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Cell & Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331574/microrna-and-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle
#1
REVIEW
Duo Zhang, Yan Li, Shengnan Liu, Yu-Cheng Wang, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Jingjing Jiang, Hao Ying
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function of all organs or tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Due to the significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie TH action, it's widely accepted that TH signaling is regulated at multiple levels. A growing number of discoveries suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as fine-tune regulators of gene expression and adds sophisticated regulatory tiers to signaling pathways...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289537/comparative-analysis-of-pre-and-post-parasitic-transcriptomes-and-mining-pioneer-effectors-of-heterodera-avenae
#2
Dan Yang, Changlong Chen, Qian Liu, Heng Jian
BACKGROUND: The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a devastating pathogen of wheat and barley crops in many countries. We aimed to prioritize genetic and molecular targets for H. avenae control via the powerful and integrative bioinformatics platform. RESULTS: Here, we sequenced mRNA isolated from Chinese H. avenae at pre-parasitic (consisting of egg, J1 and hatched-J2) stages and post-parasitic (consisting of parasitic-J2, J3, J4 and adults) stages...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239447/yeast-help-identify-cytopathic-factors-of-zika-virus
#3
Michael Bukrinsky
Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239446/mechanism-of-transcription-coupled-dna-modification-recognition
#4
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Shin, Liang Xu, Dong Wang
As a key enzyme for gene expression, RNA polymerase II (pol II) reads along the DNA template and catalyzes accurate mRNA synthesis during transcription. On the other hand, genomic DNA is under constant attack by endogenous and environmental stresses. These attack cause many DNA lesions. Pol II functions as a specific sensor that is able to recognize changes in DNA sequences and structures and induces different outcomes. A critical question in the field is how Pol II recognizes and senses these DNA modifications or lesions...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239445/maintenance-of-genome-stability-by-fanconi-anemia-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Anna Palovcak, Wenjun Liu, Fenghua Yuan, Yanbin Zhang
Persistent dysregulation of the DNA damage response and repair in cells causes genomic instability. The resulting genetic changes permit alterations in growth and proliferation observed in virtually all cancers. However, an unstable genome can serve as a double-edged sword by providing survival advantages in the ability to evade checkpoint signaling, but also creating vulnerabilities through dependency on alternative genomic maintenance factors. The Fanconi anemia pathway comprises an intricate network of DNA damage signaling and repair that are critical for protection against genomic instability...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163888/a-special-issue-on-new-insights-into-genome-maintenance
#6
EDITORIAL
Guo-Min Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101327/hsa-let-7c-5p-augments-enterovirus-71-replication-through-viral-subversion-of-cell-signaling-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#7
Bingfei Zhou, Min Chu, Shanshan Xu, Xiong Chen, Yongjuan Liu, Zhihao Wang, Fengfeng Zhang, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe hand, foot and mouse disease, accompanied by neurological complications. During the interaction between EV71 and the host, the virus subverts host cell machinery for its own replication. However, the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process remain obscure. RESULTS: In this study, we found that the miRNA hsa-let-7c-5p was significantly upregulated in EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The overexpression of hsa-let-7c-5p promoted replication of the virus, and the hsa-let-7c-5p inhibitor suppressed viral replication...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101326/microhomology-mediated-end-joining-new-players-join-the-team
#8
REVIEW
Hailong Wang, Xingzhi Xu
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious type of DNA damage in cells arising from endogenous and exogenous attacks on the genomic DNA. Timely and properly repair of DSBs is important for genomic integrity and survival. MMEJ is an error-prone repair mechanism for DSBs, which relies on exposed microhomologous sequence flanking broken junction to fix DSBs in a Ku- and ligase IV-independent manner. Recently, significant progress has been made in MMEJ mechanism study. In this review, we will summarize its biochemical activities of several newly identified MMEJ factors and their biological significance...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096973/a-fission-yeast-cell-based-system-for-multidrug-resistant-hiv-1-proteases
