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Frontiers in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237803/constitutive-vagus-nerve-activation-modulates-immune-suppression-in-sepsis-survivors
#1
Minakshi Rana, Yurong Fei-Bloom, Myoungsun Son, Andrea La Bella, Mahendar Ochani, Yaakov A Levine, Pui Yan Chiu, Ping Wang, Sangeeta S Chavan, Bruce T Volpe, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond
Patients surviving a septic episode exhibit persistent immune impairment and increased mortality due to enhanced vulnerability to infections. In the present study, using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis, we addressed the hypothesis that altered vagus nerve activity contributes to immune impairment in sepsis survivors. CLP-surviving mice exhibited less TNFα in serum following administration of LPS, a surrogate for an infectious challenge, than control-operated (control) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237802/stress-and-inflammation-in-coronary-artery-disease-a-review-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-based
#2
REVIEW
Massimo Fioranelli, Anna G Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Maria Bianchi, Miriam Rovesti, Maria G Roccia
Recent findings have deeply changed the current view of coronary heart disease, going beyond the simplistic model of atherosclerosis as a passive process involving cholesterol build-up in the subintimal space of the arteries until their final occlusion and/or thrombosis and instead focusing on the key roles of inflammation and the immune system in plaque formation and destabilization. Chronic inflammation is a typical hallmark of cardiac disease, worsening outcomes irrespective of serum cholesterol levels. Low-grade chronic inflammation correlates with higher incidence of several non-cardiac diseases, including depression, and chronic depression is now listed among the most important cardiovascular risk factors for poor prognosis among patients with myocardial infarction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237801/distinct-roles-for-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-b-cell-immune-synapse-formation
#3
Sara Roman-Garcia, Sara V Merino-Cortes, Sofia R Gardeta, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Rudi W Hendriks, Yolanda R Carrasco
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has a key role in the signaling pathways of receptors essential for the B lymphocyte response. Given its implication in B cell-related immunodeficiencies, leukemias/lymphomas and autoimmunity, Btk is studied intensely and is a target for therapy. Here, using primary B cells from distinct mouse models and the pharmacological inhibitors ibrutinib and acalabrutinib, we report distinct roles for Btk in antigen-triggered immune synapse (IS) formation. Btk recruitment to the plasma membrane regulates the B cell ability to trigger IS formation as well as its appropriate molecular assembly; Btk shuttling/scaffold activities seem more relevant than the kinase function on that...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237800/collectin-11-cl-11-is-a-major-sentinel-at-epithelial-surfaces-and-key-pattern-recognition-molecule-in-complement-mediated-ischaemic-injury
#4
Christopher L Nauser, Mark C Howard, Giorgia Fanelli, Conrad A Farrar, Steven Sacks
The complement system is a dynamic subset of the innate immune system, playing roles in host defense, clearance of immune complexes and cell debris, and priming the adaptive immune response. Over the last 40 years our understanding of the complement system has evolved from identifying its presence and recognizing its role in the blood to now focusing on understanding the role of local complement synthesis in health and disease. In particular, the local synthesis of complement was found to have an involvement in mediating ischaemic injury, including following transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237799/hiv-1-viral-loads-are-not-elevated-in-individuals-co-infected-with-schistosoma-spp-after-adjustment-for-duration-of-hiv-1-infection
#5
Soledad Colombe, Paul L A M Corstjens, Claudia J de Dood, Donald Miyaye, Ruth G Magawa, Julius Mngara, Samuel E Kalluvya, Lisette van Lieshout, Govert J van Dam, Jennifer A Downs
Studies of the role of Schistosoma co-infections on plasma HIV-1 RNA (HIV-1 viral load) have yielded incongruent results. The role of duration of HIV-1 infection on the link between Schistosoma and HIV-1 viral load has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the impact of HIV-1/ Schistosoma co-infections on viral load in Antiretroviral Treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-1 infected people taking into account the duration of HIV-1 infection. We describe 79 HIV-infected outpatients greater than 18 years of age who had never used ART in Mwanza, Tanzania...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237798/comparison-of-protein-and-peptide-targeting-for-the-development-of-a-cd169-based-vaccination-strategy-against-melanoma
#6
Dieke van Dinther, Henrike Veninga, Mirjam Revet, Leoni Hoogterp, Katarzyna Olesek, Joanna Grabowska, Ellen G F Borg, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Joke M M den Haan
CD169+ macrophages are part of the innate immune system and capture pathogens that enter secondary lymphoid organs such as the spleen and the lymph nodes. Their strategic location in the marginal zone of the spleen and the subcapsular sinus in the lymph node enables them to capture antigens from the blood and the lymph respectively. Interestingly, these specific CD169+ macrophages do not destroy the antigens they obtain, but instead, transfer it to B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) which facilitates the induction of strong adaptive immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237797/dietary-supplementation-with-%C3%AF-6-lc-pufa-rich-algae-modulates-zebrafish-immune-function-and-improves-resistance-to-streptococcal-infection
