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Frontiers in Immunology

Jean-Jacques Fournié, Mary Poupot
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), considered as an alarmin released upon tissue stress or damage, is a member of the IL-1 family and binds the ST2 receptor. First described as a potent initiator of type 2 immune responses through the activation of T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and mast cells, IL-33 is now also known as an effective stimulator of TH 1 immune cells, natural killer (NK) cells, iNKT cells, and CD8 T lymphocytes. Moreover, IL-33 was shown to play an important role in several cancers due to its pro and anti-tumorigenic functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Keisuke Watanabe, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Avery D Posey, Carl H June
A major obstacle for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in solid tumors is the lack of truly tumor-specific target antigens, which translates to the targeting of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) overexpressed on tumors but shared with normal organs, raising safety concerns. In addition, expression of TAAs in solid tumors is particularly heterogeneous. In this regard, it is critical to deeply understand the sensitivity of CAR T cells, especially against low-density targets and the possible therapeutic window of antigen density targeted by CAR T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Urban Švajger, Primož Rožman
The importance of microenvironment on dendritic cell (DC) function and development has been strongly established during the last two decades. Although DCs with general tolerogenic characteristics have been isolated and defined as a particular sub-population, it is predominantly their unequivocal biological plasticity, which allows for unparalleled responsiveness to environmental ques and shaping of their tolerogenic characteristics when interacting with tolerance-inducing biomolecules. Dendritic cells carry receptors for a great number of endogenous factors, which, after ligation, can importantly influence the development of their activation state...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Joanna Grabowska, Miguel A Lopez-Venegas, Alsya J Affandi, Joke M M den Haan
Since the seminal discovery of dendritic cells (DCs) by Steinman and Cohn in 1973, there has been an ongoing debate to what extent macrophages and DCs are related and perform different functions. The current view is that macrophages and DCs originate from different lineages and that only DCs have the capacity to initiate adaptive immunity. Nevertheless, as we will discuss in this review, lymphoid tissue resident CD169+ macrophages have been shown to act in concert with DCs to promote or suppress adaptive immune responses for pathogens and self-antigens, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Catarina E Hioe, Rajnish Kumar, Chitra Upadhyay, Muzafar Jan, Alisa Fox, Vincenza Itri, Kristina K Peachman, Mangala Rao, Lily Liu, Nathan C Lo, Michael Tuen, Xunqing Jiang, Xiang-Peng Kong, Susan Zolla-Pazner
Prophylactic HIV vaccines must elicit antibodies (Abs) against the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) to effectively prevent HIV infection. We investigated a vaccine platform that utilizes immune complexes made of Env proteins gp120 and monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against different gp120 epitopes. We previously observed alterations in V3 antigenicity upon formation of certain gp120/mAb complexes and demonstrated the ability of these complexes to modulate the elicitation of V3 Ab responses. However, the effects on the V1V2 domain, an important target for Abs that correlate with vaccine-induced protection against HIV, have not been studied, nor have immune complex vaccines made with non-B subtype Env...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Derek Miller, Kenichiro Motomura, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Roberto Romero, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Pregnancy success is orchestrated by the complex balance between the maternal and fetal immune systems. Herein, we summarize the potential role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the maternal and fetal compartments. We reviewed published literature describing different ILC subsets [ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells] in the uterus, decidua, fetal tissues [liver, secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), intestine, and lung] and amniotic cavity. ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s are present in the murine uterus prior to and during pregnancy but have only been detected in the non-pregnant endometrium in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Guo-Juan Niu, Ji-Dong Xu, Wen-Jie Yuan, Jie-Jie Sun, Ming-Chong Yang, Zhong-Hua He, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Jin-Xing Wang
Protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins are activation-suppressing proteins for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), which involves gene transcriptional regulation. The inhibitory mechanism of PIAS proteins in the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT signaling pathway has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila . However, the roles of PIAS in crustaceans are unclear. In the present study, we identified PIAS in kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus and found that its relative expression could be induced by Vibrio anguillarum stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christian Schmidt, Thilo Berger, Marcus Groettrup, Michael Basler
Immunoproteasome (IP) inhibition holds potential as a novel treatment option for various immune-mediated pathologies. The IP inhibitor ONX 0914 reduced T cell cytokine secretion and Th17 polarization and showed pre-clinical efficacy in a range of autoimmune disorders, transplant-allograft rejection, virus-mediated tissue damage, and colon cancer progression. However, the molecular basis of these effects has remained largely elusive. Here, we have analyzed the effects of ONX 0914 in primary human and mouse lymphocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hui Liu, Min Li, Yahui Song, Wei Xu
Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) is a regulator of tissue inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and has been implicated in negative regulation of IRF3-dependent type I interferon signaling. However, the antiviral activity of TRIM21 varies among diverse viruses and its role on regulation of type I interferon remains inconsistent in different microbial infections. Here, we investigate the potential role for TRIM21 in controlling Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication and susceptible organ pathology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Catherine M Sawai, Lee Serpas, Antonio Galvao Neto, Geunhyo Jang, Ali Rashidfarrokhi, Roland Kolbeck, Miguel A Sanjuan, Boris Reizis, Vanja Sisirak
