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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

A E Cullen, L Bowers, M Khondoker, S Pettit, E Achilla, L Koeser, L Moylan, J Baker, A Quirk, F Sethi, D Stewart, P McCrone, A D Tulloch
AIMS: Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
T Becker, R Kilian, M Kösters
Politics and policy: It is important to understand why, in the translational continuum from pilot research and randomised controlled efficacy trials to roll-out programmes and routine effectiveness studies, some service innovations are taken up by health service purchasers and providers, while others are not. Why do some innovative interventions or models of care get to the stage of implementation, while others fail to be funded?
October 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S Chatterjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S Saxena
This paper enumerates and briefly discusses WHO's recent contributions to global mental health and the current challenges and opportunities in this area. It briefly discusses response to diversity across countries and communities, the need for innovations and global exchange of information, evidence and knowledge and raises issues like psychological interventions and human rights related to mental health.
September 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Purgato, W A Tol, J K Bass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
T-C Shen, C-L Lin, C H Liao, C-C Wei, F-C Sung, C-H Kao
AIM: To examine the incidence of asthma in adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: From the National Health Insurance database of Taiwan, we identified 30 169 adult patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD between 2000 and 2010. Individuals without depression were randomly selected four times and frequency matched for sex, age and year of diagnosis. Both cohorts were followed-up for the occurrence of asthma up to the end of 2011. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of asthma were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards method...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A Cohen, H Minas
In the 19th century, psychiatric institutions were the focus of thousands of articles in the leading English-language medical and psychiatric journals. This area of concern remained important through the first half of the 20th century, with some decline in the number of published articles in the second half of the 20th century as de-institutionalisation gathered pace. The number of articles about this topic has declined sharply in the past 25 years, and psychiatric institutions are not the focus of any of the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health even though psychiatric institutions of all kinds are widely acknowledged to be the among the main sites of human rights abuses...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
L Squarcina, C Fagnani, M Bellani, C A Altamura, P Brambilla
The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) is to date not entirely clear. Classical genetic research showed that there is a contribution of genetic factors in BD, with high heritability. Twin studies, thanks to the fact that confounding factors as genetic background or family environment are shared, allow etiological inferences. In this work, we selected twin studies, which focus on the relationship between BD, genetic factors and brain structure, evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. All the studies found differences in brain structure between BD patients and their co-twins, and also in respect to healthy controls...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
D Chisholm, M Heslin, S Docrat, S Nanda, R Shidhaye, N Upadhaya, M Jordans, J Abdulmalik, S Olayiwola, O Gureje, D Kizza, J Mugisha, F Kigozi, C Hanlon, M Adugna, R Sanders, C Pretorius, G Thornicroft, C Lund
BACKGROUND: Although financing represents a critical component of health system strengthening and also a defining concern of efforts to move towards universal health coverage, many countries lack the tools and capacity to plan effectively for service scale-up. As part of a multi-country collaborative study (the Emerald project), we set out to develop, test and apply a fully integrated health systems resource planning and health impact tool for mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders...
September 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
O Rantonen, K Alexanderson, J Pentti, L Kjeldgård, J Hämäläinen, E Mittendorfer-Rutz, M Kivimäki, J Vahtera, P Salo
: Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists...
September 9, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M C Angermeyer, G Schomerus
AIMS: Population surveys have become a frequently used method to explore stigma, help-seeking and illness beliefs related to mental illness. Methodological quality however differs greatly between studies, and our current knowledge seems heavily biased towards high-income countries. A critical appraisal of advances and shortcomings of psychiatric attitude research is missing. This review summarises and appraises the state of the art in population-based attitude research on mental health...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Freeman
Mental health for all is the main goal of the global mental health movement. Central characteristics to achieving this are examination of the social determinants of health and a more preventive approach; greater task shifting or task sharing; emphasis on common as well as serious mental disorder; a strong research base and a commitment to human rights. Putting the interventions in place in countries with limited resources and particularly African countries that will best promote mental health is challenging and requires a careful balancing of priorities and approaches...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, B Liddell, A Nickerson, N Tam, D Silove
AIMS: Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G Borges, C Benjet, R Orozco, M-E Medina-Mora
AIMS: Low and middle income countries share a heavy burden of suicide with about three in every four suicides occurring in these countries. Mexico has witnessed a growing trend in suicide deaths; if this trend is not simply a reflection of better reporting of suicide on death certificates, then this increase should logically be accompanied by an increasing trend in suicide ideation, plan and attempts, but we lack information on the trends for suicide ideation, plan and attempt for this period...
August 15, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
P Bracken, J Giller, D Summerfield
The Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) argues that there is a moral imperative that psychiatric treatments should be made available to all communities across the world. But psychiatric theories, categories and interventions emerged in the Western world are based on a set of assumptions about the nature of the self and society, nature and the supernatural, health and healing that are not universally accepted. In this paper we argue that there is a stronger moral case for caution with regard to the export of psychiatric thinking...
August 15, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S A Kinner, C Harvey, B Hamilton, L Brophy, C Roper, B McSherry, J T Young
AIMS: There are growing calls to reduce, and where possible eliminate, the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings, but the attitudes and beliefs of consumers, carers and mental health professionals towards these practices are not well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the attitudes of mental health service consumers, carers and mental health professionals towards seclusion and restraint in mental health settings. In particular, it aimed to explore beliefs regarding whether elimination of seclusion and restraint was desirable and possible...
August 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G Dammann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Y Y Lee, J J Barendregt, E A Stockings, A J Ferrari, H A Whiteford, G A Patton, C Mihalopoulos
AIMS: School-based psychological interventions encompass: universal interventions targeting youth in the general population; and indicated interventions targeting youth with subthreshold depression. This study aimed to: (1) examine the population cost-effectiveness of delivering universal and indicated prevention interventions to youth in the population aged 11-17 years via primary and secondary schools in Australia; and (2) compare the comparative cost-effectiveness of delivering these interventions using face-to-face and internet-based delivery mechanisms...
August 11, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S L Matheson, M Kariuki, M J Green, K Dean, F Harris, S Tzoumakis, M Tarren-Sweeney, S Brinkman, M Chilvers, T Sprague, V J Carr, K R Laurens
AIMS: Childhood maltreatment and a family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) are each associated with social-emotional dysfunction in childhood. Both are also strong risk factors for adult SSDs, and social-emotional dysfunction in childhood may be an antecedent of these disorders. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine the independent and moderating effects of maltreatment and parental SSDs on early childhood social-emotional functioning. METHODS: The New South Wales Child Development Study combines intergenerational multi-agency data using record linkage methods...
August 4, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G Sampogna, I Bakolis, E Robinson, E Corker, V Pinfold, G Thornicroft, C Henderson
AIMS: In the field of stigma research, an area of interest is the coping strategies that mental health service users can use in response to discriminatory experiences. As a part of the evaluation of the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme, the Viewpoint telephone survey was run annually in order to assess service users' reported levels of discrimination and selected coping strategies. The study aim is to test the extent to which experience of TTC programme is a positive predictor of selected coping strategies...
July 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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