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Cell & Bioscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815013/diabetic-retinopathy-reversibility-of-epigenetic-modifications-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#1
REVIEW
Xinyuan Zhang, Lin Zhao, Brett Hambly, Shisan Bao, Kaiyue Wang
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the molecular mechanisms of epigenetics in disease development and progression, the reversible characteristics of epigenetic modification provide new insights for the treatment of such diseases. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not yet been fully understood, treatment of refractory and recurrent diabetic macular edema remains a big change in clinical practice. This review emphasizes that reversibility of epigenetic modification could provide a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815012/the-2016-ming-k-jeang-award-for-excellence-in-cell-bioscience
#2
EDITORIAL
Yun-Bo Shi
Two research groups led by Dr. Jim Hu of University of Toronto, Canada and Dr. Renping Zhou of Rutgers University, USA, respectively, won the 2016 Ming K Jeang Award for Excellence in Cell & Bioscience.
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811873/a-human-plasma-derived-supplement-preserves-function-of-human-vascular-cells-in-absence-of-fetal-bovine-serum
#3
C Castells-Sala, J Martorell, M Balcells
Current techniques for cell culture routinely use animal-derived components. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most widely applied supplement, but it often displays significant batch-to-batch variations and is generally not suitable for clinical applications in humans. A robust and xeno-free alternative to FBS is of high interest for cellular therapies, from early in vitro testing to clinical trials in human subjects. In the current work, a highly consistent human plasma derived supplement (SCC) has been tested, as a potential substitute of FBS in primary human vascular cells culture...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794854/tgf-%C3%AE-in-pancreatic-cancer-initiation-and-progression-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#4
REVIEW
Wei Shen, Guo-Qing Tao, Yu Zhang, Bing Cai, Jian Sun, Zhi-Qiang Tian
Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal malignant tumor with characterised rapid progression, invasiveness and resistance to radiochemotherapy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a dual role in both pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive of pancreatic cancer, depending on tumor stage and microenvironment. TGF-β signaling components alteration are common in pancreatic cancer, and its leading role in tumor formation and metastases has received increased attention. Many therapies have investigated to target TGF-β signaling in the preclinical and clinical setting...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794853/the-mir-290-295-cluster-as-multi-faceted-players-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Kai Yuan, Wen-Bing Ai, Lin-Yan Wan, Xiao Tan, Jiang-Feng Wu
Increasing evidence indicates that embryonic stem cell specific microRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the early development of embryo. Among them, the miR-290-295 cluster is the most highly expressed in the mouse embryonic stem cells and involved in various biological processes. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of the function of the miR-290-295 cluster in embryonic stem cells. The miR-290-295 cluster is involved in regulating embryonic stem cell pluripotency maintenance, self-renewal, and reprogramming somatic cells to an embryonic stem cell-like state...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785398/isocitrate-dehydrogenases-in-physiology-and-cancer-biochemical-and-molecular-insight
#6
REVIEW
Hamoud Al-Khallaf
Isocitrate dehydrogenases play important roles in cellular metabolism and cancer. This review will discuss how the roles of isoforms 1 and 2 in normal cell and cancer metabolism are distinct from those of isoform 3. It will also explain why, unlike 1 and 2, mutations in isoform 3 in tumor are not likely to be driver ones. A model explaining two important features of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 mutations, their dominant negative effect and their mutual exclusivity, will be provided. The importance of targeting these mutations and the possibility of augmenting such therapy by targeting other cancer-related pathways will also be discussed...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770041/stromal-senp1-promotes-mouse-early-folliculogenesis-by-regulating-bmp4-expression
#7
Shu Tan, Boya Feng, Mingzhu Yin, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Ge Lou, Weidong Ji, Yonghao Li, Wang Min
