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Cell & Bioscience

Yu Han, Hongdang Xu, Jiangtao Cheng, Yanwei Zhang, Chuanyu Gao, Taibing Fan, Bangtian Peng, Bin Li, Lin Liu, Zhaoyun Cheng
BACKGROUND: Regulating cardiac differentiation to maintain normal heart development and function is very important. At present, biological functions of H19 in cardiac differentiation is not completely clear. METHODS: To explore the functional effect of H19 during cardiac differentiation. Expression levels of early cardiac-specific markers Nkx-2.5 and GATA4, cardiac contractile protein genes α-MHC and MLC-2v were determined by qRT-PCR and western lot. The levels of lncRNA H19 and miR-19b were detected by qRT-PCR...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Jordan L Smith, Liam C Lee, Abigail Read, Qiuning Li, Bing Yu, Chih-Shia Lee, Ji Luo
BACKGROUND: The ability to transform normal human cells into cancer cells with the introduction of defined genetic alterations is a valuable method for understanding the mechanisms of oncogenesis. Easy establishment of immortalized but non-transformed human cells from various tissues would facilitate these genetic analyses. RESULTS: We report here a simple, one-step immortalization method that involves retroviral vector mediated co-expression of the human telomerase protein and a shRNA targeting the CDKN2A gene locus...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Xuan Gao, Chenxi Gao, Guoxiang Liu, Jing Hu
The serine/threonine kinase MAP4K4 is a member of the Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) family. MAP4K4 was initially discovered in 1995 as a key kinase in the mating pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was later found to be involved in many aspects of cell functions and many biological and pathological processes. The role of MAP4K4 in immunity, inflammation, metabolic and cardiovascular disease has been recognized. Information regarding MAP4K4 in cancers is extremely limited, but increasing evidence suggests that MAP4K4 also plays an important role in cancer and MAP4K4 may represent a novel actionable cancer therapeutic target...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Hengning Ke, Julhash U Kazi, Hui Zhao, Jianmin Sun
Somatic mutations of KIT are frequently found in mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), while germline mutations of KIT are rare, and only found in few cases of familial GIST and mastocytosis. Although ligand-independent activation is the common feature of KIT mutations, the phenotypes mediated by various germline KIT mutations are different. Germline KIT mutations affect different tissues such as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), mast cells or melanocytes, and thereby lead to GIST, mastocytosis, or abnormal pigmentation...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Yujing Wang, Donglai Yin, Chao Xu, Kai Wang, Lingmin Zheng, Yumei Zhang
BACKGROUND: 3-Nitro-4-hydroxy phenyl arsenic acid, roxarsone, is widely used as an organic arsenic feed additive for livestock and poultry, which may increase the level of arsenic in the environment and the risk of exposure to arsenic in human. Little information is focused on the angiogenesis roxarsone-induced and its mechanism at present. This paper aims to study the role of PI3K/Akt signaling in roxarsone-induced angiogenesis in rat vascular endothelial cells and a mouse B16-F10 melanoma xenograft model...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Zhiwei Xing, Lan Yu, Xian Li, Xiulan Su
BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing in China, making cancer the leading cause of death since 2010 and a major public health concern in the country. Cancer stem cells have been studied in relation to the treatment of different malignancies, including gastric cancer. Anticancer bioactive peptide-3 (ACBP-3) can induce the apoptosis of gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) and reduce their tumorigenicity. In the present study, for the first time, we used a miRNA microarray and bioinformatics analysis to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in ACBP-3-treated GCSCs and GCSC-derived tumors in a xenograft model and functionally verified the identified miRNAs...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Yun-Bo Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Wei Yang, Peter J Weng, Yang Gao
Enzyme catalysis has been studied for over a century. How it actually occurs has not been visualized until recently. By combining in crystallo reaction and X-ray diffraction analysis of reaction intermediates, we have obtained unprecedented atomic details of the DNA synthesis process. Contrary to the established theory that enzyme-substrate complexes and transition states have identical atomic composition and catalysis occurs by the two-metal-ion mechanism, we have discovered that an additional divalent cation has to be captured en route to product formation...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Hye-Ryun Kim, Jong-Hee Lee, Hye-Ryeon Heo, Se-Ran Yang, Kwon-Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Eun-Taek Han, Haengseok Song, Seok-Ho Hong
BACKGROUND: Aside from its importance in reproduction, estrogen (E2) is known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in rodents. However, the regulatory role of E2 in human hematopoietic system has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of E2 on hematopoietic differentiation using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). RESULTS: E2 improved hematopoietic differentiation of hPSCs via estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α)-dependent pathway...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Dietmar Zechner, Tim Kroemer, Ann-Christin Albert, Maria Schönrogge, Tobias Radecke, Brigitte Vollmar
BACKGROUND: The involvement of Wnt in carcinogenesis and progression of pancreatic cancer is currently intensely discussed. We evaluated activation of the Wnt signaling pathway by using a Wnt reporter mouse strain expressing β-galactosidase under the control of the Axin2 promotor during pancreatitis induced formation of precancerous lesions. We also evaluated activation of Wnt signaling during interaction of pancreatic cancer with the tumor stroma. RESULTS: Activation of Wnt signaling was observed during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia after chronic as well as acute pancreatitis...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Gitanjali Das, Qili Yu, Ryan Hui, Kenneth Reuhl, Nicholas W Gale, Renping Zhou
