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Cell & Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533900/control-of-gene-expression-through-the-nonsense-mediated-rna-decay-pathway
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Nickless, Julie M Bailis, Zhongsheng You
Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) was originally discovered as a cellular surveillance pathway that safeguards the quality of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells. In its canonical function, NMD prevents translation of mutant mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs) by targeting them for degradation. However, recent studies have shown that NMD has a much broader role in gene expression by regulating the stability of many normal transcripts. In this review, we discuss the function of NMD in normal physiological processes, its dynamic regulation by developmental and environmental cues, and its association with human disease...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529687/histone-demethylases-utx-and-jmjd3-are-required-for-nkt-cell-development-in-mice
#2
Daniel Northrup, Ryoji Yagi, Kairong Cui, William R Proctor, Chaochen Wang, Katarzyna Placek, Lance R Pohl, Rongfu Wang, Kai Ge, Jinfang Zhu, Keji Zhao
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK)T cells and conventional T cells share phenotypic characteristic however they differ in transcription factor requirements and functional properties. The role of histone modifying enzymes in conventional T cell development has been extensively studied, little is known about the function of enzymes regulating histone methylation in NKT cells. RESULTS: We show that conditional deletion of histone demethylases UTX and JMJD3 by CD4-Cre leads to near complete loss of liver NKT cells, while conventional T cells are less affected...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484591/brothers-in-arms-emerging-roles-of-rna-epigenetics-in-dna-damage-repair
#3
Jinwei Zhang
N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a widespread posttranscriptional RNA modification that occurs in tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, viral RNAs, and more recently is shown to occur in mRNA in a dynamic, reversible manner. At the epicenter of RNA epigenetics, m(6)A influences essentially all stages of RNA metabolism. As a result, m(6)A modulates cell differentiation and pluripotency, cell cycle and tumorigenesis, and several types of stress responses, etc. A recent report by Shi and colleagues uncovers a novel pathway in which m(6)A RNA, its associated enzymes, and DNA polymerase κ constitute an early-response system that confers cellular resistance to ultraviolet irradiation, separate from the canonical nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway that normally repairs UV-induced DNA damage...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469839/gene-expression-profiling-discerns-molecular-pathways-elicited-by-ligand-signaling-to-enhance-the-specification-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-lineage
#4
REVIEW
Katherine Dixon, Jihong Chen, Qiao Li
Regulation of lineage specification and differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells can be achieved through the activation of endogenous signaling, an avenue for potential application in regenerative medicine. During vertebrate development, retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in body axis elongation and mesoderm segmentation in that graded exposure to RA provides cells with positional identity and directs commitment to specific tissue lineages. Nevertheless, bexarotene, a clinically approved rexinoid, enhances the specification and differentiation of ES cells into skeletal myocytes more effectively than RA...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451379/retrospective-analysis-in-oculocutaneous-albinism-patients-for-the-2-7%C3%A2-kb-deletion-in-the-oca2-gene-revealed-a-co-segregation-of-the-controversial-variant-p-r305w
#5
Jackson Gao, Leera D'Souza, Keith Wetherby, Christian Antolik, Melissa Reeves, David R Adams, Santa Tumminia, Xinjing Wang
BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder. A significant portion of OCA patients has been found with a single pathogenic variant either in the TYR or the OCA2 gene. Diagnostic sequencing of the TYR and OCA2 genes is routinely used for molecular diagnosis of OCA subtypes. To study the possibility that genomic abnormalities with single or multiple exon involvement may account for a portion of the potential missing pathogenic variants (the second), we retrospectively analyzed the TYR gene by long range PCR and analyzed the target 2...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451378/plant-genome-editing-with-talen-and-crispr
#6
REVIEW
Aimee Malzahn, Levi Lowder, Yiping Qi
Genome editing promises giant leaps forward in advancing biotechnology, agriculture, and basic research. The process relies on the use of sequence specific nucleases (SSNs) to make DNA double stranded breaks at user defined genomic loci, which are subsequently repaired by two main DNA repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can result in frameshift mutations that often create genetic knockouts. These knockout lines are useful for functional and reverse genetic studies but also have applications in agriculture...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439402/upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-by-curcumin-conferring-protection-from-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts
