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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

Sinan Guloksuz, Jim van Os
There had been a long way to go before we felt comfortable about even discussing the issues revolving around the concept of 'schizophrenia', let alone reckoning on mere semantic revision. In this editorial, we aim to extend our discussion on the reasons behind the slow death of the concept of 'schizophrenia' and the benefits of changing the name and embracing a spectrum approach with an umbrella psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) category (similar to autism spectrum disorder) that goes further than a mere semantic revision...
October 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G Cetrano, L Salvador-Carulla, F Tedeschi, L Rabbi, M R Gutiérrez-Colosía, J L Gonzalez-Caballero, A-L Park, D McDaid, R Sfetcu, J Kalseth, B Kalseth, Ø Hope, M Brunn, K Chevreul, C Straßmayr, G Hagmair, K Wahlbeck, F Amaddeo
AimsAlthough many mental health care systems provide care interventions that are not related to direct health care, little is known about the interfaces between the latter and core health care. 'Core health care' refers to services whose explicit aim is direct clinical treatment which is usually provided by health professionals, i.e., physicians, nurses, psychologists. 'Other care' is typically provided by other staff and includes accommodation, training, promotion of independence, employment support and social skills...
October 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
U Hegerl, I Heinz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A G Nevarez-Flores, K Sanderson, M Breslin, V J Carr, V A Morgan, A L Neil
AimsPeople with psychotic disorders face impairments in their global functioning and their quality of life (QoL). The relationship between the two outcomes has not been systematically investigated. Through a systematic review, we aim to explore the presence and extent of associations between global functioning and QoL and establish whether associations depend on the instruments employed. METHODS: In May 2016, ten electronic databases were searched using a two-phase process to identify articles in which associations between global functioning and QoL were assessed...
October 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
C Perlini, M Bellani, B Besteher, I Nenadić, P Brambilla
Hostility and related dimensions like anger, urgency, impulsivity and aggressiveness have been described in non-clinical populations and various serious mental illnesses including schizophrenia. Although representing a mental healthcare challenge, the investigation of such constructs is often limited by the presence of complex and multi-factorial causes and lack of agreement in their conceptualisation and measurement. In this review, we aim to clarify the anatomical basis of hostility-related dimensions in schizophrenia...
September 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
J Dykxhoorn, J B Kirkbride
Understanding the excess risk of psychotic disorders in migrant and ethnic minority groups has long been an important research focus in psychiatric epidemiology and public mental health. Heterogeneity between migrant groups based on the region of origin, minority status and other socioeconomic factors may provide clues as to the underlying aetiological mechanisms explaining this risk, as well as informing our general understanding of psychotic disorders. Nonetheless, disentangling the mechanisms underlying this association has been the focus of more speculation and theory to date than empirical research...
September 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S L Griffiths, S J Wood, M Birchwood
Psychosocial disability affects a number of individuals with psychosis and often begins years before the formal onset of disorder. This suggests that for many, their psychosocial disability is enduring, and targeted interventions are therefore needed earlier in their developmental trajectories to ensure that psychosocial disability does not become entrenched. Poor psychosocial functioning also affects individuals with a range of different emerging mental health problems, putting these young people at risk of long-term social marginalisation and economic disadvantage; all of which are known risk factors for the development of psychosis...
September 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
W Gaebel, A Kerst
The concept and name of schizophrenia have been questioned in the scientific community and among various stakeholders. A name change is seen as a means and an opportunity to reduce stigmatizing beliefs and to improve mental health care. Some Asian countries have already taken the step of a name change. So far, however, the scientific community of western countries has not yet come to an agreement on any alternative name. Meeting relevant criteria for a new name, finding agreement among all involved groups and replacing the established term is a complex process...
September 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Gruber, T Rumpold, B Schrank, I Sibitz, B Otzelberger, R Jahn, M Amering, A Unger
AimsThe way an individual handles the experience of psychosis, the so-called 'recovery style', has been shown to substantially affect long-term outcomes. The Recovery Style Questionnaire (RSQ) measures this psychological dimension. The aim of this study was to provide a validation of the German version of the RSQ and to raise awareness for recovery-oriented approaches. METHODS: The RSQ was translated into German according to the guidelines of the WHO and patients were administered this questionnaire and measures of internalised stigma, psychotic symptoms, illness concept, empowerment, self-esteem and quality of life...
