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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413998/optimising-treatment-strategies-for-adhd-in-adolescence-to-minimise-lost-in-transition-to-adulthood
#1
J K Buitelaar
The persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from adolescence to adulthood is not matched by continuity of care in this transition period. Many adolescents with ADHD have poor medication adherence or even stop medication treatment, and use of behavioural interventions is also suboptimal. The present commentary focuses on treatment strategies that might improve effects of ADHD medication treatment by improving adherence in adolescents with ADHD and/or optimise behavioural interventions for ADHD in adolescence...
April 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399952/reducing-the-treatment-gap-for-mental-neurological-and-substance-use-disorders-in-africa-lessons-from-the-friendship-bench-in-zimbabwe
#2
D Chibanda
Mental, neurological and substance use disorders (MNS) are a leading cause of disability in Africa. In response to the large treatment gap for MNS, a growing body of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) is emerging from Africa; however, there is a dearth of knowledge on how to scale up EBT. The Friendship Bench intervention is a brief psychological treatment delivered through the primary health care system in Zimbabwe by trained lay health workers. It has contributed significantly towards narrowing the treatment gap for common mental disorders in Zimbabwe where it has been scaled up to over 70 primary health care facilities...
April 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397648/digging-deeper-population-level-racial-disparities-exposure-to-police-victimisation-and-psychological-trauma
#3
C T Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390448/taking-an-intersectional-approach-to-define-latent-classes-of-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-and-migration-status-for-psychiatric-epidemiological-research
#4
L Goodwin, B Gazard, L Aschan, S MacCrimmon, M Hotopf, S L Hatch
AIMS: Inequalities in mental health are well documented using individual social statuses such as socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity and migration status. However, few studies have taken an intersectional approach to investigate inequalities in mental health using latent class analysis (LCA). This study will examine the association between multiple indicator classes of social identity with common mental disorder (CMD). METHODS: Data on CMD symptoms were assessed in a diverse inner London sample of 1052 participants in the second wave of the South East London Community Health study...
April 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367775/mental-health-service-use-depression-panic-disorder-and-life-events-among-swedish-young-adults-in-2000-and-2010-a-repeated-cross-sectional-population-study-in-stockholm-county-sweden
#5
A Lundin, Y Forsell, C Dalman
AIMS: The use of specialised psychiatric services for depression and anxiety has increased steadily among young people in Sweden during recent years. It is not known to what extent this service use is due to an increase in psychiatric morbidity, or whether other adversities explain these trends. The aim of this study is to examine if there is increased use of psychiatric services among young adults in Sweden between 2000 and 2010, and if so, to what extent this increase is associated with differences in depression, anxiety and negative life events...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367774/the-singaporean-public-beliefs-about-the-causes-of-mental-illness-results-from-a-multi-ethnic-population-based-study
#6
S Pang, M Subramaniam, S P Lee, Y W Lau, E Abdin, B Y Chua, L Picco, J A Vaingankar, S A Chong
AIMS: To identify the common causal beliefs of mental illness in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian community and describe the sociodemographic associations to said beliefs. The factor structure to the causal beliefs scale is explored. The causal beliefs relating to five different mental illnesses (alcohol abuse, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), dementia and schizophrenia) and desire for social distance are also investigated. METHODS: Data from 3006 participants from a nationwide vignette-based study on mental health literacy were analysed using factor analysis and multiple logistic regression to address the aims...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367772/does-living-in-remote-australia-lessen-the-impact-of-hardship-on-psychological-distress
#7
P Butterworth, B J Kelly, T E Handley, K J Inder, T J Lewin
AIMS: Rural and remote regions tend to be characterised by poorer socioeconomic conditions than urban areas, yet findings regarding differences in mental health between rural and urban areas have been inconsistent. This suggests that other features of these areas may reduce the impact of hardship on mental health. Little research has explored the relationship of financial hardship or deprivation with mental health across geographical areas. METHODS: Data were analysed from a large longitudinal Australian study of the mental health of individuals living in regional and remote communities...
April 3, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357967/in-patient-suicide-in-psychiatry-an-indian-experience
#8
A Dahale, L Sherine, S K Chaturvedi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343462/exploring-the-neuroanatomical-bases-of-psychotic-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
E Maggioni, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally conceptualised as one diagnostic entity, the heterogeneity of pathophysiological manifestations in BD suggests the need to classify the subtypes of the illness based on neural markers. Specifically, the presence of psychotic symptoms seems to be relevant for the clinical outcome and may have specific neuroanatomical bases. The main objective of the present review was to assess whether the distinction between psychotic BD (PBD) and non-psychotic BD (NPBD) can improve the identification of the neurobiological markers of this complex illness...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287062/mental-health-service-availability-and-delivery-at-the-global-level-an-analysis-by-countries-income-level-from-who-s-mental-health-atlas-2014
#10
A Lora, F Hanna, D Chisholm
AIMS: The World Health Organization (WHO)'s Mental Health Atlas series has established itself as the single most comprehensive and most widely used source of information on the global mental health situation. The data derived from the latest Mental Health Atlas survey carried out in 2014 describes the availability and delivery of mental health services in the WHO's Member States, focussing on differences by country's income level. METHODS: The data contained in this paper are mainly derived from questions relating to mental health service availability and uptake, as well as on financial and human resources for mental health...
