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Frontiers in Immunology

Akira Nguyen, Weng Hua Khoo, Imogen Moran, Peter I Croucher, Tri Giang Phan
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) is transforming our ability to characterize cells, particularly rare cells that are often overlooked in bulk population analytical approaches. This has lead to the discovery of new cell types and cellular states that echo the underlying heterogeneity and plasticity in the immune system. Technologies for the capture, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of single cells are rapidly improving, and scRNA-Seq is now becoming much more accessible to non-specialized laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Thi Hiep Nguyen, Xiaoming Liu, Zhen Zhong Su, Alan Chen-Yu Hsu, Paul S Foster, Ming Yang
Influenza is a major health burden worldwide and is caused by influenza viruses that are enveloped and negative stranded RNA viruses. Little progress has been achieved in targeted intervention, either at a population level or at an individual level (to treat the cause), due to the toxicity of drugs and ineffective vaccines against influenza viruses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in gene expression, cell differentiation, and tissue development and have been shown to silence viral replication in a sequence-specific manner...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Torben Gehring, Thomas Seeholzer, Daniel Krappmann
Since the B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10) protein was first described in 1999, numerous studies have elucidated its key functions in channeling adaptive and innate immune signaling downstream of CARMA/caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) scaffold proteins. While T and B cell antigen receptor (TCR/BCR) signaling induces the recruitment of BCL10 bound to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)1 to the lymphocyte-specific CARMA1/CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM-1) signalosome, alternative CBM complexes utilize different CARMA/CARD scaffolds in distinct innate or inflammatory pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paulraj Kanmani, Hojun Kim
The beneficial effects of probiotics in several liver diseases have been investigated in both animal and clinical models; however, the precise mechanisms responsible for their effects have not yet been elucidated. Gut transmitted endotoxins such as LPS have been shown to play critical roles in hepatic inflammation and injury. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the beneficial role of selected lactic acid bacteria (LABs) on reduction of hepatic steatosis (HS) and attenuation of LPS induced inflammatory response in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dylan Lawless, Shelly Pathak, Thomas Edward Scambler, Lylia Ouboussad, Rashida Anwar, Sinisa Savic
TNFAIP3 encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20. High-penetrance heterozygous mutations in TNFAIP3 cause a haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20), inadequate inhibition of NF-κB pathway, and an early onset autoinflammatory disorder. However, the clinical phenotype of patients with HA20 varies greatly and clinical diagnoses prior to establishing the genetic cause, included both autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Here, we present the first patient with HA20, who was previously diagnosed with AOSD but was later found to have a novel heterozygous variant in TNFAIP3 and who was successfully treated with anti-IL6 receptor biologic tocilizumab (RoActemra)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Matthew R Smith-Raska, Teresita L Arenzana, Louise M D'Cruz, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Ananda W Goldrath, Boris Reizis
Peripheral T lymphocytes share many functional properties with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including long-term maintenance, quiescence, and latent proliferative potential. In addition, peripheral T cells retain the capacity for further differentiation into a variety of subsets, much like HSCs. While the similarities between T cells and HSC have long been hypothesized, the potential common genetic regulation of HSCs and T cells has not been widely explored. We have studied the T cell-intrinsic role of Zfx , a transcription factor specifically required for HSC maintenance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daqiang Zhao, Tao Liao, Siwen Li, Yannan Zhang, Haofeng Zheng, Jing Zhou, Fei Han, Yu Dong, Qiquan Sun
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is the main barrier to renal graft survival, and mouse renal AMR models are important to study this process. Current mouse models are established by priming the recipient to donor skin for over 7 days before kidney transplantation. The robustness of AMR in these cases is too strong to mimic clinical AMR and it is unclear why altering the priming times ranging from 7 to 91 days fails to reduce the AMR potency in these models. In the present study, we found that the donor-recipient combination and skin graft size were determinants of donor-specific antibody (DSA) development patterns after skin transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Judit Danis, Anikó Göblös, Brigitta Gál, Adrienn Sulák, Katalin Farkas, Dóra Török, Erika Varga, Irma Korom, Lajos Kemény, Márta Széll, Zsuzsanna Bata-Csörgö, Nikoletta Nagy
Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare papulosquamous skin disorder, which is phenotypically related to psoriasis. Some familial PRP cases show autosomal dominant inheritance due to CARD14 mutations leading to increased nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation. Moreover, CARD14 polymorphisms have also been implicated in sporadic PRP. A Hungarian PRP patient with childhood onset disease showing worsening of the symptoms in adulthood with poor therapeutic response underwent genetic screening for the CARD14 gene, revealing four genetic variants (rs117918077, rs2066964, rs28674001, and rs11652075)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daria S Chulpanova, Kristina V Kitaeva, Victoria James, Albert A Rizvanov, Valeriya V Solovyeva
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all cells within the tumor microenvironment, such as endothelial cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts, pericytes, and immune system cells. The EVs carry the cargo of parental cells formed of proteins and nucleic acids, which can convey cell-to-cell communication influencing the maintenance and spread of the malignant neoplasm, for example, promoting angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion, and immune escape. However, EVs can also suppress tumor progression, either by the direct influence of the protein and nucleic acid cargo of the EVs or via antigen presentation to immune cells as tumor-derived EVs carry on their surface some of the same antigens as the donor cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sindhu Vangeti, Meng Yu, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Emerging viruses have become increasingly important with recurrent epidemics. Influenza A virus (IAV), a respiratory virus displaying continuous re-emergence, contributes significantly to global morbidity and mortality, especially in young children, immunocompromised, and elderly people. IAV infection is typically confined to the airways and the virus replicates in respiratory epithelial cells but can also infect resident immune cells. Clearance of infection requires virus-specific adaptive immune responses that depend on early and efficient innate immune responses against IAV...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Neetika Jaisinghani, Stanzin Dawa, Kaurab Singh, Ananya Nandy, Dilip Menon, Purva Deepak Bhandari, Garima Khare, Anil Tyagi, Sheetal Gandotra
