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AMB Express

Aliakbar Fazaeli, Abolfazl Golestani, Mostafa Lakzaei, Samaneh Sadat Rasi Varaei, Mahdi Aminian
Cholesterol oxidase is a bacterial flavoenzyme which catalyzes oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol. This enzyme has a great commercial value because of its wide applications in cholesterol analysis of clinical samples, synthesis of steroid-derived drugs, food industries, and potentially insecticidal activity. Accordingly, development of an efficient protocol for overexpression of cholesterol oxidase can be very valuable and beneficial. In this study, expression optimization of cholesterol oxidase from Streptomyces sp...
November 12, 2018: AMB Express
Fan Wang, Xiao Men, Ge Zhang, Kaichao Liang, Yuhua Xin, Juan Wang, Aijun Li, Haibo Zhang, Haobao Liu, Lijun Wu
Selection of optimal primer pairs in 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a pivotal issue in microorganism diversity analysis. However, limited effort has been put into investigation of specific primer sets for analysis of the bacterial diversity of aging flue-cured tobaccos (AFTs), as well as prediction of the function of the bacterial community. In this study, the performance of four primer pairs in determining bacterial community structure based on 16S rRNA gene sequences in AFTs was assessed, and the functions of genes were predicted using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt)...
November 10, 2018: AMB Express
Osei Boakye Fordwour, George Luka, Mina Hoorfar, Kirsten R Wolthers
Acetone monooxygenase (ACMO) is a unique member of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) family based on its ability to act on small ketones, such as acetone. Herein, we performed a kinetic analysis of ACMO from the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 to assess its preference for smaller ketone substrates. Steady state kinetic analysis of ACMO with a range of linear (C3-C7) and cyclic ketones (C4-C6) reveals that the enzyme elicits the highest catalytic efficiency towards butanone and cyclobutanone...
November 3, 2018: AMB Express
Mojtaba Mamarabadi, Abbas Tanhaeian, Younes Ramezany
The most common method for controlling plant diseases is the application of chemical pesticides and sometimes use of resistant cultivars. Due to the effects of chemical pesticides on human and environmental health, mutation in pathogens and resistance to various toxins besides the challenges with resistant cultivar production, the constant use of these methods are not recommended any longer. Thus, use of biological control agents along with the natural ingredient extracted from plants and application of peptide with antimicrobial activity, have been the focus of many researchers...
November 2, 2018: AMB Express
Mingyue Xia, Ling Liu, Ruiqin Qiu, Mingli Li, Wei Huang, Gaowei Ren, Jinghui Zhang
The current study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic activities of Euphorbia hirta extract in neonatal asthmatic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: group I, sham (normal rats); group II, control (asthmatic rats); group III, E. hirta extract (100 µg/100 µl) and group IV, E. hirta extract (200 µg/100 µl). We performed a phytoscreening analysis of E. hirta extract. Inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, levels of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers, apoptosis, and a histopathological analysis were carried out...
November 1, 2018: AMB Express
Diego G Módolo, Cynthia S Horn, José S M Soares, José A Yunes, Leila M Lima, Sylvia M de Sousa, Marcelo Menossi
The glycoprotein APA (Alanine- and Proline-rich Antigen, a 45/47 kDa antigen complex, Rv1860) is considered as a major immunodominant antigen secreted by M. tuberculosis. This antigen has proved to be highly immunogenic in experimental models and humans, presenting a significant potential for further development of a new vaccine for tuberculosis. Glycosylation plays a key role in the immunogenicity of the APA protein. Because plants are known to promote post-translational modification such as glycosylation and to be one of the most economic and safe hosts for recombinant protein expression, we have over expressed the APA protein in transgenic tobacco plants aiming to produce a glycosylated version of the protein...
October 31, 2018: AMB Express
Savannah Klein, Shannon Pipes, Charles R Lovell
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are large genomic regions that contain virulence genes, which aid pathogens in establishing infections. While PAIs in clinical strains (strains isolated from a human infection) are well-studied, less is known about the occurrence of PAIs in strains isolated from the environment. In this study we describe three PAIs found in environmental Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, as well as a genomic fitness island found in a Vibrio diabolicus strain. All four islands had markedly different GC profiles than the rest of the genome, indicating that all of these islands were acquired via lateral gene transfer...