March 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274298/treatment-decision-making-capacity-in-non-consensual-psychiatric-treatment-a-multicentre-study
#11
G Mandarelli, F Carabellese, G Parmigiani, F Bernardini, L Pauselli, R Quartesan, R Catanesi, S Ferracuti
AIMS: To evaluate treatment decision-making capacity (DMC) to consent to psychiatric treatment in involuntarily committed patients and to further investigate possible associations with clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients. METHODS: 131 involuntarily hospitalised patients were recruited in three university hospitals. Mental capacity to consent to treatment was measured with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T); psychiatric symptoms severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS-E) and cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE) were also assessed...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228177/psychiatric-diagnoses-in-older-people-with-intellectual-disability-in-comparison-with-the-general-population-a-register-study
#12
A Axmon, P Björne, L Nylander, G Ahlström
AIMS: To describe the occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses in a specialist care setting in older people with intellectual disability (ID) in relation to those found in the same age group in the general population. METHOD: A cohort of people with ID (n = 7936), aged 55 years or more in 2012, was identified, as was an age and sex-matched cohort from the general population (n = 7936). Information regarding psychiatric diagnoses during 2002-2012 was collected from the National Patient Register, which contains records from all inpatient care episodes and outpatient specialist visits in Sweden...
February 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202092/every-effect-size-has-its-place-a-commentary-on-the-avoidance-of-pre-post-effect-sizes
#13
M Kösters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202089/suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-among-community-and-health-care-seeking-populations-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
M Jordans, S Rathod, A Fekadu, G Medhin, F Kigozi, B Kohrt, N Luitel, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, V Patel, C Lund
Aims Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196546/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-depression-and-depression-related-healthcare-access-in-mothers-of-9-month-old-infants-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#15
S M Cruise, R Layte, M Stevenson, D O'Reilly
AIMS: Untreated maternal depression during the postpartum period can have a profound impact on the short- and long-term psychological and physical well-being of children. There is, therefore, an imperative for increased understanding of the determinants of depression and depression-related healthcare access during this period. METHODS: Respondents were 11 089 mothers of 9-month-old infants recruited to the Growing Up in Ireland study. Of this sample, 10 827 had complete data on all relevant variables...
February 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190411/hysterectomy-and-incidence-of-depressive-symptoms-in-midlife-women-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#16
L Wilson, N Pandeya, J Byles, G Mishra
AIMS: There is limited longitudinal research that has looked at the longer term incidence of depressive symptoms, comparing women with a hysterectomy to women without a hysterectomy. We aimed to investigate the association between hysterectomy status and the 12-year incidence of depressive symptoms in a mid-aged cohort of Australian women, and whether these relationships were modified by use of exogenous hormones. METHODS: We used generalised estimating equation models for binary outcome data to assess the associations of the incidence of depressive symptoms (measured by the 10-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) across five surveys over a 12-year period, in women with a hysterectomy with ovarian conservation, or a hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy compared with women without a hysterectomy...
February 13, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183368/prognostic-significance-of-social-network-social-support-and-loneliness-for-course-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-adulthood-and-old-age
#17
R H S van den Brink, N Schutter, D J C Hanssen, B M Elzinga, I M Rabeling-Keus, M L Stek, H C Comijs, B W J H Penninx, R C Oude Voshaar
AIMS: Poor recovery from depressive disorder has been shown to be related to low perceived social support and loneliness, but not to social network size or frequency of social interactions. Some studies suggest that the significance of social relationships for depression course may be greater in younger than in older patients, and may differ between men and women. None of the studies examined to what extent the different aspects of social relationships have unique or overlapping predictive values for depression course...
February 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162125/mental-health-innovations-in-africa-lessons-from-ethiopia-and-zimbabwe
#18
C Lund
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290273/from-the-ebm-pyramid-to-the-greek-temple-a-new-conceptual-approach-to-guidelines-as-implementation-tools-in-mental-health
#19
L Salvador-Carulla, S Lukersmith, W Sullivan
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103961/a-review-of-altered-biochemistry-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-first-episode-psychosis
#20
L Squarcina, J A Stanley, M Bellani, C A Altamura, P Brambilla
Relevant biochemicals of the brain can be quantified in vivo, non-invasively, using proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (¹H MRS). This includes metabolites associated with neural general functioning, energetics, membrane phospholipid metabolism and neurotransmission. Moreover, there is substantial evidence of implication of the frontal and prefrontal areas in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in cognitive control of emotional and non-emotional processes...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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