfully expressed in A. carbonarius, which lead to the production of pentadecane and heptadecane, alkanes that have not been previously produced by this fungus...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050858/thermophilic-bacteria-are-potential-sources-of-novel-rieske-non-heme-iron-oxygenases
#7
Joydeep Chakraborty, Chiho Suzuki-Minakuchi, Kazunori Okada, Hideaki Nojiri
Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases, which have a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and a non-heme catalytic iron center, are an important family of oxidoreductases involved mainly in regio- and stereoselective transformation of a wide array of aromatic hydrocarbons. Though present in all domains of life, the most widely studied Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases are found in mesophilic bacteria. The present study explores the potential for isolating novel Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases from thermophilic sources. Browsing the entire bacterial genome database led to the identification of 45 homologs from thermophilic bacteria distributed mainly among Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus and Firmicutes...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050857/secondary-metabolites-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-isolated-from-soil-can-kill-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#8
Patcharaporn Boottanun, Chotima Potisap, Julian G Hurdle, Rasana W Sermswan
Bacillus species are Gram-positive bacteria found in abundance in nature and their secondary metabolites were found to possess various potential activities, notably antimicrobial. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N2-4 and N3-8 were isolated from soil and their metabolites could kill Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium also found in soil in its endemic areas. Moreover, the metabolites were able to kill drug resistant isolates of B. pseudomallei and also inhibit other pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii but not the non-pathogenic Burkholderia thailandensis, which is closely related to B...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050856/improved-endoglucanase-production-and-mycelial-biomass-of-some-ericoid-fungi
#9
O R Adeoyo, B I Pletschke, J F Dames
Fungal species associated with ericaceous plant roots produce a number of enzymes and other bio-active metabolites in order to enhance survival of their host plants in natural environments. This study focussed on endoglucanase production from root associated ericoid mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungal isolates. Out of the five fungal isolates screened, Leohumicola sp. (ChemRU330/PPRI 13195) had the highest relative enzyme activity and was tested along with isolates belonging to Hyloscyphaceae (EdRU083/PPRI 17284) and Leotiomycetes (EdRU002/PPRI 17261) for endoglucanase production under different pH and nutritional conditions that included: carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions, at an optimum temperature of 28 °C...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050855/selection-of-reference-genes-from-shiraia-bambusicola-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-under-different-culturing-conditions
#10
Chen Zhang, Tong Li, Cheng-Lin Hou, Xiao-Ye Shen
Stable reference genes are necessary to analyse quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) data and determine the reliability of the final results. For further studies of the valuable fungus Shiraia bambusicola, the identification of suitable reference genes has become increasingly urgent. In this study, three conventional reference genes and nine novel candidates were evaluated under different light conditions (all-dark, all-light and 12-h light/dark) and in different media (rice medium, PD medium, and Czapek-Dox medium)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050854/saxifragifolin-d-attenuates-phagosome-maturation-arrest-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages-via-an-ampk-and-vps34-dependent-pathway
#11
Jia Zhou, Rui Xu, Xian-Zhi Du, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Qi Li
Saxifragifolin D (SD), a traditional Chinese medicine, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound first isolated from Androsace umbellata. Various plant triterpenoids have been reported to exhibit antitubercular activity. In this study, THP-1-derived macrophages were infected with an attenuated M. tuberculosis (M.tb) strain, H37Ra. Intracellular replication of M.tb was evaluated by counting the colonies after 4 weeks of incubation. The results indicated that SD treatment reduced the intracellular replication of M...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050853/metagenomic-insights-into-the-rumen-microbial-fibrolytic-enzymes-in-indian-crossbred-cattle-fed-finger-millet-straw
#12
V Lyju Jose, Thulasi Appoothy, Ravi P More, A Sha Arun
The rumen is a unique natural habitat, exhibiting an unparalleled genetic resource of fibrolytic enzymes of microbial origin that degrade plant polysaccharides. The objectives of this study were to identify the principal plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and the taxonomic profile of rumen microbial communities that are associated with it. The cattle rumen microflora and the carbohydrate-active enzymes were functionally classified through a whole metagenomic sequencing approach. Analysis of the assembled sequences by the Carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis Toolkit identified the candidate genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes belonging to different classes of glycoside hydrolases(11,010 contigs), glycosyltransferases (6366 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (4945 contigs), carbohydrate-binding modules (1975 contigs), polysaccharide lyases (480 contigs), and auxiliary activities (115 contigs)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050852/microbial-biomass-in-compost-during-colonization-of-agaricus-bisporus