September 11, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
V Bhavsar, K Dean, S L Hatch, J H MacCabe, M Hotopf
AimsAlthough violence is a vital public health problem, no prospective studies have tested for subsequent vulnerability to violence, as a victim or witness, in members of the general population with a range of psychiatric symptoms, or evaluated the importance of higher symptom burden on this vulnerability. METHODS: We used successive waves of a household survey of Southeast London, taken 2 years apart, to test if association exists between psychiatric symptoms (symptoms of psychosis, common mental disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and personality disorder) and later victimisation, in the form of either witnessing violence or being physically victimised, in weighted logistic regression models...
September 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A Narzisi, M Posada, F Barbieri, N Chericoni, D Ciuffolini, M Pinzino, R Romano, M L Scattoni, R Tancredi, S Calderoni, F Muratori
AimsThis study aims to estimate Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) prevalence in school-aged children in the province of Pisa (Italy) using the strategy of the ASD in the European Union (ASDEU) project. METHODS: A multistage approach was used to identify cases in a community sample (N = 10 138) of 7-9-year-old children attending elementary schools in Pisa - Italy. First, the number of children with a disability certificate was collected from the Local Health Authority and an ASD diagnosis was verified by the ASDEU team...
September 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
E Heim, B A Kohrt, M Koschorke, M Milenova, G Thronicroft
AimsThis systematic review compiled evidence on interventions to reduce mental health-related stigma in primary health care (PHC) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Studies targeting PHC staff (including non-professionals) were included. Primary outcomes were stigmatising attitudes and discriminatory behaviours. METHODS: Data collection included two strategies. First, previous systematic reviews were searched for studies that met the inclusion criteria of the current review...
September 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S Diminic, E Hielscher, M G Harris, Y Y Lee, J Kealton, H A Whiteford
AimsPlanning mental health carer services requires information about the number of carers, their characteristics, service use and unmet support needs. Available Australian estimates vary widely due to different definitions of mental illness and the types of carers included. This study aimed to provide a detailed profile of Australian mental health carers using a nationally representative household survey. METHODS: The number of mental health carers, characteristics of carers and their care recipients, caring hours and tasks provided, service use and unmet service needs were derived from the national 2012 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers...
August 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
E Yoshioka, S J B Hanley, Y Saijo
AimsA reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas and car exhaust gas has been associated with a decrease in gassing suicides in many western countries. In Japan, a reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas supply began in the early 1970s, and carbon monoxide emissions standards of new passenger cars were significantly strengthened in 1978. However, little is known about the impact of detoxification of these gases on gassing-related suicides in Japan. Therefore, we examined the changing patterns of suicide due to domestic gas or car exhaust gas inhalation by gender and age in Japan between 1968 and 1994...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A Stickley, C F S Ng, C Watanabe, Y Inoue, A Koyanagi, S Konishi
AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
E G Karam, G E Karam, C Farhat, L Itani, J Fayyad, A N Karam, Z Mneimneh, R Kessler, G Thornicroft
AimsTo investigate for the first time the determinants and barriers of seeking help for mental disorders in the Arab world based on a national study: Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation (L.E.B.A.N.O.N). METHODS: A nationally representative (n = 2857) and multistage clustered area probability household sample of adults ≥18 years and older was assessed for lifetime and 12 months mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In addition, detailed information was obtained on help- seeking behaviour and barriers to treatment...
August 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
A Antunes, D Frasquilho, S Azeredo-Lopes, M Silva, G Cardoso, J M Caldas-de-Almeida
AimsPortugal was one of the European countries most affected by the period of economic recession initiated in 2008. Social inequalities are likely to widen during such periods and disproportionately affect people with mental disorders. The present study aims to compare self-reported changes in indicators of socioeconomic position during the economic recession in Portugal among people with and without mental disorders in the beginning of this period. Three dimensions were assessed, namely employment situation, experiences of financial hardship and subjective social status...
August 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Dey, R Paz Castro, S Haug, M P Schaub
AimsTo examine the quality of life (QOL) of parents of children with a specific mental disorder (any age). METHODS: Relevant articles were searched using different databases. Articles were included that compared the QOL of parents with mentally-ill children to parents of healthy controls or norm values or provided the required data for this comparison. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain an overall mean effect size estimate. Additional analyses were performed to assess publication bias and moderation...
August 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
H Killaspy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
C Barbui, G Ostuzzi
In individuals with coronary artery disease and concurrent depressive symptomatology, the evidence on the beneficial and harmful effects of antidepressants is very limited. Recently, a study was carried out to describe depressive symptoms and the treatments provided under real-world circumstances to cardiac patients who entered the Mayo Clinic cardiac rehabilitation program. Antidepressant use was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, but also with poorer cardiovascular outcomes. In this commentary, the results of this study are discussed in view of their clinical implications for everyday clinical practice and for the production of knowledge...
July 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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