#7
Xiaobo Yang, Hong Jiang, Yao Shi
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a major constituent of rhizomes of Curcuma longa that elicits beneficial effects for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The present study showed that exposure of H9c2 cells to H2O2 caused a significant increase in apoptosis as evaluated by flow cytometry analysis and the pretreatment of curcumin protected against H2O2-induced apoptosis...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439401/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-contributes-to-cell-apoptosis-by-sponging-mir-124-in-parkinson-disease
#8
Wei Liu, Qishun Zhang, Jianlei Zhang, Wujun Pan, Jingya Zhao, Yuming Xu
BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disturbance characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in midbrain. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is aberrantly expressed in neurons and is involved in the dendritic and synapse development. However, the role of MALAT1 and its underlying mechanism in PD remain to be defined. METHODS: The expressions of MALAT1 and miR-124 were evaluated by qRT-PCR. N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice and SH-SY5Y cells subjected to N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) were utilized to investigate the effect of MALAT1 on PD...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428837/large-is-required-for-normal-astrocyte-migration-and-retinal-vasculature-development
#9
Min Zhou, Herui Wang, Hui Ren, Rui Jiang, Chi Zhang, Xiaohui Wu, Gezhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that accounts for about 5% of childhood blindness. The molecular mechanism of PFV remains unclear. As a glycosyltransferase of α-dystroglycan, LARGE mutations have been found in congenital muscular dystrophy patients with brain abnormalities. Spontaneous Large mutant mice displayed similar symptoms of human muscle-eye-brain disorders. However, the detailed roles of Large in ocular vasculature development still need to be uncovered...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413604/the-role-of-gli1-for-5-fu-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Lining Zhang, Ruolan Song, Dongsheng Gu, Xiaoli Zhang, Beiqin Yu, Bingya Liu, Jingwu Xie
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy as the major treatment for advanced disease. Many patients with advanced colorectal cancer eventually succumb to the disease despite some patients responded initially to chemotherapy. Thus, identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy resistance will help design novel strategies to treat colorectal cancer. In this study, we established an acquired 5-FU resistant cell line, LoVo-R, from LoVo cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413603/hepatitis-b-virus-promotes-cancer-cell-migration-by-downregulating-mir-340-5p-expression-to-induce-stat3-overexpression
#11
Qiushuang Xiong, Shaoshuai Wu, Jingwen Wang, Xianhuang Zeng, Jianwen Chen, Mingcong Wei, Haotong Guan, Chengpeng Fan, Lang Chen, Deyin Guo, Guihong Sun
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of HCC. Previous studies have demonstrated that expression of the tumor inhibitor miR-340 is significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with normal liver tissues. However, the precise biological role of miR-340-5p in HBV-HCC and its molecular mechanism of action remain unknown. RESULTS: Expression of miR-340-5p was downregulated in HBV-associated HCC liver tissue and HBV-infected cells, facilitating migration of liver cancer cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344766/phosphorylation-of-lsd1-by-plk1-promotes-its-chromatin-release-during-mitosis
#12
Bin Peng, Ruifeng Shi, Weiwei Jiang, Yue-He Ding, Meng-Qiu Dong, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xingzhi Xu
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) modulates chromatin status through demethylation of H3K4 and H3K9. It has been demonstrated that LSD1 is hyperphosphorylated and dissociates from chromatin during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of LSD1 detachment is unknown. RESULTS: In this report, we found that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) directly interacted with LSD1 and phosphorylated LSD1 at Ser-126 . Nocodazole-induced metaphase arrest promoted release of LSD1 from chromatin, and the phosphorylation-defective mutant LSD1 (S126A) failed to dissociate from chromatin upon nocodazole treatment...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344765/new-insights-on-thyroid-hormone-mediated-regulation-of-herpesvirus-infections
#13
REVIEW
Robert W Figliozzi, Feng Chen, S Victor Hsia