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition caused by an aberrant immune response to microbial components of the gastrointestinal tract. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells specialized in the production of type I interferons and were recently implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as lupus and scleroderma. While pDCs were shown to infiltrate intestinal mucosa of IBD patients and proposed to participate in intestinal inflammation, their net contribution to the disease remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Haijing Wu, Yaxiong Deng, Ming Zhao, Jianzhong Zhang, Min Zheng, Genghui Chen, Linfeng Li, Zhibiao He, Qianjin Lu
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are specialized helper T cells that are predominantly located in germinal centers and provide help to B cells. The development and differentiation of Tfh cells has been shown to be regulated by transcription factors, such as B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). In addition, cytokines, including IL-21, have been found to be important for Tfh cell development. Moreover, several epigenetic modifications have also been reported to be involved in the determination of Tfh cell fate...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marisa Stebegg, Saumya D Kumar, Alyssa Silva-Cayetano, Valter R Fonseca, Michelle A Linterman, Luis Graca
The germinal center (GC) is a specialized microstructure that forms in secondary lymphoid tissues, producing long-lived antibody secreting plasma cells and memory B cells, which can provide protection against reinfection. Within the GC, B cells undergo somatic mutation of the genes encoding their B cell receptors which, following successful selection, can lead to the emergence of B cell clones that bind antigen with high affinity. However, this mutation process can also be dangerous, as it can create autoreactive clones that can cause autoimmunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Svetlana Vakkilainen, Riikka Mäkitie, Paula Klemetti, Helena Valta, Mervi Taskinen, Eystein Sverre Husebye, Outi Mäkitie
Background: Mutations in RMRP , encoding a non-coding RNA molecule, underlie cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), a syndromic immunodeficiency with multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and variable phenotype. Allergy and asthma have been reported in the CHH population and some patients suffer from autoimmune (AI) diseases. Objective: We explored AI and allergic manifestations in a large cohort of Finnish patients with CHH and correlated clinical features with laboratory parameters and autoantibodies. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patient interviews and hospital records...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Denise Toscani, Marina Bolzoni, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo, Nicola Giuliani
Osteocytes are terminally differentiated cells of the osteoblast lineage. They are involved in the regulation of bone remodeling by increasing osteoclast formation or decreasing bone formation by the secretion of the osteoblast inhibitor sclerostin. Monoclonal antibody anti-sclerostin, Romosozumab, has been developed and tested in clinical trials in patients with osteoporosis. In the last years, the role of osteocytes in the development of osteolytic bone lesions that occurs in multiple myeloma, have been underlined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miriam Garcia, Laman K Mamedova, Barbara Barton, Barry J Bradford
Dietary choline can impact systemic immunity, but it remains unclear whether this is primarily via direct impacts on immune cells or secondary effects of altered metabolic function. To determine whether increased choline concentrations (3.2, 8.2, 13.2 μM) in cell culture alter the function of bovine innate and adaptive immune cells, we isolated cells from dairy cows in early and mid-lactation as models of immuno-compromised and competent cells, respectively. Phagocytic and killing capacity of isolated neutrophils were linearly diminished with increasing doses of choline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Selena Ferrian, Melinda Ross, Francesca Conradie, Shaheed Vally Omar, Nazir Ismail, Francesca Little, Gilla Kaplan, Dorothy Fallows, Clive M Gray
Identifying a blood circulating cellular biomarker that can be used to assess severity of disease and predict the time to culture conversion (TCC) in patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) would facilitate monitoring response to treatment and may be of value in the design of future drug trials. We report on the frequency of blood Ki67+ HLA-DR- CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells in predicting microbiological outcome before initiating second-line treatment for MDR-TB. Fifty-one patients with MDR-TB were enrolled and followed over 18 months; a subset of patients was sputum culture (SC) negative at baseline ( n = 9)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jie Song, Fengchao Lang, Na Zhao, Yan Guo, Huatang Zhang
Lactobacilli have immunomodulatory mechanisms that affect the host cell immune system, leading to inhibition of HIV-1 transmission. Thus, lactobacilli as mucosal delivery vehicles for developing HIV-1 vaccines have attracted interest in recent years. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of six strains of Lactobacillus naturally isolated from vaginal samples, including Lactobacillus crispatus ( L. crispatus), L. fermentum, L. jensenii, L. gasseri, L. delbrueckii and L. johnsonii , on differentiation of monocytic precursors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Harald Hegen, Janette Walde, Gabriel Bsteh, Michael Auer, Sebastian Wurth, Anne Zinganell, Franziska Di Pauli, Florian Deisenhammer, Thomas Berger
Background: Risk of natalizumab-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with the presence of anti-JC-virus (JCV) antibodies. Objective: To investigate the impact of disease-modifying treatments (DMT) on the longitudinal evolution of anti-JCV antibody index. Methods: Patients with multiple sclerosis who had serum sampling at intervals of 6 ± 3 months over up to 6 years and who either started DMT (interferon-β, glatiramer acetate or natalizumab) during the observation period with at least one serum sample available before and after treatment initiation or received no DMT during the observation period were included...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paolo Ghia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Isabelle Bernard, Antoine Sacquin, Sahar Kassem, Mehdi Benamar, Céline Colacios, Mylène Gador, Corine Pérals, Nicolas Fazilleau, Abdelhadi Saoudi
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell receptor (TCR) signals and plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Previous genetic studies identified a natural variant of Vav1 characterized by the substitution of an arginine (R) residue by a tryptophane (W) at position 63 (Vav1R63W ). This variant impacts Vav1 adaptor functions and controls susceptibility to T cell-mediated neuroinflammation. To assess the implication of this Vav1 variant on the susceptibility to antibody-mediated diseases, we used the animal model of myasthenia gravis, experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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