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Frontiers in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523003/hpv16-e7-specific-activated-cd8-t-cells-in-e7-transgenic-skin-and-skin-grafts
#1
Seyed Davoud Jazayeri, Paula T Kuo, Graham Robert Leggatt, Ian H Frazer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 (E7) protein expression in skin promotes epithelial hyperproliferation and transformation to malignancy. Grafts of murine skin expressing E7 protein as a transgene in keratinocytes are not rejected from immunocompetent recipients, whereas grafts expressing ovalbumin (OVA), with or without coexpression of E7 protein, are promptly rejected, demonstrating that E7-associated non-antigen-specific local immunosuppression is not a major determinant of lack of rejection of E7 transgenic skin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523002/humanized-mouse-models-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Dane Parker
Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523001/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-in-pulmonary-inflammatory-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Rachel G Scheraga, Brian D Southern, Lisa M Grove, Mitchell A Olman
Ion channels/pumps are essential regulators of organ homeostasis and disease. In the present review, we discuss the role of the mechanosensitive cation channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), in cytokine secretion and pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TRPV4 has been shown to play a role in lung diseases associated with lung parenchymal stretch or stiffness. TRPV4 indirectly mediates hypotonicity-induced smooth muscle contraction and airway remodeling in asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523000/mast-cells-and-mcpt4-chymase-promote-renal-impairment-after-partial-ureteral-obstruction
#4
Maguelonne Pons, Liza Ali, Walid Beghdadi, Luca Danelli, Marianne Alison, Lydia Celia Madjène, Jessica Calvo, Julien Claver, Shamila Vibhushan, Magnus Åbrink, Gunnar Pejler, Marie-Laurence Poli-Mérol, Michel Peuchmaur, Alaa El Ghoneimi, Ulrich Blank
Obstructive nephropathy constitutes a major cause of pediatric renal progressive disease. The mechanisms leading to disease progression are still poorly understood. Kidney fibrotic lesions are reproduced using a model of partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (pUUO) in newborn mice. Based on data showing significant mast cell (MC) infiltration in patients, we investigated the role of MC and murine MCPT4, a MC-released chymase, in pUUO using MC- (W(sh/sh)), MCPT4-deficient (Mcpt4(-/-)), and wild-type (WT) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515728/corrigendum-increased-toll-like-receptors-activity-and-tlr-ligands-in-patients-with-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases
#5
Shiqiao Peng, Chenyan Li, Xinyi Wang, Xin Liu, Cheng Han, Ting Jin, Shanshan Liu, Xiaowen Zhang, Hanyi Zhang, Xue He, Xiaochen Xie, Xiaohui Yu, Chuyuan Wang, Ling Shan, Chenling Fan, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
[This corrects the article on p. 578 in vol. 7, PMID: 28018345.].
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515727/basics-of-radiation-biology-when-treating-hyperproliferative-benign-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Franz Rödel, Claudia Fournier, Julia Wiedemann, Felicitas Merz, Udo S Gaipl, Benjamin Frey, Ludwig Keilholz, M Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, Claus Rödel, Stephanie Hehlgans
For decades, low- and moderate-dose radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in a multitude of non-malignant conditions including painful degenerative muscoloskeletal and hyperproliferative disorders. Dupuytren and Ledderhose diseases are benign fibroproliferative diseases of the hand/foot with fibrotic nodules and fascial cords, which determine debilitating contractures and deformities of fingers/toes, while keloids are exuberant scar formations following burn damage, surgery, and trauma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515726/comparative-analysis-of-immune-checkpoint-molecules-and-their-potential-role-in-the-transmissible-tasmanian-devil-facial-tumor-disease
#7
Andrew S Flies, Nicholas B Blackburn, Alan Bruce Lyons, John D Hayball, Gregory M Woods
Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515725/application-of-zebrafish-models-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Li Hanyang, Liu Xuanzhe, Chen Xuyang, Qiu Yujia, Fu Jiarong, Shen Jun, Ran Zhihua
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, recurrent, and remitting inflammatory disease with unclear etiology. As a clinically frequent disease, it can affect individuals throughout their lives, with multiple complications. Unfortunately, traditional murine models are not efficient for the further study of IBD. Thus, effective and convenient animal models are needed. Zebrafish have been used as model organisms to investigate IBD because of their suggested highly genetic similarity to humans and their superiority as laboratory models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515724/an-analysis-of-trafficking-receptors-shows-that-cd44-and-p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-collectively-control-the-migration-of-activated-human-t-cells