Thyroid hormone (T3) has been suggested to participate in the regulation of herpesvirus replication during reactivation. Clinical observations and in vivo experiments suggest that T3 are involved in the suppression of herpes virus replication. In vitro, differentiated LNCaP cells, a human neuron-like cells, further resisted HSV-1 replication upon addition of T3. Previous studies indicate that T3 controlled the expression of several key viral genes via its nuclear receptors in differentiated LNCaP cells. Additional observation showed that differentiated LNCaP cells have active PI3K signaling and inhibitor LY294002 can reverse T3-mediated repression of viral replication...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331574/microrna-and-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle
#14
REVIEW
Duo Zhang, Yan Li, Shengnan Liu, Yu-Cheng Wang, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Jingjing Jiang, Hao Ying
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function of all organs or tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Due to the significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie TH action, it's widely accepted that TH signaling is regulated at multiple levels. A growing number of discoveries suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as fine-tune regulators of gene expression and adds sophisticated regulatory tiers to signaling pathways...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289537/comparative-analysis-of-pre-and-post-parasitic-transcriptomes-and-mining-pioneer-effectors-of-heterodera-avenae
#15
Dan Yang, Changlong Chen, Qian Liu, Heng Jian
BACKGROUND: The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a devastating pathogen of wheat and barley crops in many countries. We aimed to prioritize genetic and molecular targets for H. avenae control via the powerful and integrative bioinformatics platform. RESULTS: Here, we sequenced mRNA isolated from Chinese H. avenae at pre-parasitic (consisting of egg, J1 and hatched-J2) stages and post-parasitic (consisting of parasitic-J2, J3, J4 and adults) stages...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239447/yeast-help-identify-cytopathic-factors-of-zika-virus
#16
Michael Bukrinsky
Accumulating evidence implicates Zika virus (ZIKV) in pathogenesis of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. However, it remains unclear which viral proteins are responsible for these effects and what are the underlying mechanisms of their pathogenic activity. A recent paper by Drs. Zhao and Gallo, and their colleagues at University of Maryland in Baltimore used fission yeast for genome-wide analysis of ZIKV proteins. They demonstrated cytopathogenic activity for seven ZIKV proteins, anaC, C, prM, M, E, NS2B and NS4A...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239446/mechanism-of-transcription-coupled-dna-modification-recognition
#17
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Shin, Liang Xu, Dong Wang
As a key enzyme for gene expression, RNA polymerase II (pol II) reads along the DNA template and catalyzes accurate mRNA synthesis during transcription. On the other hand, genomic DNA is under constant attack by endogenous and environmental stresses. These attack cause many DNA lesions. Pol II functions as a specific sensor that is able to recognize changes in DNA sequences and structures and induces different outcomes. A critical question in the field is how Pol II recognizes and senses these DNA modifications or lesions...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239445/maintenance-of-genome-stability-by-fanconi-anemia-proteins
#18
REVIEW
Anna Palovcak, Wenjun Liu, Fenghua Yuan, Yanbin Zhang
Persistent dysregulation of the DNA damage response and repair in cells causes genomic instability. The resulting genetic changes permit alterations in growth and proliferation observed in virtually all cancers. However, an unstable genome can serve as a double-edged sword by providing survival advantages in the ability to evade checkpoint signaling, but also creating vulnerabilities through dependency on alternative genomic maintenance factors. The Fanconi anemia pathway comprises an intricate network of DNA damage signaling and repair that are critical for protection against genomic instability...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163888/a-special-issue-on-new-insights-into-genome-maintenance
#19
EDITORIAL
Guo-Min Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101327/hsa-let-7c-5p-augments-enterovirus-71-replication-through-viral-subversion-of-cell-signaling-in-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#20
Bingfei Zhou, Min Chu, Shanshan Xu, Xiong Chen, Yongjuan Liu, Zhihao Wang, Fengfeng Zhang, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe hand, foot and mouse disease, accompanied by neurological complications. During the interaction between EV71 and the host, the virus subverts host cell machinery for its own replication. However, the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process remain obscure. RESULTS: In this study, we found that the miRNA hsa-let-7c-5p was significantly upregulated in EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The overexpression of hsa-let-7c-5p promoted replication of the virus, and the hsa-let-7c-5p inhibitor suppressed viral replication...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
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