BACKGROUND: Mammalian folliculogenesis, maturation of the ovarian follicles, require both growth factors derived from oocyte and surrounding cells, including stromal cells. However, the mechanism by which stromal cells and derived factors regulate oocyte development remains unclear. RESULTS: We observed that SENP1, a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-specific isopeptidase, was expressed in sm22α-positive stromal cells of mouse ovary. The sm22α-positive stromal cells tightly associated with follicle maturation...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725345/genome-editing-is-revolutionizing-biology
#8
EDITORIAL
Yiping Qi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680559/the-roles-of-microrna-families-in-hepatic-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Xue-Ping Jiang, Wen-Bing Ai, Lin-Yan Wan, Yan-Qiong Zhang, Jiang-Feng Wu
When hepatocytes are damaged severely, a variety of signaling pathways will be triggered by inflammatory factors and cytokines involving in the process of hepatic fibrosis. The microRNA (miRNA) family consists of several miRNAs which have the potential for synergistic regulation of these signaling pathways. However, it is poor to understand the roles of miRNA family as a whole in hepatic fibrosis. Increasing studies have suggested several miRNA families are related with activation of hepatic stellate cells and hepatic fibrosis through cooperatively regulating certain signaling pathways...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670441/znf300-tight-self-regulation-and-functioning-through-dna-methylation-and-histone-acetylation
#10
Feng-Juan Yan, Jingyi Fan, Zan Huang, Jun-Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the KRAB-ZNFs involve in various biological processes. As a typical member of KRAB-ZNFs, dysregulation of ZNF300 contributes to multiple pathologies such as leukemia and cancer. However, mechanisms underlying ZNF300 tight regulation and its pathophysiological function remain largely unknown. METHODS: The effect of ZNF300ZFR on gene transcriptional activity was measured by Dual luciferase reporter system. ChIP-PCR assay were performed to detect the enrichment of ZNF300 protein and H3K9Ac in the ZNF300 gene...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649319/erratum-to-a-new-paradigm-of-dna-synthesis-three-metal-ion-catalysis
#11
Wei Yang, Peter J Weng, Yang Gao
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13578-016-0118-2.].
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596825/kv1-3-channel-blocker-imktx88-maintains-blood-brain-barrier-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Jie Huang, Song Han, Qi Sun, Yipeng Zhao, Junchen Liu, Xiaolu Yuan, Wenqian Mao, Biwen Peng, Wanhong Liu, Jun Yin, Xiaohua He
BACKGROUND: Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent infiltration of auto-reactive T lymphocytes are major characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Kv1.3 channel blockers are demonstrated potential therapeutic effects on MS patients and EAE models, maybe via reducing activation of T cells. However, it remains to be explored whether Kv1.3 channel blockers maintain integrity of BBB in MS model. RESULTS: In this study, ImKTx88, a highly selective Kv1...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572916/ipscs-are-safe
#13
Hualong Yan, Yun-Bo Shi, Jing Huang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promises in cell therapy. However, the potential safety issues have dampened the enthusiasm of their clinical development. One of the biggest concerns came from the observations that genomic alterations exist in iPSCs. Using next generation sequencing of clonal skin fibroblasts and the iPSC clones derived from the same skin fibroblasts, Dr. Liu and his colleagues in the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA, in collaboration with Dr...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572915/apobec3b-a-molecular-driver-of-mutagenesis-in-human-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Jun Zou, Chen Wang, Xiangyi Ma, Edward Wang, Guang Peng
Human cancers results in large part from the accumulation of multiple mutations. The progression of premalignant cells is an evolutionary process in which mutations provide the fundamental driving force for genetic diversity. The increased mutation rate in premalignant cells allows selection for increased proliferation and survival and ultimately leads to invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular determinants of the mutational processes...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546857/chloroquine-inhibits-ca-2-permeable-ion-channels-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-primary-b-lymphocytes
#15
