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Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103839/time-trends-in-suicide-rates-by-domestic-gas-or-car-exhaust-gas-inhalation-in-japan-1968-1994
#1
E Yoshioka, S J B Hanley, Y Saijo
AimsA reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas and car exhaust gas has been associated with a decrease in gassing suicides in many western countries. In Japan, a reduction in the carbon monoxide content of domestic gas supply began in the early 1970s, and carbon monoxide emissions standards of new passenger cars were significantly strengthened in 1978. However, little is known about the impact of detoxification of these gases on gassing-related suicides in Japan. Therefore, we examined the changing patterns of suicide due to domestic gas or car exhaust gas inhalation by gender and age in Japan between 1968 and 1994...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103836/general-thoughts-of-death-and-mortality-findings-from-the-komo-ise-cohort-japan
#2
A Stickley, C F S Ng, C Watanabe, Y Inoue, A Koyanagi, S Konishi
AimsDeath ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults. METHODS: Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61...
August 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101735/determinants-of-treatment-of-mental-disorders-in-lebanon-barriers-to-treatment-and-changing-patterns-of-service-use
#3
E G Karam, G E Karam, C Farhat, L Itani, J Fayyad, A N Karam, Z Mneimneh, R Kessler, G Thornicroft
AimsTo investigate for the first time the determinants and barriers of seeking help for mental disorders in the Arab world based on a national study: Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation (L.E.B.A.N.O.N). METHODS: A nationally representative (n = 2857) and multistage clustered area probability household sample of adults ≥18 years and older was assessed for lifetime and 12 months mental disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In addition, detailed information was obtained on help- seeking behaviour and barriers to treatment...
August 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078385/changes-in-socioeconomic-position-among-individuals-with-mental-disorders-during-the-economic-recession-in-portugal-a-follow-up-of-the-national-mental-health-survey
#4
A Antunes, D Frasquilho, S Azeredo-Lopes, M Silva, G Cardoso, J M Caldas-de-Almeida
AimsPortugal was one of the European countries most affected by the period of economic recession initiated in 2008. Social inequalities are likely to widen during such periods and disproportionately affect people with mental disorders. The present study aims to compare self-reported changes in indicators of socioeconomic position during the economic recession in Portugal among people with and without mental disorders in the beginning of this period. Three dimensions were assessed, namely employment situation, experiences of financial hardship and subjective social status...
August 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078381/quality-of-life-of-parents-of-mentally-ill-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
M Dey, R Paz Castro, S Haug, M P Schaub
AimsTo examine the quality of life (QOL) of parents of children with a specific mental disorder (any age). METHODS: Relevant articles were searched using different databases. Articles were included that compared the QOL of parents with mentally-ill children to parents of healthy controls or norm values or provided the required data for this comparison. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain an overall mean effect size estimate. Additional analyses were performed to assess publication bias and moderation...
August 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060768/contemporary-mental-health-rehabilitation
#6
H Killaspy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058526/medicine-based-evidence-the-case-of-antidepressants-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#7
C Barbui, G Ostuzzi
In individuals with coronary artery disease and concurrent depressive symptomatology, the evidence on the beneficial and harmful effects of antidepressants is very limited. Recently, a study was carried out to describe depressive symptoms and the treatments provided under real-world circumstances to cardiac patients who entered the Mayo Clinic cardiac rehabilitation program. Antidepressant use was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, but also with poorer cardiovascular outcomes. In this commentary, the results of this study are discussed in view of their clinical implications for everyday clinical practice and for the production of knowledge...
July 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058524/is-psychotherapy-effective-a-re-analysis-of-treatments-for-depression
#8
T Munder, C Flückiger, F Leichsenring, A A Abbass, M J Hilsenroth, P Luyten, S Rabung, C Steinert, B E Wampold
AimsThe aim of this study was to reanalyse the data from Cuijpers et al.'s (2018) meta-analysis, to examine Eysenck's claim that psychotherapy is not effective. Cuijpers et al., after correcting for bias, concluded that the effect of psychotherapy for depression was small (standardised mean difference, SMD, between 0.20 and 0.30), providing evidence that psychotherapy is not as effective as generally accepted. METHODS: The data for this study were the effect sizes included in Cuijpers et al...
July 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058510/sleep-duration-and-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
H A García-Perdomo, J Zapata-Copete, C A Rojas-Cerón
AimsTo determine the association between the sleep duration and the risk of all-cause mortality in adults. METHODS: A search strategy was conducted in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS databases. Searches were also conducted in other databases and unpublished literature. Cohort studies were included without language, time or setting restrictions. The risk of bias was evaluated with a modified Cochrane Collaboration's tool. An analysis of random effects was conducted. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality...
July 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043719/contemporary-approaches-in-mental-health-rehabilitation
#10
L van der Meer, C Wunderink
In many European countries, deinstitutionalisation has been an ongoing process over the last few decades. Mental health organisations were transformed to provide support in a more integrated and comprehensive manner, preferably in their own homes in the community. Yet, despite the welcome aspiration of community integration for all, people with complex mental health problems (also termed severe mental illness) have continued to require high levels of support, in inpatient settings and in the community. This group's needs make them highly dependent on their caregivers...