#13
Aurin M Vos, Amber Heijboer, Henricus T S Boschker, Barbara Bonnet, Luis G Lugones, Han A B Wösten
Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050851/competitive-growth-experiments-with-a-high-lipid-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-mutant-strain-and-its-wild-type-to-predict-industrial-and-ecological-risks
#14
David A Russo, Andrew P Beckerman, Jagroop Pandhal
Key microalgal species are currently being exploited as biomanufacturing platforms using mass cultivation systems. The opportunities to enhance productivity levels or produce non-native compounds are increasing as genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering tools are rapidly advancing. Regardless of the end product, there are both environmental and industrial risks associated to open pond cultivation of mutant microalgal strains. A mutant escape could be detrimental to local biodiversity and increase the risk of algal blooms...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050850/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-glutamate-dehydrogenase-from-geotrichum-candidum-with-higher-alcohol-and-amino-acid-activity
#15
Jing Zhu, Kuan Lu, Xiaoguang Xu, Xinglong Wang, Junling Shi
Crude enzyme from Geotrichum candidum S12 exhibited high activity towards hexanol at pH 4.0, distinguishing it from currently known enzymes. To identify the dominant enzyme contributing to this activity, the crude enzyme extract was separated into different fractions by ammonium sulfate precipitation, MonoQ anion-exchange chromatography, and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. Afraction with high activity towards hexanol at pH 4.0 was obtained, exhibiting 38-fold improved purity and a specific activity of 3802...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050849/glycin-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-yd1-from-b-amyloliquefaciens-induced-morphological-alteration-in-and-showed-affinity-for-plasmid-dna-of-e-coli
#16
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. A powerful cationic glycine-rich AMP YD1 (MW ~ 1.0 kDa) was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain CBSYD1 was identified 99.79% similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050848/microbial-communities-in-pyrene-amended-soil-compost-mixture-and-fertilized-soil
#17
Iris K U Adam, Márcia Duarte, Jananan Pathmanathan, Anja Miltner, Thomas Brüls, Matthias Kästner
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are distributed ubiquitously in the environment and form metabolites toxic to most organisms. Organic amendment of PAH contaminated soil with compost and farmyard manure has proven to be efficient for PAH bioremediation mediated by native microorganisms, even though information on the identity of PAH degraders in organic-amended soil is still scarce. Here we provide molecular insight into the bacterial communities in soil amended with compost or farmyard manure for which the degradation mass balances of (13)C-labeled pyrene have been recently published and assess the relevant bacterial genera capable of degrading pyrene as a model PAH...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050847/production-of-r-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-by-arxula-adeninivorans
#18
Mateusz Biernacki, Jan Riechen, Urs Hähnel, Thomas Roick, Kim Baronian, Rüdiger Bode, Gotthard Kunze
(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can be used in industrial and health applications. The synthesis pathway comprises two enzymes, β-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase which convert cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-3-HB] which is released into the culture medium. In the present study we used the non-conventional yeast, Arxula adeninivorans, for the synthesis enantiopure (R)-3-HB. To establish optimal production, we investigated three different endogenous yeast thiolases (Akat1p, Akat2p, Akat4p) and three bacterial thiolases (atoBp, thlp, phaAp) in combination with an enantiospecific reductase (phaBp) from Cupriavidus necator H16 and endogenous yeast reductases (Atpk2p, Afox2p)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050846/optimization-of-medium-compositions-to-improve-a-novel-glycoprotein-production-by-streptomyces-kanasenisi-zx01
#19
Yong Zhou, Yu-Bo Sun, Hong-Wei He, Jun-Tao Feng, Xing Zhang, Li-Rong Han
Streptomyces kanasenisi ZX01 was found to produce a novel glycoprotein GP-1 previously, which was secreted into medium and had significant activity against tobacco mosaic virus. However, the low production of GP-1 by strain ZX01 limited its further studies. In order to improve the yield of GP-1, a series of statistical experimental design methods were applied to optimize medium of strain ZX01 in this work. Millet medium was chosen to be the optimal original medium for optimization. Soluble starch and yeast extract were identified as the optimal carbon and nitrogen source using one-factor-at-a-time method...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050845/xylanases-of-cellulomonas-flavigena-expression-biochemical-characterization-and-biotechnological-potential
#20
Alexander V Lisov, Oksana V Belova, Zoya A Lisova, Nataliy G Vinokurova, Alexey S Nagel, Zhanna I Andreeva-Kovalevskaya, Zhanna I Budarina, Maxim O Nagornykh, Marina V Zakharova, Andrey M Shadrin, Alexander S Solonin, Alexey A Leontievsky
Four xylanases of Cellulomonas flavigena were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Three enzymes (CFXyl1, CFXyl2, and CFXyl4) were from the GH10 family, while CFXyl3 was from the GH11 family. The enzymes possessed moderate temperature stability and a neutral pH optimum. The enzymes were more stable at alkaline pH values. CFXyl1 and CFXyl2 hydrolyzed xylan to form xylobiose, xylotriose, xylohexaose, xylopentaose, and xylose, which is typical for GH10. CFXyl3 (GH11) and CFXyl4 (GH10) formed the same xylooligosaccharides, but xylose was formed in small amounts...
December 2017: AMB Express
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