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Frontiers in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096804/divide-conquer-and-sense-cd8-cd28-t-cells-in-perspective
#1
Fernando A Arosa, André J Esgalhado, Carolina A Padrão, Elsa M Cardoso
Understanding the rationale for the generation of a pool of highly differentiated effector memory CD8(+) T cells displaying a weakened capacity to scrutinize for peptides complexed with major histocompatibility class I molecules via their T cell receptor, lacking the "signal 2" CD28 receptor, and yet expressing a highly diverse array of innate receptors, from natural killer receptors, interleukin receptors, and damage-associated molecular pattern receptors, among others, is one of the most challenging issues in contemporary human immunology...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096803/host-and-viral-modulation-of-rig-i-mediated-antiviral-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Yiliu Liu, David Olagnier, Rongtuan Lin
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Rapid and efficient detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns via pattern-recognition receptors is essential for the host to mount defensive and protective responses. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is critical in triggering antiviral and inflammatory responses for the control of viral replication in response to cytoplasmic virus-specific RNA structures. Upon viral RNA recognition, RIG-I recruits the mitochondrial adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, which leads to a signaling cascade that coordinates the induction of type I interferons (IFNs), as well as a large variety of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096802/a-regulatory-mirna-mrna-network-is-associated-with-tissue-repair-induced-by-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-acute-kidney-injury
#3
Danilo Candido de Almeida, Ênio Jose Bassi, Hatylas Azevedo, Letícia Anderson, Clarice Silvia Taemi Origassa, Marcos Antônio Cenedeze, Vinicius de Andrade-Oliveira, Raphael José Ferreira Felizardo, Reinaldo Correia da Silva, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Patricia Semedo, Marlene Antônia Dos Reis, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Álvaro Pacheco-Silva, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) orchestrate tissue repair by releasing cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), which, presumably by small RNA species, modulate global gene expression. The knowledge of miRNA/mRNA signatures linked to a reparative status may elucidate some of the molecular events associated with MSC protection. Here, we used a model of cisplatin-induced kidney injury (acute kidney injury) to assess how MSCs or MVs could restore tissue function. MSCs and MVs presented similar protective effects, which were evidenced in vivo and in vitro by modulating apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and a set of prosurvival molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096801/protective-effects-of-platycodin-d-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-activating-lxr%C3%AE-abca1-signaling-pathway
#4
Xiaoyu Hu, Yunhe Fu, Xiaojie Lu, Zecai Zhang, Wenlong Zhang, Yongguo Cao, Naisheng Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of platycodin D (PLD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and clarify the possible mechanism. An LPS-induced ALI model was used to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity of PLD in vivo. The A549 lung epithelial cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanism and targets of PLD in vitro. In vivo, the results showed that PLD significantly attenuated lung histopathologic changes, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096800/interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-inhibits-hantaan-virus-infection-and-its-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs12252-influences-the-severity-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#5
Zheng Xu-Yang, Bian Pei-Yu, Ye Chuan-Tao, Ye Wei, Ma Hong-Wei, Tang Kang, Zhang Chun-Mei, Lei Ying-Feng, Wei Xin, Wang Ping-Zhong, Huang Chang-Xing, Bai Xue-Fan, Zhang Ying, Jia Zhan-Sheng
Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Previous studies have identified interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) as an interferon-stimulated gene family. However, the role of IFITMs in HTNV infection is unclear. In this study, we observed that IFITM3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs12252 C allele and CC genotype associated with the disease severity and HTNV load in the plasma of HFRS patients. In vitro experiments showed that the truncated protein produced by the rs12252 C allele exhibited an impaired anti-HTNV activity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082992/cd4-t-follicular-helper-and-regulatory-cell-dynamics-and-function-in-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Brodie Miles, Shannon M Miller, Elizabeth Connick