July 25, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037354/trauma-flying-saucers-and-the-art-of-ionel-talpazan
#11
D Wojcik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033889/treatment-seeking-differences-for-mental-health-problems-in-male-and-non-male-dominated-occupations-evidence-from-the-hilda-cohort
#12
A Milner, A J Scovelle, T King
BACKGROUND: There is a well-established gender divide among people who do and do not seek professional help from mental health professionals. Females are typically more likely to report, and seek help for, mental health problems. The current paper sought to examine the role of employment context on help-seeking for mental health issues. We hypothesised that men and women in male-dominated occupations would be less likely to seek help than those in non-male-dominated occupations. METHODS: Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey were used...
July 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012237/social-care-an-essential-aspect-of-mental-health-rehabilitation-services
#13
T J Craig
This study is aimed at the importance of social care in rehabilitation. A brief overview of the social care theme is used as the methodology. There is a tension in mental health care between biological and psychological treatments that focus on deficits at the individual level (symptoms, disabilities) and social interventions that try to address local inequalities and barriers in order to improve access for service users to ordinary housing, employment and leisure opportunities. The history of mental health care tells us that social care is often underfunded and too easily dismissed as not the business of health care...
July 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008278/the-role-of-meta-analyses-and-umbrella-reviews-in-assessing-the-harms-of-psychotropic-medications-beyond-qualitative-synthesis
#14
M Solmi, C U Correll, A F Carvalho, J P A Ioannidis
ὠφελέειν, ἢ μὴ βλάπτειν (Primum non nocere) - Hιppocrates' principle should still guide daily medical prescribing. Therefore, assessing evidence of psychopharmacologic agents' safety and harms is essential. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies may provide complementary information about harms of psychopharmacologic medications from both experimental and real-world settings. It is considered that RCTs provide a better control of confounding variables, while observational studies provide evidence from larger samples, longer follow-ups, in more representative samples, which may be more reflective of real-life clinical scenarios...
July 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001764/safety-of-psychotropic-medicines-looking-beyond-randomised-evidence
#15
C Barbui, S B Patten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893656/receipt-and-targeting-of-evidence-based-psychosocial-interventions-for-people-living-with-psychoses-findings-from-the-second-australian-national-survey-of-psychosis
#16
C Harvey, J Lewis, J Farhall
AIMS: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based psychosocial interventions (EBPIs) to improve consumer recovery; however, availability appears limited. We describe receipt of six EBPIs, reported by people with psychoses, and associations with service and consumer characteristics, including indicators of need (eligibility) and benefit (suitability). METHODS: Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year...
June 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862937/feasibility-of-who-mhgap-intervention-guide-in-reducing-experienced-discrimination-in-people-with-mental-disorders-a-pilot-study-in-a-rural-kenyan-setting
#17
V N Mutiso, K Pike, C W Musyimi, T J Rebello, A Tele, I Gitonga, G Thornicroft, D M Ndetei
AimsStigma can have a negative impact on help-seeking behaviour, treatment adherence and recovery of people with mental disorders. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the WHO Mental Health Treatment Gap Interventions Guidelines (mhGAP-IG) to reduce stigma in face-to-face contacts during interventions for specific DSM-IV/ICD 10 diagnoses over a 6-month period. METHODS: This study was conducted in 20 health facilities across Makueni County in southeast Kenya which has one of the poorest economies in the country and has no psychiatrist or clinical psychologist...
June 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843842/safety-of-psychotropic-medicines-contribution-from-observational-evidence
#18
H Verdoux
The risks associated with psychotropic drugs use should be accurately documented at the population level in view of the growing number of persons exposed to these drugs. The strengths of observational studies regarding the identification of drug-related harms mirror the limitations of randomised controlled trials and vice-versa. Observational studies can be carried out in large samples of unselected participants treated in real-life conditions and who may be followed up over long periods. Serious adverse effects undetected during pre-marketing clinical trials may be observed only in post-marketing use, such as metabolic effects of second-generation antipsychotics...
May 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804550/what-does-the-latest-meta-analysis-really-tell-us-about-antidepressants
#19
J Moncrieff
A recent meta-analysis of antidepressant trials is the largest conducted to date. Although it claims to prove antidepressant effectiveness beyond dispute, the main outcome is response rates, which are derived from continuous data in a process that can inflate differences between groups. The standardised mean difference of 0.3 is in line with other meta-analyses that show small differences between antidepressants and placebo that are unlikely to be clinically significant. Other factors likely to exaggerate the effects are discussed, and evidence on associations between antidepressant effects and severity and outcomes of long-term treatment is considered...
May 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804548/prevalence-incidence-and-persistence-of-adhd-drug-use-in-japan
#20
Y Okumura, M Usami, T Okada, T Saito, H Negoro, N Tsujii, J Fujita, J Iida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
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