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) exhibits granulomatous inflammation, a site of controlling bacterial dissemination at the cost of host tissue damage. Intrigued by the granuloma type-dependent expression of inflammatory markers in TB, we sought to investigate underlying metabolic changes that drive amplification of inflammation in TB. Here, we show an association of higher inflammation in necrotic granulomas with the presence of triglyceride (TG)-rich foamy macrophages. The conspicuous absence of these macrophages in solid granulomas identified a link between the ensuing pathology and the metabolic programming of foamy macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jin-Yuan Lin, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Wan-Yun Ge, Hui-Jun Dai, Linghui Pan
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether high tidal volume (HTV) induce mitochondria damage and mitophagy, contributing to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Another aim of the present study was to investigate the role and mechanism of mtDNA in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in rats. Methods: Rats were tracheotomized and allowed to breathe spontaneously or mechanically ventilated for 4 h. After that, lung injury was assessed. Inhibition of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), named ODN2088, was used to determine the involvement of TLR9/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in VILI...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Brian E Crucian, Alexander Choukèr, Richard J Simpson, Satish Mehta, Gailen Marshall, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Martina Heer, Sergey Ponomarev, Alexandra Whitmire, Jean P Frippiat, Grace L Douglas, Hernan Lorenzi, Judith-Irina Buchheim, George Makedonas, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, C Mark Ott, Duane L Pierson, Stephanie S Krieger, Natalie Baecker, Clarence Sams
Recent studies have established that dysregulation of the human immune system and the reactivation of latent herpesviruses persists for the duration of a 6-month orbital spaceflight. It appears certain aspects of adaptive immunity are dysregulated during flight, yet some aspects of innate immunity are heightened. Interaction between adaptive and innate immunity also seems to be altered. Some crews experience persistent hypersensitivity reactions during flight. This phenomenon may, in synergy with extended duration and galactic radiation exposure, increase specific crew clinical risks during deep space exploration missions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Oh Chan Kwon, Eun-Ju Lee, Eun-Ju Chang, Jeehee Youn, Byeongzu Ghang, Seokchan Hong, Chang-Keun Lee, Bin Yoo, Yong-Gil Kim
Objective: To gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), we sought to identify the characteristics of lung-infiltrating cells in SKG mice with ILD. Methods: We injected curdlan in SKG mice at 8 weeks of age, and identified the presence of ILD by PET-MRI at 20 weeks post-injection and histological analysis at 22 weeks post-injection. Lung-infiltrating cells were examined by flow cytometry...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Miao-Hsi Hsieh, Chih-Ying Ou, Wen-Yu Hsieh, Hui-Fang Kao, Shih-Wei Lee, Jiu-Yao Wang, Lawrence S H Wu
Surfactant proteins (SPs)-A and -D are C-type lectins of the collectin family and function in the clearance of infectious particles in the lungs. Some polymorphisms of SPs that give rise to amino acid changes have been found to affect their function. Several SP-A gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with respiratory infection diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB). However, the relationship between surfactant proteins D (SP-D) polymorphisms and TB is still unclear. To study the associations between SP-D polymorphisms and TB, the correlations of SP-D polymorphisms with TB were examined in a case-control study, which included 364 patients with TB and 177 control subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Markus M Xie, Alexander L Dent
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are necessary for germinal center (GC) formation and within the GC, provide key signals to B cells for their differentiation into plasmablasts and plasma cells that secrete high-affinity and isotype-switched antibody (Ab). A specialized subset of Foxp3+ T cells termed T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells, also regulate the differentiation of Ab-secreting cells from the GC. Tfr-cell function in the GC is not well understood, however, the dominant paradigm currently is that Tfr cells repress excessive Tfh and GC B cell proliferation and help promote stringent selection of high-affinity B cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dan Wu, Jing Zhang, Tingting Qian, Yiqin Dai, Alireza Mashaghi, Jianjiang Xu, Jiaxu Hong
Purpose: Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule, can stimulate or co-stimulate CD8+ T cells or natural killer (nk) cells, thus affecting cornea allograft survival. This study investigated IFN-γ regulation of MICA expression levels in human corneal epithelium by miRNA4448. Methods: MICA expression levels in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) stimulated with IFN-γ were detected by qRT-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and differential miRNA expression levels were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erin Logan, Angelique Kany Kany Luabeya, Humphrey Mulenga, Dunja Mrdjen, Cynthia Ontong, Adam F Cunningham, Michele Tameris, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, William G C Horsnell, Mark Hatherill
Background: It is unclear whether antibodies can prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) infection. In this study, we examined the relationship between total plasma IgG levels, IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive QuantiFERON (QFT) test. Methods: We studied 100 Mtb uninfected infants, aged 4-6 months. Ten infants (10%) converted to positive QFT test (QFT+) within 2 years of follow-up for Mtb infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fan Yang, Xuemei Fan, He Huang, Qiujie Dang, Hongwei Lei, Yang Li
A single epitope of Leishmania analog of the receptors for activated C kinase (LACK) from Leishmania major , the polypeptide LACK156-173 , is recognized by Vβ4+ /Vα8+ T cells, and activate these cells that drives the subsequent T helper (Th)2 response. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of the LACK156-173 epitope in murine autoimmune arthritis models. To explore the influence of the LACK156-173 epitope on murine collagen antibody-induced arthritis, as well as its immunological mechanism, we vaccinated or treated mice with a LACK156-173 epitope expression plasmid or polypeptide...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Boning Zeng, Shengnan Shi, Jing Liu, Feiyue Xing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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