T follicular helper cells (TFH) are a specialized subset of CD4 T cells that reside in B cell follicles and promote B cell maturation into plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. During chronic infection prior to the development of AIDS, HIV-1 (HIV) replication is largely concentrated in TFH. Paradoxically, TFH numbers are increased in early and midstages of disease, thereby promoting HIV replication and disease progression. Despite increased TFH numbers, numerous defects in humoral immunity are detected in HIV-infected individuals, including dysregulation of B cell maturation, impaired somatic hypermutation, and low quality of antibody production despite hypergammaglobulinemia...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082991/editorial-immune-cells-in-the-mucosa
#7
EDITORIAL
Pushpa Pandiyan, Ed C Lavelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082990/human-nk-cell-subsets-in-pregnancy-and-disease-toward-a-new-biological-complexity
#8
REVIEW
Costanza Maria Cristiani, Eleonora Palella, Rosa Sottile, Rossana Tallerico, Cinzia Garofalo, Ennio Carbone
In humans, NK cells are mainly identified by the surface expression levels of CD56 and CD16, which differentiate between five functionally different NK cell subsets. However, nowadays NK cells are considered as a more heterogeneous population formed by various subsets differing in function, surface phenotype, and anatomic localization. In human CMV- and hantaviruses-infected subjects, an increased frequency of a NKG2A(-)CD57(+)NKG2C(+) NK cell subset has been observed, while the phenotype of the NK cell subpopulation associated with cancer may vary according to the specific kind of tumor and its anatomical location...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082989/neuroimmune-interface-in-the-comorbidity-between-alcohol-use-disorder-and-major-depression
#9
REVIEW
Sudan Prasad Neupane
Bidirectional communication links operate between the brain and the body. Afferent immune-to-brain signals are capable of inducing changes in mood and behavior. Chronic heavy alcohol drinking, typical of alcohol use disorder (AUD), is one such factor that provokes an immune response in the periphery that, by means of circulatory cytokines and other neuroimmune mediators, ultimately causes alterations in the brain function. Alcohol can also directly impact the immune functions of microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082988/investigating-factors-associated-with-thymic-regeneration-after-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-lymphoma
#10
Dao-Ping Sun, Li Wang, Chong-Yang Ding, Jin-Hua Liang, Hua-Yuan Zhu, Yu-Jie Wu, Lei Fan, Jian-Yong Li, Wei Xu
The factors involved in thymus regeneration after chemotherapy has not been sufficiently explored. This study was aimed to identify the clinical characteristics and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene (IL7R) encoding IL-7Rα associated with thymus renewal after chemotherapy in Chinese Han individuals with lymphoma. The dynamics of thymic activity in 134 adults with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and B cell lymphoma from baseline to 12 months post-chemotherapy were analyzed by assessing thymic structural changes using serial computed tomography scans and correlating these with measurements of thymic output by concurrent analysis of single-joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and CD31(+) recent thymic emigrants (RTE) in peripheral blood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082987/editorial-hla-g-mediated-immune-tolerance-past-and-new-outlooks
#11
EDITORIAL
Silvia Gregori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082986/type-i-interferons-in-bacterial-infections-a-balancing-act
#12
REVIEW
Pavel Kovarik, Virginia Castiglia, Masa Ivin, Florian Ebner
Defense against bacterial infections requires activation of the immune response as well as timely reestablishment of tissue and immune homeostasis. Instauration of homeostasis is critical for tissue regeneration, wound healing, and host recovery. Recent studies revealed that severe infectious diseases frequently result from failures in homeostatic processes rather than from inefficient pathogen eradication. Type I interferons (IFN) appear to play a key role in such processes. Remarkably, the involvement of type I IFNs in the regulation of immune and tissue homeostasis upon bacterial insult may have beneficial or detrimental consequences for the host...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082985/local-treatment-with-lactate-prevents-intestinal-inflammation-in-the-tnbs-induced-colitis-model
#13
Carolina Iraporda, David E Romanin, Ana A Bengoa, Agustina J Errea, Delphine Cayet, Benoit Foligné, Jean-Claude Sirard, Graciela L Garrote, Analía G Abraham, Martín Rumbo
Lactate has long been considered as a metabolic by-product of cells. Recently, this view has been changed by the observation that lactate can act as a signaling molecule and regulates critical functions of the immune system. We previously identified lactate as the component responsible for the modulation of innate immune epithelial response of fermented milk supernatants in vitro. We have also shown that lactate downregulates proinflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. So far, in vivo effects of lactate on intestinal inflammation have not been reported...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082984/the-fab-fragment-of-a-human-anti-siglec-9-monoclonal-antibody-suppresses-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-human-macrophages
#14
Sasa Chu, Xuhui Zhu, Na You, Wei Zhang, Feng Zheng, Binggang Cai, Tingting Zhou, Yiwen Wang, Qiannan Sun, Zhiguo Yang, Xin Zhang, Changjun Wang, Shinan Nie, Jin Zhu, Maorong Wang