October 30, 2018: AMB Express
Wu Qiao, Fang Wang, Xiaochen Xu, Shujun Wang, Joe Mac Regenstein, Bin Bao, Ming Ma
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a pathogenic Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the subgingival region of gums. These bacteria can invade periodontal tissues, form plaques, and produce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) that was specifically produced in egg yolks after chickens were challenged with P. gingivalis could control and prevent oral diseases caused by P. gingivalis. The releases of P. gingivalis offensive metabolic odors in vitro and in vivo were determined using a Halimeter and GCMS...
October 29, 2018: AMB Express
Shoubao Yan, Dong Dong
The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess capable of producing caproic acid using a binary fermentation system consisting of Clostridium kluyveri H068 and Methanogen 166 which could then be applied to the brewing of Chinese strong flavor liquor. We initially explored the mechanism by which the Methanogen 166 strain facilitates caproic acid accumulation, revealing its ability to convert accumulated H2 that is produced by C. kluyveri H068 into methane, thereby eliminating the hydrogen-mediated feedback inhibition that normally constrains C...
October 25, 2018: AMB Express
Ting-Bin Hao, Tao Jiang, Hong-Po Dong, Lin-Jian Ou, Xiang He, Yu-Feng Yang
The light-harvesting protein complexes (Lhc) play key roles in the processes of light absorption and protection in diatoms. However, different Lhc protein carries out distinct function in photosynthesis. For now, roles of many Lhc proteins in light acclimation are largely unknown. Here, function of Lhcx3 in marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was examined by using reverse genetic technologies. The overexpression of Lhcx3 led to increased diadinoxanthin + diatoxanthin content and elevated non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) while knockdown of Lhcx3 reduced NPQ level...
October 23, 2018: AMB Express
Tahereh Zarei Mahmudabadi, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi, Hadi Eslami, Mehdi Mokhtari, Mohammad Hossein Salmani, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Morteza Mohamadzadeh, Mohsen Pakdaman
Enhanced treatment of ceramic-tile industry wastewater was investigated by modified coagulation-flocculation process using combination of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) with anionic (A300 ), cationic polymer (C270 ) and nonionic polymers. The effects of pH, PAC coagulant dose alone and with polymers dose in various combinations was studied by jar tests. To compare the removal efficiencies of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and color at different levels, we run multivariate analysis of variance...
October 17, 2018: AMB Express
Bikash Kumar, Nisha Bhardwaj, Ansar Alam, Komal Agrawal, Himanshu Prasad, Pradeep Verma
A cellulase producing fungus Schizophyllum commune NAIMCC-F-03379 was isolated from decomposed leaf sample of Lantana camera. The nutritional components (wheat bran, magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride concentrations) and physical parameters (temperature and pH) were optimised by response surface methodology for enhanced cellulase production by S. commune NAIMCC-F-03379. The optimized medium contained: 1% (w/v) wheat bran, 0.3 g/L MgSO4, 0.8-1.0 g/L CaCl2 , optimum temperature and pH were 25 °C and 5 respectively...
October 17, 2018: AMB Express
Guru Jagadeeswaran, Lawrie Gainey, Andrew J Mort
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper dependent enzymes that carry out oxidative cleavage of cellulose and other polysaccharides. Aspergillus nidulans, an ascomycete fungus that contains multiple AA9 LPMOs in the genome, offers an excellent model system to study their activity during the oxidative degradation of biomass. AN1602, a dual domain AA9-LPMO in A. nidulans appended with a carbohydrate-binding module, CBM1, was expressed in Pichia pastoris for analyzing oxidative cleavage on cellulosic substrates...
October 17, 2018: AMB Express
Irisa Trianti, Saengchai Akeprathumchai, Phenjun Mekvichitsaeng, Sansanalak Rachdawong, Kanokwan Poomputsa
Baculovirus is a promising vaccine deliver vector due to its biosafety profiles, gene transfer efficiency, ability to display small foreign antigens on its surface, strong adjuvant activities, etc. A dual vector for peptide antigens and a DNA vaccine delivery was constructed. In this vector, a tetrameric glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA) from influenza A virus (H5N1) serves as a baculovirus surface protein to improve baculovirus transduction efficiency and a partner for displaying the target peptide antigen. Nucleotides encoding target peptides could be fused to a full length NA gene, at the lower part of its head structure, integrated into Autographa californica multinucleopolyhedrovirus genome and expressed under the control of a White Spot Syndrome Virus IE-1 shuttle promoter...