#9
Zsigmond Benko, Dong Liang, Ge Li, Robert T Elder, Anindya Sarkar, Jun Takayama, Arun K Ghosh, Richard Y Zhao
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential enzyme for viral production. Thus, PR inhibitors (PIs) are the most effective class of anti-HIV drugs. However, the main challenge to the successful use of PI drugs in patient treatment is the emergence of multidrug resistant PRs (mdrPRs). This study aimed to develop a fission yeast cell-based system for rapid testing of new PIs that combat mdrPRs. RESULTS: Three mdrPRs were isolated from HIV-infected patients that carried seven (M7PR), ten (M10PR) and eleven (M11PR) PR gene mutations, respectively...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066542/characterization-of-tubular-liquid-crystal-structure-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-embryoid-bodies
#10
MengMeng Xu, Odell D Jones, Liyang Wang, Xin Zhou, Harry G Davis, Joseph L Bryant, Jianjie Ma, Willian B Isaacs, Xuehong Xu
BACKGROUND: Massive liquid crystal droplets have been found during embryonic development in more than twenty different tissues and organs, including the liver, brain and kidney. Liquid crystal deposits have also been identified in multiple human pathologies, including vascular disease, liver dysfunction, age-related macular degeneration, and other chronic illnesses. Despite the involvement of liquid crystals in such a large number of human processes, this phenomenon is poorly understood and there are no in vitro systems to further examine the function of liquid crystals in biology...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066541/ultrastructural-changes-during-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cultured-in-alginate-hydrogel
#11
Jakub Grzesiak, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Krzysztof Marycz
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been extensively investigated with regards to different aspects, including the analysis of cell intracellular and extracellular proteome, cell gene expression pattern, and morphology. During the osteogenic differentiation, osteoblasts produce and release specific proteins, like osteocalcin and osteopontin. Simultaneously, cells produce the extracellular matrix (ECM) that resembles the bone ECM, with high quantity of calcium and phosphorus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053699/identification-of-target-genes-for-spermatogenic-cell-specific-krab-transcription-factor-zfp819-in-a-male-germ-cell-line
#12
Sora Jin, Heejin Choi, Jun Tae Kwon, Jihye Kim, Juri Jeong, Jaehwan Kim, Seong Hyeon Hong, Chunghee Cho
BACKGROUND: Zfp819, a member of the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) family, encodes a spermatogenic cell-specific transcription factor. Zfp819-overexpression induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in somatic cell lines. RESULTS: In the present study, we examined the cellular effects of Zfp819 in a male germ cell line (GC-2 cells). Overexpression of Zfp819 demonstrated an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, leading to inhibition of proliferation in GC-2 cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053698/vincristine-alleviates-adriamycin-induced-nephropathy-through-stabilizing-actin-cytoskeleton
#13
Lei Yin, Youying Mao, Hejie Song, Ye Wang, Wei Zhou, Zhen Zhang
Antimicrotubule agent vincristine (VCR) has long been known as an alternative treatment for frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, the mechanism is unknown. Here we found that VCR at a dosage much lower than that as an antimicrotubule agent can alleviate adriamycin (ADR)-induced proteinuria and podocyte foot process effacement. In cultured podocytes, VCR prevents ADR-induced actin fiber disorganization. In both in vitro and in vivo models, VCR suppresses ADR-induced overexpression of α3β1 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031783/the-emerging-role-of-deubiquitinating-enzymes-in-genomic-integrity-diseases-and-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Mingjing He, Zhuan Zhou, Anil A Shah, Haojing Zou, Jin Tao, Qianming Chen, Yong Wan
The addition of mono-ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin chain to signaling proteins in response to DNA damage signal is thought to be a critical event that facilitates the recognition of DNA damage lesion site, the activation of checkpoint function, termination and checkpoint response and the recruitment of DNA repair proteins. Despite the ubiquitin modifiers, removal of ubiquitin from the functional proteins by the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) plays an important role in orchestrating DNA damage response as well as DNA repair processes...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999656/small-gtpase-arl6-controls-rh30-rhabdomyosarcoma-cell-growth-through-ciliogenesis-and-hedgehog-signaling
#15