Sepsis is a major cause of death for hospitalized patients and is characterized by massive overreaction of immune responses to invading pathogens which is mediated by cytokines. For decades, there has been no effective treatment for sepsis. Sialic acid-binding, Ig-like lectin-9 (Siglec-9), is an immunomodulatory receptor expressed primarily on hematopoietic cells which is involved in various aspects of inflammatory responses and is a potential target for treatment of sepsis. The aim of the present study was to develop a human anti-Siglec-9 Fab fragment, which was named hS9-Fab03 and investigate its immune activity in human macrophages...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082983/t-cell-maturation-stage-prior-to-and-during-gmp-processing-informs-on-car-t-cell-expansion-in-patients
#15
Yarne Klaver, Sabine C L van Steenbergen, Stefan Sleijfer, Reno Debets, Cor H J Lamers
Autologous T cells were genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed toward carboxy-anhydrase-IX (CAIX) and used to treat patients with CAIX-positive metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we questioned whether the T cell maturation stage in the pre-infusion product affected CAIX CAR expression and function in vitro as well as in vivo CAR T cell numbers and expansion. During the 14 days expansion of CAR T cells prior to administration, we observed shifts from a predominant CD4 to a CD8 T cell phenotype and from a significant fraction of naïve to central effector T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082982/c1q-deficiency-and-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
Rosanne A van Schaarenburg, César Magro-Checa, Jaap A Bakker, Y K Onno Teng, Ingeborg M Bajema, Tom W Huizinga, Gerda M Steup-Beekman, Leendert A Trouw
C1q deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency, which is strongly associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A mutation in one of the C1q genes can either lead to complete deficiency or to low C1q levels with C1q polypeptide in the form of low-molecular weight (LMW) C1q. Patients with C1q deficiency mainly present with cutaneous and renal involvement. Although less frequent, neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement has also been reported in 20% of the C1q-deficient patients. This involvement appears to be absent in other deficiencies of early components of the complement classical pathway (CP) (C1r/C1s, C2, or C4 deficiencies)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082981/lymphoid-neogenesis-and-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-in-transplanted-organs
#17
REVIEW
Alice Koenig, Olivier Thaunat
The progressive organization of immune effectors into functional ectopic lymphoid structures, named tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO), has been observed in many conditions in which target antigens fail to be eliminated by the immune system. Not surprisingly, TLO have been recurrently identified in chronically rejected allografts. Although significant progress has been made over the last decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in TLO development (a process named lymphoid neogenesis), the role of intragraft TLO (if any) in chronic rejection remains elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082980/a-universal-influenza-vaccine-can-lead-to-disease-exacerbation-or-viral-control-depending-on-delivery-strategies
#18
Cindy Bernelin-Cottet, Charlotte Deloizy, Ondrej Stanek, Céline Barc, Edwige Bouguyon, Céline Urien, Olivier Boulesteix, Jérémy Pezant, Charles-Adrien Richard, Mohammed Moudjou, Bruno Da Costa, Luc Jouneau, Christophe Chevalier, Claude Leclerc, Peter Sebo, Nicolas Bertho, Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil
The development of influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines, which elicits cross-strain immunity against seasonal and pandemic viruses is a major public health goal. As pigs are susceptible to human, avian, and swine-adapted IAV, they would be key targets of so called universal IAV vaccines, for reducing both the zoonotic risk and the economic burden in the swine industry. They also are relevant preclinical models. However, vaccination with conserved IAV antigens (AGs) in pigs was reported to elicit disease exacerbation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082979/nasal-immunization-confers-high-avidity-neutralizing-antibody-response-and-immunity-to-primary-and-recurrent-genital-herpes-in-guinea-pigs
#19
Josefine Persson, Yuan Zhang, Thorunn A Olafsdottir, Karolina Thörn, Tina M Cairns, Frank Wegmann, Quentin J Sattentau, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Ali M Harandi
Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in both the developing and developed world. Following infection, individuals experience life-long latency associated with sporadic ulcerative outbreaks. Despite many efforts, no vaccine has yet been licensed for human use. Herein, we demonstrated that nasal immunization with an adjuvanted HSV-2 gD envelope protein mounts significant protection to primary infection as well as the establishment of latency and recurrent genital herpes in guinea pigs...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082978/editorial-hsps-ambiguous-mediators-of-immunity
#20
EDITORIAL
Stuart K Calderwood, Ayesha Murshid, Thiago J Borges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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