October 16, 2018: AMB Express
Wen Tang, Changsheng Ouyang, Lanlan Liu, Haoran Li, Chuanhui Zeng, Jie Wang, Lijun Fu, Qinqin Wu, Bin Zeng, Bin He
Fatty acid desaturases play a key role in producing polyunsaturated fatty acids by converting single bonds to double bonds. In the present study, a total of 13, 12, 8 and 8 candidate fatty acid desaturases genes were identified in the Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans genomes through database searches, which were classified into five different subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis was performed to characterize conserved motifs and gene structures, which could provide an intuitive comprehension to learn the relationship between structure and functions of the fatty acid desaturases genes in different Aspergillus species...
October 15, 2018: AMB Express
Sugitha Thankappan, Sujatha Kandasamy, Beslin Joshi, Ksenia N Sorokina, Oxana P Taran, Sivakumar Uthandi
The harnessing of biocatalysts from extreme environment hot spring niche for biomass conversion is significant and promising owing to the special characteristics of extremozymes attributed by intriguing biogeochemistry and extreme conditions of these environments. Hence, in the present study 38 bacterial isolates obtained from hot springs of Manikaran (~ 95 °C), Kalath (~ 50 °C) and Vasist (~ 65 °C) of Himachal Pradesh were screened for glycosyl hydrolases by in situ enrichment technique using lignocellulosic biomass (LCB)...
October 15, 2018: AMB Express
Jaimie Gibbons, Liping Gu, Huilan Zhu, William Gibbons, Ruanbao Zhou
Cyanobacteria photosynthetically produce long-chain hydrocarbons, which are considered as infrastructure-compatible biofuels. However, native cyanobacteria do not produce these hydrocarbons at sufficient rates or yields to warrant commercial deployment. This research sought to identify specific genes required for photosynthetic production of alkanes to enable future metabolic engineering for commercially viable production of alkanes. The two putative genes (alr5283 and alr5284) required for long-chain hydrocarbon production in Anabaena sp...
October 13, 2018: AMB Express
Natália Manuela Strohmayer Lourencetti, Ivan Rodrigo Wolf, Maria Priscila Franco Lacerda, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cleslei Fernando Zanelli, Mariana Marchi Santoni, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Francisco Javier Enguita, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida
The fermentation process is widely used in the industry for bioethanol production. Even though it is widely used, microbial contamination is unpredictable and difficult to control. The problem of reduced productivity is directly linked to competition for nutrients during contamination. Yeasts representing the Candida species are frequently isolated contaminants. Elucidating the behavior of a contaminant during the fermentation cycle is essential for combatting the contamination. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to better understand the functional and transcriptional behavior of a contaminating yeast Candida tropicalis...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
Xingcui Hu, Tao Cheng, Jianhua Liu
Biosurfactants emulsify lipids, facilitating their exposure to microorganisms in water. Secretion of biosurfactant together with lipase can enhance oil assimilation by microorganisms. In this study, we show the analysis of the biosurfactant and lipase producing microbe originating from oil-sludge. The enrichment of the biosurfactant-producing ZS6 strain from the mixed culture of sludge-derived microbes in medium with olive oil as sole carbon source was monitored using the modified T-RFLP (or mT-RFLP) methodology...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
Yugang Gao, Jing Liang, Ruxue Xiao, Pu Zang, Yan Zhao, Lianxue Zhang
Trace elements are essential nutrients for the growth of microorganisms and play an important role in their proliferation. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore the optimal C and N sources for large-scale culture of Paenibacillus polymyxa, and to screen trace elements that can promote their proliferation and improve the activity. First, the concentration of Paenibacillus polymyxa Pp-7250, the number of spores were used as evaluation index. It was found that the four trace elements Cu2+ , Fe2+ , Mn2+ , and Zn2+ could promote the proliferation of Paenibacillus polymyxa at their optimal concentrations...
October 11, 2018: AMB Express
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