Yi-Fan Wu, Ping Zhao, Xi Luo, Jin-Chao Xu, Lu Xue, Qi Zhou, Mingrui Xiong, Jinhua Shen, Yong-Bo Peng, Meng-Fei Yu, Weiwei Chen, Liqun Ma, Qing-Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine, a bitter tastant, inhibits Ca(2+) signaling, resulting in suppression of B cell activation; however, the inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, thapsigargin (TG), but not caffeine, induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) increases in mouse splenic primary B lymphocytes, which were markedly inhibited by chloroquine. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions, TG elicited transient Ca(2+) increases, which additionally elevated upon the restoration of 2 mM Ca(2+)...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546856/epigenetic-regulation-of-runx2-transcription-and-osteoblast-differentiation-by-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#16
Min Ling, Peixin Huang, Shamima Islam, Daniel P Heruth, Xuanan Li, Li Qin Zhang, Ding-You Li, Zhaohui Hu, Shui Qing Ye
BACKGROUND: Bone degenerative disorders like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Although there are studies suggesting that metabolic changes occur with stem cell differentiation, the molecular mechanisms governing energy metabolism and epigenetic modification are not understood fully. Here we reported the key role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of NAD biosynthesis from nicotinamide, in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533900/control-of-gene-expression-through-the-nonsense-mediated-rna-decay-pathway
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Nickless, Julie M Bailis, Zhongsheng You
Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) was originally discovered as a cellular surveillance pathway that safeguards the quality of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotic cells. In its canonical function, NMD prevents translation of mutant mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs) by targeting them for degradation. However, recent studies have shown that NMD has a much broader role in gene expression by regulating the stability of many normal transcripts. In this review, we discuss the function of NMD in normal physiological processes, its dynamic regulation by developmental and environmental cues, and its association with human disease...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529687/histone-demethylases-utx-and-jmjd3-are-required-for-nkt-cell-development-in-mice
#18
Daniel Northrup, Ryoji Yagi, Kairong Cui, William R Proctor, Chaochen Wang, Katarzyna Placek, Lance R Pohl, Rongfu Wang, Kai Ge, Jinfang Zhu, Keji Zhao
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK)T cells and conventional T cells share phenotypic characteristic however they differ in transcription factor requirements and functional properties. The role of histone modifying enzymes in conventional T cell development has been extensively studied, little is known about the function of enzymes regulating histone methylation in NKT cells. RESULTS: We show that conditional deletion of histone demethylases UTX and JMJD3 by CD4-Cre leads to near complete loss of liver NKT cells, while conventional T cells are less affected...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484591/brothers-in-arms-emerging-roles-of-rna-epigenetics-in-dna-damage-repair
#19
Jinwei Zhang
N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is a widespread posttranscriptional RNA modification that occurs in tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, viral RNAs, and more recently is shown to occur in mRNA in a dynamic, reversible manner. At the epicenter of RNA epigenetics, m(6)A influences essentially all stages of RNA metabolism. As a result, m(6)A modulates cell differentiation and pluripotency, cell cycle and tumorigenesis, and several types of stress responses, etc. A recent report by Shi and colleagues uncovers a novel pathway in which m(6)A RNA, its associated enzymes, and DNA polymerase κ constitute an early-response system that confers cellular resistance to ultraviolet irradiation, separate from the canonical nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway that normally repairs UV-induced DNA damage...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469839/gene-expression-profiling-discerns-molecular-pathways-elicited-by-ligand-signaling-to-enhance-the-specification-of-embryonic-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-lineage
#20
REVIEW
Katherine Dixon, Jihong Chen, Qiao Li
Regulation of lineage specification and differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells can be achieved through the activation of endogenous signaling, an avenue for potential application in regenerative medicine. During vertebrate development, retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in body axis elongation and mesoderm segmentation in that graded exposure to RA provides cells with positional identity and directs commitment to specific tissue lineages. Nevertheless, bexarotene, a clinically approved rexinoid, enhances the specification and differentiation of ES cells into skeletal myocytes more effectively than RA...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
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