#9
Amal J Ali, Ayman F Abuelela, Jasmeen S Merzaban
Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515723/different-somatic-hypermutation-levels-among-antibody-subclasses-disclosed-by-a-new-next-generation-sequencing-based-antibody-repertoire-analysis
#10
Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroshi Yamashita, Hitomi Ayabe, Tadasu Shini, Takaji Matsutani, Ryuji Suzuki
A diverse antibody repertoire is primarily generated by the rearrangement of V, D, and J genes and subsequent somatic hypermutation (SHM). Class-switch recombination (CSR) produces various isotypes and subclasses with different functional properties. Although antibody isotypes and subclasses are considered to be produced by both direct and sequential CSR, it is still not fully understood how SHMs accumulate during the process in which antibody subclasses are generated. Here, we developed a new next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based antibody repertoire analysis capable of identifying all antibody isotype and subclass genes and used it to examine the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 12 healthy individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512460/immunological-aspect-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-current-treatment-strategies-and-future-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Anup Kainthola, Teena Haritwal, Mrinialini Tiwari, Noopur Gupta, Suhel Parvez, Manisha Tiwari, Hrideysh Prakash, Paban K Agrawala
Delivery of high doses of radiation to thoracic region, particularly with non-small cell lung cancer patients, becomes difficult due to subsequent complications arising in the lungs of the patient. Radiation-induced pneumonitis is an early event evident in most radiation exposed patients observed within 2-4 months of treatment and leading to fibrosis later. Several cytokines and inflammatory molecules interplay in the vicinity of the tissue developing radiation injury leading to pneumonitis and fibrosis. While certain cytokines may be exploited as biomarkers, they also appear to be a potent target of intervention at transcriptional level...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512459/in-vivo-chronic-stimulation-unveils-autoreactive-potential-of-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-deficient-b-cells
#12
Maria Carmina Castiello, Francesca Pala, Lucia Sereni, Elena Draghici, Donato Inverso, Aisha V Sauer, Francesca Schena, Elena Fontana, Enrico Radaelli, Paolo Uva, Karla E Cervantes-Luevano, Federica Benvenuti, Pietro L Poliani, Matteo Iannacone, Elisabetta Traggiai, Anna Villa, Marita Bosticardo
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene encoding the hematopoietic-specific WAS protein (WASp). WAS is frequently associated with autoimmunity, indicating a critical role of WASp in maintenance of tolerance. The role of B cells in the induction of autoreactive immune responses in WAS has been investigated in several settings, but the mechanisms leading to the development of autoimmune manifestations have been difficult to evaluate in the mouse models of the disease that do not spontaneously develop autoimmunity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507550/editorial-parasites-in-the-tropic-a-new-paradigm-shift
#13
EDITORIAL
Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Yee-Ling Lau, Suleyman Yazar, Hervé Pelloux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507549/human-lung-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Faezzah Baharom, Gregory Rankin, Anders Blomberg, Anna Smed-Sörensen
The lungs are vulnerable to attack by respiratory insults such as toxins, allergens, and pathogens, given their continuous exposure to the air we breathe. Our immune system has evolved to provide protection against an array of potential threats without causing collateral damage to the lung tissue. In order to swiftly detect invading pathogens, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)-together termed mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs)-line the respiratory tract with the key task of surveying the lung microenvironment in order to discriminate between harmless and harmful antigens and initiate immune responses when necessary...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507548/iron-and-hepcidin-independent-downregulation-of-the-iron-exporter-ferroportin-in-macrophages-during-salmonella-infection
#15
Alexandra Willemetz, Sean Beatty, Etienne Richer, Aude Rubio, Anne Auriac, Ruth J Milkereit, Olivier Thibaudeau, Sophie Vaulont, Danielle Malo, François Canonne-Hergaux
