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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

C Harvey, J Lewis, J Farhall
AIMS: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based psychosocial interventions (EBPIs) to improve consumer recovery; however, availability appears limited. We describe receipt of six EBPIs, reported by people with psychoses, and associations with service and consumer characteristics, including indicators of need (eligibility) and benefit (suitability). METHODS: Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year...
June 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
V N Mutiso, K Pike, C W Musyimi, T J Rebello, A Tele, I Gitonga, G Thornicroft, D M Ndetei
AimsStigma can have a negative impact on help-seeking behaviour, treatment adherence and recovery of people with mental disorders. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the WHO Mental Health Treatment Gap Interventions Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) to reduce stigma in face-to-face contacts during interventions for specific DSM-IV/ICD 10 diagnoses over a 6-month period. METHODS: This study was conducted in 20 health facilities across Makueni County in southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in the country and has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist...
June 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
H Verdoux
The risks associated with psychotropic drugs use should be accurately documented at the population level in view of the growing number of persons exposed to these drugs. The strengths of observational studies regarding the identification of drug-related harms mirror the limitations of randomised controlled trials and vice-versa. Observational studies can be carried out in large samples of unselected participants treated in real-life conditions and who may be followed up over long periods. Serious adverse effects undetected during pre-marketing clinical trials may be observed only in post-marketing use, such as metabolic effects of second-generation antipsychotics...
May 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
J Moncrieff
A recent meta-analysis of antidepressant trials is the largest conducted to date. Although it claims to prove antidepressant effectiveness beyond dispute, the main outcome is response rates, which are derived from continuous data in a process that can inflate differences between groups. The standardised mean difference of 0.3 is in line with other meta-analyses that show small differences between antidepressants and placebo that are unlikely to be clinically significant. Other factors likely to exaggerate the effects are discussed, and evidence on associations between antidepressant effects and severity and outcomes of long-term treatment is considered...
May 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Y Okumura, M Usami, T Okada, T Saito, H Negoro, N Tsujii, J Fujita, J Iida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G M Mandolini, M Lazzaretti, A Pigoni, L Oldani, G Delvecchio, P Brambilla
Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms. Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders...
May 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
P L de Zwart, B F Jeronimus, P de Jonge
AIMS: For the past quarter of a century, Frank et al.'s (1991) consensus-based definitions of major depressive disorder (MDD) episode, remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence have been the paramount driving forces for consistency in MDD research as well as in clinical practice. This study aims to review the evidence for the empirical validation of Frank et al.'s proposed concept definitions and to discuss evidence-based modifications. METHODS: A literature search of Web of Science and PubMed from 1/1/1991 to 08/30/2017 identified all publications which referenced Frank et al...
May 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
C Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
J Gervaix, G Haour, M Michel, K Chevreul
AIMS: People with a mental illness have a shorter lifespan and higher rates of somatic illnesses than the general population. They also face multiple barriers which interfere with access to healthcare. Our objective was to assess the effect of mental illness on the timeliness and optimality of access to healthcare for somatic reasons by comparing indicators reflecting the quality of prior somatic care in hospitalised patients. METHODS: An observational nation-wide study was carried out using exhaustive national hospital discharge databases for the years 2009-2013...
April 25, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
L Vizzini, M Popovic, D Zugna, B Vitiello, M Trevisan, C Pizzi, F Rusconi, L Gagliardi, F Merletti, L Richiardi
AIMS: Maternal mental disorders have been associated with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Within the context of a mother-child cohort, we examined whether maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with pre-school ADHD symptoms. METHODS: The study included 3634 singletons from the Italian NINFEA (Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell'Ambiente') cohort. Maternal doctor-diagnosed anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy were assessed from the questionnaires completed during pregnancy and 6 months after delivery...
April 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Y van der Steen, I Myin-Germeys, M van Nierop, M Ten Have, R de Graaf, S van Dorsselaer, J van Os, R van Winkel
AIMS: Self-reported psychotic experiences (SRPE) by individuals from the general population are often unconfirmed by clinical interview and referred to as 'false-positive' (FP) SRPE. FP SRPE have been suggested to represent the mildest form of risk along the extended psychosis continuum. However, little is known about their (clinical) outcome and evolution over time. Aims of this study were to prospectively examine, in individuals with FP SRPE, (1) the prevalence of remission, persistence and transition to validated PE at 3-year follow-up; (2) potential baseline psychopathological and psychosocial predictors of persistence of FP SRPE and transition to validated PE; and (3) whether those with persistent FP SRPE and validated PE already differed on psychopathology and psychosocial factors at baseline...
April 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
G S Moran
Self-help peer-support groups in Israel emerged in the 1980s and, over time, dynamically interacted and co-developed with the statutory mental health (MH) system. In this editorial, I outline historical milestones of how the evolution of the Israeli mental health system was influenced by the consumer movement. A brief depiction of the consumer movement history. At first, consumers operated outside of the mainstream MH system. Gradually, consumer groups and institutional personnel joined efforts towards community integration and enhancement of quality of life, pushing forward a person-centered recovery orientation...
April 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
B Puschner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M F Bell, D M Bayliss, R Glauert, A Harrison, J L Ohan
AIMS: Children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at risk of poor outcomes. However, there is limited evidence regarding the relationship between parental psychiatric disorders and child school readiness, which is linked to later academic achievement. This study aims to investigate these relationships and broaden the evidence underlying the rationale for family-focused interventions for parental psychiatric disorders. METHOD: This study used linked administrative data...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
C-Y Hsu, S-S Chang, P S F Yip
AIMS: There has recently been an increased interest in mental health indicators for the monitoring of population wellbeing, which is among the targets of Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations. Levels of subjective wellbeing and suicide rates have been proposed as indicators of population mental health, but prior research is limited. METHODS: Data on individual happiness and life satisfaction were sourced from a population-based survey in Hong Kong (2011)...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Plöderl, M P Hengartner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
S Pathare, J Kalha, S Krishnamoorthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
O Gureje
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
D Papola, C Gastaldon, G Ostuzzi
A substantial proportion of people with mental health conditions do not adhere to prescribed pharmacological treatments. Poor adherence is probably one of the most critical elements contributing to relapse in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. In order to tackle this global issue, in November 2017 the Food and Drug Administration approved a tablet formulation of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole embedded with a novel digital adherence-assessment device. In this commentary, we critically appraised the potential beneficial and harmful consequences of this new digital formulation of aripiprazole, and we highlighted expected implications for clinical practice...
June 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
M Bonesteel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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