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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927267/the-long-term-mental-health-risk-associated-with-non-heterosexual-orientation
#1
R A Burns, P Butterworth, A F Jorm
AIMS: Findings that describe the mental health risk associated with non-heterosexual orientation in young and middle-aged adults are from cross-sectional designs or fail to discriminate homosexual and bisexual orientations. This study examines the mental health risk of homosexual and bisexual orientation over an 8-year period. METHODS: Participants were from the age-cohort study, the Personality and Total Health Through Life Project, were observed twice every 4 years, and aged 20-24 (n = 2353) and 40-44 (n = 2499) at baseline...
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927259/association-between-recognition-and-help-seeking-preferences-and-stigma-towards-people-with-mental-illness
#2
L Picco, E Abdin, S Pang, J A Vaingankar, A Jeyagurunathan, S A Chong, M Subramaniam
AIMS: The ability to recognise a mental illness has important implications as it can aid in timely and appropriate help-seeking, and ultimately improve outcomes for people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the association between recognition and help-seeking preferences and stigmatising attitudes, for alcohol abuse, dementia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia, using a vignette-based approach. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted among Singapore Residents (n = 3006) aged 18-65 years...
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927255/walla-artist-of-the-universe
#3
J Feilacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919303/mental-illness-stigma-and-suicidality-the-role-of-public-and-individual-stigma
#4
N Oexle, T Waldmann, T Staiger, Z Xu, N Rüsch
AIMS: Suicide rates are increased among unemployed individuals and mental illness stigma can contribute to both unemployment and suicidality. Persons with mental illness perceive negative attitudes among the general public and experience discrimination in their everyday life (=public stigma components) potentially leading to self-stigma and anticipated discrimination (=individual stigma components). Previous research found evidence for an association between aspects of mental illness stigma and suicidality, but has not yet clarified the underlying pathways explaining how different stigma components interact and contribute to suicidal ideation...
December 6, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894370/-aut-sider-the-invisible-talent-of-simona-concaro%C3%A2
#5
L Fusar-Poli, M Rocchetti, M Garda, P Politi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890025/auguste-forestier-s-unbroken-wanderlust
#6
Savine Faupin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873561/antipsychotic-drug-exposure-and-risk-of-myocardial-infarction
#7
C Barbui, C Gastaldon, D Papola, G Ostuzzi
Patients experiencing psychoses and in need of antipsychotic agents may be exposed to a higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) than the general population. As there have been no randomised studies investigating this association, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis included all observational studies that compared the incidence of MI among patients receiving antipsychotics v. no treatment. It found nine studies and calculated that the odds (risk) for developing MI were 1.88-fold higher in antipsychotic users compared with individuals who had not taken antipsychotic drugs...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866510/cancer-incidence-in-young-and-middle-aged-people-with-schizophrenia-nationwide-cohort-study-in-taiwan-2000-2010
#8
L Y Chen, Y N Hung, Y Y Chen, S Y Yang, C H Pan, C C Chen, C J Kuo
AIMS: For nearly a century, the incidence of cancer in people with schizophrenia was lower than in the general population. In the recent decade, the relationship between cancer and schizophrenia has become obscured. Thus, we investigated the cancer risk among young and middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Records of newly admitted patients with schizophrenia (n = 32 731) from January 2000 through December 2008 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database in Taiwan, and the first psychiatric admission of each patient during the same period was defined as the baseline...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866508/new-directions-for-psychiatric-rehabilitation-in-the-usa
#9
G R Bond, R E Drake
American researchers have led the world in developing, evaluating, and disseminating evidence-based psychiatric rehabilitation practices for people with serious mental illness. Paradoxically, however, the USA lags behind most industrialized nations in providing access to high-quality mental health and psychiatric services. This essay examines several evidence-based practices developed in the USA, the spread of these practices, the barriers to ensuring availability to people who could benefit from these services, and some promising directions for overcoming the barriers...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852345/psychiatric-rehabilitation-in-latin-america-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
J M Uribe-Restrepo, M L Escobar, L Cubillos
Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation programs in Latin America have been designed across several countries in the region without yet achieving full implementation. Facing an increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders, including alcohol and substance use disorders, the region has responded unevenly to the challenge. Moreover, low priority for mental health in national policies and insufficient funding for mental health services are common barriers for the much-needed mental health services reforms...