Retention of iron in tissue macrophages via upregulation of hepcidin (HAMP) and downregulation of the iron exporter ferroportin (FPN) is thought to participate in the establishment of anemia of inflammation after infection. However, an upregulation of FPN has been proposed to limit macrophages iron access to intracellular pathogens. Therefore, we studied the iron homeostasis and in particular the regulation of FPN after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice presenting tissue macrophages with high iron (AcB61), basal iron (A/J and wild-type mice), or low iron (Hamp knock out, Hamp(-/-)) levels...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507547/deletion-of-dock10-in-b-cells-results-in-normal-development-but-a-mild-deficiency-upon-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-stimulations
#16
Natalija Gerasimčik, Minghui He, Marisa A P Baptista, Eva Severinson, Lisa S Westerberg
We sought to identify genes necessary to induce cytoskeletal change in B cells. Using gene expression microarray, we compared B cells stimulated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-CD40 antibodies that induce B cell spreading, cell motility, tight aggregates, and extensive microvilli with B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide that lack these cytoskeletal changes. We identified 84 genes with 10-fold or greater expression in anti-CD40 + IL-4 stimulated B cells, one of these encoded the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (Dock10)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507546/extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signaling-in-cd4-expressing-cells-inhibits-osteochondromas
#17
Marie Wehenkel, Maripat Corr, Clifford S Guy, Benjamin A Edwards, Ashley H Castellaw, Christopher Calabrese, Gilles Pagès, Jacques Pouysségur, Peter Vogel, Maureen A McGargill
Defects in cartilage homeostasis can give rise to various skeletal disorders including osteochondromas. Osteochondromas are benign bone tumors caused by excess accumulation of chondrocytes, the main cell type of cartilage. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a major signaling node that functions within chondrocytes to regulate their growth and differentiation. However, it is not known whether the ERK pathway in other cell types regulates cartilage homeostasis. We show here that mice with a germline deficiency of Erk1 and a conditional deletion of Erk2 in cells that express CD4, or expressed CD4 at one point in development, unexpectedly developed bone deformities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507545/clinical-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-rtel1-deficiency
#18
Carsten Speckmann, Sushree Sangita Sahoo, Marta Rizzi, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Axel Karow, Nina Kathrin Serwas, Marc Hoemberg, Natalja Damatova, Detlev Schindler, Jean-Baptiste Vannier, Simon J Boulton, Ulrich Pannicke, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, J J Verdu-Amoros, Holger Hauch, Wilhelm Woessmann, Gabriele Escherich, Eckart Laack, Liliana Rindle, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ekkehart Lausch, Christine Jandrasits, Brigitte Strahm, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan R Ehl, Charlotte Niemeyer, Kaan Boztug, Marcin W Wlodarski
Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507544/within-epitope-interactions-can-bias-ctl-escape-estimation-in-early-hiv-infection
#19
Victor Garcia, Marcus W Feldman
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) begins to replicate within hosts, immune responses are elicited against it. Escape mutations in viral epitopes-immunogenic peptide parts presented on the surface of infected cells-allow HIV to partially evade these responses, and thus rapidly go to fixation. The faster they go to fixation, i.e., the higher their escape rate, the larger the selective pressure exerted by the immune system is assumed to be. This relation underpins the rationale for using escapes to assess the strength of immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507543/long-term-monocyte-dysfunction-after-sepsis-in-humanized-mice-is-related-to-persisted-activation-of-macrophage-colony-stimulation-factor-m-csf-and-demethylation-of-pu-1-and-it-can-be-reversed-by-blocking-m-csf-in-vitro-or-by-transplanting-na%C3%A3-ve-autologous
#20
Natalia Lapko, Mateusz Zawadka, Jacek Polosak, George S Worthen, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Krzysztof Laudanski
The duration of post-sepsis long-term immune suppression is poorly understood. Here, we focused on the role of monocytes (MO) as the pivotal cells for long-term regulation of post-sepsis milieu. Lost ability of MO to adapt is seen in several acute conditions, but it is unclear for how long MO aberrancy post-sepsis can persist. Interestingly, the positive feedback loop sustaining secretion of macrophage-colony stimulation factor (M-CSF) can persist even after resolution of sepsis and significantly alters performance of MO...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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