BACKGROUND: The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays important roles in neural development. Previous studies have implicated Eph receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, in neuronal migration, axon bundling and guidance to specific targets, dendritic spine formation and neural plasticity. However, specific contributions of EphA5 and EphA6 receptors to the regulation of neuronal cell morphology have not been well studied. RESULTS: Here we show that deletion of EphA5 and EphA6 results in abnormal Golgi staining patterns of cells in the brain, and abnormal spine morphology...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Sidra Majaz, Zhangwei Tong, Kesong Peng, Wei Wang, Wenjing Ren, Ming Li, Kun Liu, Pingli Mo, Wengang Li, Chundong Yu
BACKGROUND: General control non-depressible 5 (GCN5) is a crucial catalytic component of a transcriptional regulatory complex that plays important roles in cellular functions from cell cycle regulation to DNA damage repair. Although GCN5 has recently been implicated in certain oncogenic roles, its role in liver cancer progression remains vague. RESULTS: In this study, we report that GCN5 was overexpressed in 17 (54.8 %) of 31 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Rohit Anthony Sinha, Paul M Yen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a fast-growing silent epidemic that is present in both developed and developing countries. Initially thought as a benign deposition of lipids in the liver, it now has been shown to be a major risk factor for type II diabetes and one of the leading causes of cirrhosis. Recent findings suggest that dysregulation of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy play critical roles in the hepatocyte injury and insulin resistance of NAFLD. Thyroid hormone (TH) is a major stimulator of hepatic autophagy and mitochondrial function...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Yu Zhao, Hao Sun, Huating Wang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being discovered as a novel family of regulators of gene expression at the epigenetic level. Emerging lines of evidence demonstrate that interplays between lncRNAs and DNA methylation machinery are an important layer of epigenetic regulation. Here in this mini-review we summarize the current findings in the field and focus particularly on the interactions mediated through direct physical association between lncRNAs and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs).
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Mingjuan Sun, Ning Zhang, Xiaolong Wang, Yaming Li, Wenwen Qi, Hanwen Zhang, Zengjun Li, Qifeng Yang
BACKGROUND: The complications of clinical metastatic disease are responsible for the majority of breast cancer related deaths, and fewer therapies substantially prolong survival. Nitidine chloride (NC), a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to exhibit potent anticancer effects in many cancer types, including breast cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the acquisition of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like properties emerge as critical steps in the metastasis of human cancers...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Chan-Mi Lee, Sahil Gupta, Jiafeng Wang, Elizabeth M Johnson, Leslie J Crofford, John C Marshall, Mohit Kapoor, Jim Hu
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by excessive synovial inflammation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) into prostaglandins. Epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor-1 (ESE-1) was previously demonstrated to upregulate COX-2 in co-operation with nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in macrophages and chondrocytes. However, the role of ESE-1 in RA pathology has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between ESE-1 and COX-2 in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) using a HD-Ad-mediated knockdown approach...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Alyssa J Rolfe, Dale B Bosco, Jingying Wang, Richard S Nowakowski, Jianqing Fan, Yi Ren
BACKGROUND: The single-stranded RNA Flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV), has recently re-emerged and spread rapidly across the western hemisphere's equatorial countries, primarily through Aedes mosquito transmission. While symptoms in adult infections appear to be self-limiting and mild, severe birth defects, such as microcephaly, have been linked to infection during early pregnancy. Recently, Tang et al. (Cell Stem Cell 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016) demonstrated that ZIKV efficiently infects induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), resulting in cell cycle abnormalities and apoptosis...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Guangxue Wang, Rongbo Li, Ying Yang, Liang Cai, Sheng Ding, Tian Xu, Min Han, Xiaohui Wu
BACKGROUND: Concerted hormone secretion is essential for glucose homeostasis and growth. The oocyte testis gene 1 (Otg1) has limited information in mammals before. Human OTG1 has been identified as an antigen associated with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, while worm Otg1 is recently reported to be a vesicle trafficking regulator in neurons. To understand the physiological role of Otg1 and its potential relation to hormone secretion, we characterized a mutation caused by the piggyBac transposon (PB) insertion in mice...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Lei Hou, Dongjun Wan, Zhao Dong, Wenjing Tang, Xun Han, Li Li, Fei Yang, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays several important roles in vasodilation, neurotransmission, neuromodulation and neurotrophy, as well as activation of the trigeminovascular system. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between altered PACAP levels in peripheral blood and different types of headache. METHODS: The present study enrolled 101 outpatients with headache and 35 healthy control volunteers...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
Ke Wang, Yu Li, Xin Huang, Dong-Wei Wang, Chun-Ling Xu, Hui Xie
BACKGROUND: The nematode Radopholus similis is an important migratory endoparasite of plants. Cysteine proteinases such as cathepsin S (CPS) play key roles during embryonic development, invasion, and pathogenesis in nematodes and many other animal parasites. This study was designed to investigate the molecular characterization and functions of a cathepsin S protease in R. similis and to find new targets for its control. RESULTS: Rs-CPS of R. similis, Hg-CPS of Heterodera glycines and Ha-CPS of H...
2016: Cell & Bioscience
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