Xiaotong Liu, Qiuhong Shen, Tingting Yu, Huijie Huang, Ziyu Zhang, Jie Ding, Ying Tang, Ning Xu, Shen Yue
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) originates from skeletal muscle precursors that fail to differentiate. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and primary cilia contribute to the pathobiology of RMS. RESULTS: Here we showed ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 6 (ARL6) localizes at the base of primary cilium, controls ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. The transcription of Arl6 is dynamic during the differentiation of myoblasts, companying with the growth and elimination of primary cilia...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980716/targeted-genome-engineering-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
REVIEW
Xiangyang Chen, Xuezhu Feng, Shouhong Guang
The generation of mutants and transgenes are indispensible for biomedical research. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a series of methods have been developed to introduce genome modifications, including random mutagenesis by chemical reagents, ionizing radiation and transposon insertion. In addition, foreign DNA can be integrated into the genome through microparticle bombardment approach or by irradiation of animals carrying microinjected extrachromosomal arrays. Recent research has revolutionized the genome engineering technologies by using customized DNA nucleases to manipulate particular genes and genomic sequences...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980715/function-and-regulation-of-tau-conformations-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-neurodegeneration
#17
REVIEW
Onder Albayram, Megan K Herbert, Asami Kondo, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Sean Baxley, Xiaolan Lian, Madison Hansen, Xiao Zhen Zhou, Kun Ping Lu
One of the two common hallmark lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains is neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (p-tau). NFTs are also a defining feature of other neurodegenerative disorders and have recently been identified in the brains of patients suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, NFTs are not normally observed in traumatic brain injury (TBI) until months or years after injury. This raises the question of whether NFTs are a cause or a consequence of long-term neurodegeneration following TBI...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895893/downregulation-of-long-non-coding-rna-h19-promotes-p19cl6-cells-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-during-late-stage-cardiac-differentiation-via-mir-19b-modulated-sox6
#18
Yu Han, Hongdang Xu, Jiangtao Cheng, Yanwei Zhang, Chuanyu Gao, Taibing Fan, Bangtian Peng, Bin Li, Lin Liu, Zhaoyun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Regulating cardiac differentiation to maintain normal heart development and function is very important. At present, biological functions of H19 in cardiac differentiation is not completely clear. METHODS: To explore the functional effect of H19 during cardiac differentiation. Expression levels of early cardiac-specific markers Nkx-2.5 and GATA4, cardiac contractile protein genes α-MHC and MLC-2v were determined by qRT-PCR and western lot. The levels of lncRNA H19 and miR-19b were detected by qRT-PCR...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891214/one-step-immortalization-of-primary-human-airway-epithelial-cells-capable-of-oncogenic-transformation
#19
Jordan L Smith, Liam C Lee, Abigail Read, Qiuning Li, Bing Yu, Chih-Shia Lee, Ji Luo
BACKGROUND: The ability to transform normal human cells into cancer cells with the introduction of defined genetic alterations is a valuable method for understanding the mechanisms of oncogenesis. Easy establishment of immortalized but non-transformed human cells from various tissues would facilitate these genetic analyses. RESULTS: We report here a simple, one-step immortalization method that involves retroviral vector mediated co-expression of the human telomerase protein and a shRNA targeting the CDKN2A gene locus...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800153/map4k4-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Xuan Gao, Chenxi Gao, Guoxiang Liu, Jing Hu
The serine/threonine kinase MAP4K4 is a member of the Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) family. MAP4K4 was initially discovered in 1995 as a key kinase in the mating pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was later found to be involved in many aspects of cell functions and many biological and pathological processes. The role of MAP4K4 in immunity, inflammation, metabolic and cardiovascular disease has been recognized. Information regarding MAP4K4 in cancers is extremely limited, but increasing evidence suggests that MAP4K4 also plays an important role in cancer and MAP4K4 may represent a novel actionable cancer therapeutic target...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
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