#7
Sagar Nayak, Inna Khozin-Goldberg, Guy Cohen, Dina Zilberg
Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n -6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3 n -6) are omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), which are key precursors for lipid mediators of the immune system and inflammatory response. The microalga Lobosphaera incisa (WT) and its Δ5-desaturase mutant P127 (MUT) are unique photosynthetic sources for ARA and DGLA, respectively. This study explores the effect of dietary supplementation with L. incisa and P127 biomass on tissue fatty acid composition, immune function, and disease resistance in zebrafish ( Danio rerio )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237796/platelet-gene-therapy-promotes-targeted-peripheral-tolerance-by-clonal-deletion-and-induction-of-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#8
Xiaofeng Luo, Juan Chen, Jocelyn A Schroeder, Kenneth P Allen, Christina K Baumgartner, Subramaniam Malarkannan, Jianda Hu, Calvin B Williams, Qizhen Shi
Delivery of gene therapy as well as of biologic therapeutics is often hampered by the immune response of the subject receiving the therapy. We have reported that effective gene therapy for hemophilia utilizing platelets as a delivery vehicle engenders profound tolerance to the therapeutic product. In this study, we investigated whether this strategy can be applied to induce immune tolerance to a non-coagulant protein and explored the fundamental mechanism of immune tolerance induced by platelet-targeted gene delivery...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233601/the-transcriptional-regulation-of-germinal-center-formation
#9
REVIEW
Shuang Song, Patrick D Matthias
Germinal centers (GCs) are essential structures of the humoral immune response, which form in the periphery in response to T cell dependent antigens. During the GC reaction, B cells undergo critical differentiation steps, which ultimately lead to the generation of antibodies with altered effector function and higher affinity for the selected antigen. Remarkably, many of the B cell tumors have their origin in the GCs; thus, understanding how the formation of these structures is regulated or deregulated is of high medical importance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233600/commentary-immune-system-dysregulation-during-spaceflight-potential-countermeasures-for-deep-space-exploration-missions
#10
COMMENT
Joseph J Bevelacqua, S M J Mortazavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233599/a-type-i-interferon-and-il-10-induced-by-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection-suppresses-antigen-specific-t-cells-and-their-memory-responses
#11
Chan-Ki Min, Hong-Ii Kim, Na-Young Ha, Yuri Kim, Eun-Kyung Kwon, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Je-In Youn, Yoon Kyung Jeon, Kyung-Soo Inn, Myung-Sik Choi, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Despite the various roles of type I interferon (type I IFN) responses during bacterial infection, its specific effects in vivo have been poorly characterized in scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Here, we show that type I IFNs are primarily induced via intracellular nucleic acids sensors, including RIG-I/MAVS and cGAS/STING pathways, during O. tsutsugamushi invasion. However, type I IFN signaling did not significantly affect pathogenesis, mortality, or bacterial burden during primary infection in vivo , when assessed in a mice model lacking a receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR KO)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233598/cytosolic-internalization-of-anti-dna-antibodies-by-human-monocytes-induces-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-independently-of-the-tripartite-motif-containing-21-trim21-mediated-pathway
#12
Hyunjoon Park, Minjae Kim, Youngsil Seo, Yeonkyoung Ham, Mi-Young Cho, Myung-Hee Kwon
Anti-DNA autoantibodies are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A subset of anti-DNA IgG autoantibodies is cell-internalizable; thus they can enter living cells in the form of free IgG. However, the contribution made by the Fc region of internalized free-form IgG to the cytokine response has not been studied, despite the recent discovery of tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21), a cytosolic Fc receptor involved in immune signaling. This study used an internalizable IgG anti-DNA antibody (3D8) to examine the cytokine responses of human monocytes to the Fc region of cytosolic free IgG...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233597/fra2-overexpression-in-mice-leads-to-non-allergic-asthma-development-in-an-il-13-dependent-manner
#13
Anna Gungl, Valentina Biasin, Jochen Wilhelm, Andrea Olschewski, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Leigh M Marsh
Background: Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease characterised by airway inflammation, remodelling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Members of the AP-1 transcription factor family play important roles in the activation of the immune system and the control of cellular responses; however, their role in the development of asthma has not been well studied. We aimed to investigate the role of the lesser known AP-1 family member, Fra2 in experimental asthma. Methods: Phenotypic characterisation and gene expression profiling was performed on Fra2 (TG) overexpressing and wild-type mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233596/trimetazidine-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-in-endotoxemia-and-sepsis-by-promoting-neutrophil-migration
#14
Jing Chen, Bei Wang, Jinsheng Lai, Zachary Braunstein, Mengying He, Guoran Ruan, Zhongwei Yin, Jin Wang, Katherine Cianflone, Qin Ning, Chen Chen, Dao Wen Wang