November 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852333/emergency-department-visits-for-attempted-suicide-and-self-harm-in-the-usa-2006-2013
#11
J K Canner, K Giuliano, S Selvarajah, E R Hammond, E B Schneider
AIMS: To characterise and identify nationwide trends in suicide-related emergency department (ED) visits in the USA from 2006 to 2013. METHODS: We used data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2006 to 2013. E-codes were used to identify ED visits related to suicide attempts and self-inflicted injury. Visits were characterised by factors such as age, sex, US census region, calendar month, as well as injury severity and mechanism. Injury severity and mechanism were compared between age groups and sex by chi-square tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests...
November 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834166/prevalence-demographic-variation-and-psychological-correlates-of-exposure-to-police-victimisation-in-four-us-cities
#12
J E DeVylder, H Y Oh, B Nam, T L Sharpe, M Lehmann, B G Link
: Aims Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police-public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress...
November 11, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830639/cross-national-comparisons-of-increasing-suicidal-mortality-rates-for-koreans-in-the-republic-of-korea-and-korean-americans-in-the-usa-2003-2012
#13
A Kung, K G Hastings, K I Kapphahn, E J Wang, M R Cullen, S L Ivey, L P Palaniappan, S Chung
AIMS: Korea has the highest suicide rate of developed countries, two times higher than the USA. Suicide trends among Koreans Americans living in the USA during the same period have not yet been described. We report suicide mortality rates and trends for four groups: (1) Korean Americans, (2) non-Hispanic White (NHW) Americans, (3) selected Asian American subgroups and (4) Koreans living in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: We used US national (n = 18 113 585) and World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 232 919 253) mortality records for Korea from 2003 to 2012 to calculate suicide rates, all expressed per 100 000 persons...
November 10, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790968/pre-post-effect-sizes-should-be-avoided-in-meta-analyses
#14
P Cuijpers, E Weitz, I A Cristea, J Twisk
: Aims The standardised mean difference (SMD) is one of the most used effect sizes to indicate the effects of treatments. It indicates the difference between a treatment and comparison group after treatment has ended, in terms of standard deviations. Some meta-analyses, including several highly cited and influential ones, use the pre-post SMD, indicating the difference between baseline and post-test within one (treatment group). METHODS: In this paper, we argue that these pre-post SMDs should be avoided in meta-analyses and we describe the arguments why pre-post SMDs can result in biased outcomes...
October 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790967/the-sleeper-effect-between-psychotherapy-orientations-a-strategic-argument-of-sustainability-of-treatment-effects-at-follow-up
#15
C Flückiger, A C Del Re
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784343/patterns-of-association-of-chronic-medical-conditions-and-major-depression
#16
S B Patten, J V A Williams, D H Lavorato, J L Wang, N Jetté, T T Sajobi, K M Fiest, A G M Bulloch
AIMS: Age and sex-related patterns of association between medical conditions and major depressive episodes (MDE) are important for understanding disease burden, anticipating clinical needs and for formulating etiological hypotheses. General population estimates are especially valuable because they are not distorted by help-seeking behaviours. However, even large population surveys often deliver inadequate precision to adequately describe such patterns. In this study, data from a set of national surveys were pooled to increase precision, supporting more precise characterisation of these associations...
October 27, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780495/information-for-mental-health-systems-an-instrument-for-policy-making-and-system-service-quality
#17
A Lora, A Lesage, S Pathare, I Levav
AIMS: Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763251/factors-associated-with-use-of-psychiatric-intensive-care-and-seclusion-in-adult-inpatient-mental-health-services
#18
A E Cullen, L Bowers, M Khondoker, S Pettit, E Achilla, L Koeser, L Moylan, J Baker, A Quirk, F Sethi, D Stewart, P McCrone, A D Tulloch
AIMS: Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758726/policies-guideline-implementation-and-practice-change-how-can-the-process-be-understood
#19
T Becker, R Kilian, M Kösters
Politics and policy: It is important to understand why, in the translational continuum from pilot research and randomised controlled efficacy trials to roll-out programmes and routine effectiveness studies, some service innovations are taken up by health service purchasers and providers, while others are not. Why do some innovative interventions or models of care get to the stage of implementation, while others fail to be funded?
October 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748234/time-to-focus-on-institutional-reforms-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
S Chatterjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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