Aims: Cardiac dysfunction can be a fatal complication during severe sepsis. The migration of neutrophils is significantly impaired during severe sepsis. We sought to determine the role of trimetazidine (TMZ) in regulation of neutrophil migration to the heart in a mouse model of sepsis and endotoxemia, and to identify the mechanism whereby TMZ confers a survival advantage. Methods and Results: C57/BL6 mice were (1) injected with LPS followed by 24-h TMZ administration, or (2) treated with TMZ (20 mg/kg/day) for 1 week post cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233595/the-3279c-a-and-924a-g-polymorphisms-in-the-foxp3-gene-are-associated-with-viral-load-and-liver-enzyme-levels-in-patients-with-chronic-viral-liver-diseases
#15
Leonn M S Pereira, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Simone R S da Silva Conde, Sâmia Demachki, Jaqueline C Monteiro, Rosimar N Martins-Feitosa, Andrea N M R da Silva, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto
The transcription factor FOXP3 is an essential marker of the development and activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are cells specialized in the regulation and normal tolerance of the immune response. In the context of chronic viral liver diseases, Tregs participate in the maintenance of infections by promoting histopathological control and favor the immune escape of viral agents by suppressing the antiviral response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may influence the function of FOXP3 in a number of pathological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233594/hla-epitope-matching-or-eplet-risk-stratification-the-devil-is-in-the-details
#16
Anat R Tambur
"Epitope matching" became a trending topic in organ transplantation. In fact, discussions on clinical implementation and utilization of this approach in organ allocation algorithms are currently on-going. More recently, the term "eplet mismatch load" was introduced in publications. While the terms are often used synonymously, they are NOT equivalent. This short overview is meant to emphasize the differences between the terms epitope matching and eplet mismatching (or mismatch load) as well as to provide perspective on different approaches for interpretation of immune compatibility between the donor of an organ transplant and the recipient...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233593/oxygen-saturation-on-admission-is-a-predictive-biomarker-for-pd-l1-expression-on-circulating-monocytes-and-impaired-immune-response-in-patients-with-sepsis
#17
José Avendaño-Ortiz, Charbel Maroun-Eid, Alejandro Martín-Quirós, Roberto Lozano-Rodríguez, Emilio Llanos-González, Víctor Toledano, Paloma Gómez-Campelo, Karla Montalbán-Hernández, César Carballo-Cardona, Luis A Aguirre, Eduardo López-Collazo
Sepsis is a pathology in which patients suffer from a proinflammatory response and a dysregulated immune response, including T cell exhaustion. A number of therapeutic strategies to treat human sepsis, which are different from antimicrobial and fluid resuscitation treatments, have failed in clinical trials, and solid biomarkers for sepsis are still lacking. Herein, we classified 85 patients with sepsis into two groups according to their blood oxygen saturation (SaO2 ): group I (SaO2 ≤ 92%, n = 42) and group II (SaO2 > 92%, n = 43)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233592/hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-dependent-participation-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-low-intensity-sterile-inflammation
#18
Sarantis Korniotis, Thomas B Thornley, Periklis Kyriazis, Evangelos Theodorou, Lingzhi Ma, Lisa S Li, Efi Kokkotou, Terry B Strom, Maria Koulmanda
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) are characterized by their unique capacities of self-renewal and multi-differentiation potential. This second property makes them able to adapt their differentiation profile depending on the local environment they reach. Taking advantage of an animal model of peritonitis, induced by injection of the TLR-2 ligand, zymosan, we sought to study the relationship between bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (BM-HSPCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regarding their emergence and differentiation at the site of inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233591/eicosanoid-control-over-antigen-presenting-cells-in-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Nincy Debeuf, Bart N Lambrecht
Asthma is a common lung disease affecting 300 million people worldwide. Allergic asthma is recognized as a prototypical Th2 disorder, orchestrated by an aberrant adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th2/Th17) cell immune response against airborne allergens, that leads to eosinophilic inflammation, reversible bronchoconstriction, and mucus overproduction. Other forms of asthma are controlled by an eosinophil-rich innate ILC2 response driven by epithelial damage, whereas in some patients with more neutrophilia, the disease is driven by Th17 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233590/regulatory-mechanisms-of-il-33-st2-mediated-allergic-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Hiroaki Takatori, Sohei Makita, Takashi Ito, Ayako Matsuki, Hiroshi Nakajima
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays multiple roles in tissue homeostasis, prevention of parasitic infection, and induction of allergic inflammation. Especially, IL-33-ST2 (IL-1RL1) axis has been regarded as the villain in allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis and in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Indeed, a number of studies have indicated that IL-33 produced by endothelial cells and epithelial cells plays a critical role in the activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) which cause allergic inflammation by producing large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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