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EJNMMI Research

Mayu Tomita, Hironobu Yasui, Kei Higashikawa, Kohei Nakajima, Hideo Takakura, Tohru Shiga, Yuji Kuge, Mikako Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors act as immune checkpoint inhibitors and are more effective for improving survival time with less toxicity as compared with conventional chemotherapies. In anti PD-1 therapy, it is important to evaluate metabolism in the cancer microenvironment, as this helps to clarify the pathological conditions. Herein, we investigate the early effects of PD-1 therapy on 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) uptake in vivo, focusing on cell distribution and glycolysis in both cancer and immune cells...
August 16, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Dorra Amor, Sébastien Goutal, Solène Marie, Fabien Caillé, Martin Bauer, Oliver Langer, Sylvain Auvity, Nicolas Tournier
BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. The wide inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of erlotinib may impact treatment outcome and/or toxicity. Recent in vivo studies reported a nonlinear uptake transport of erlotinib into the liver, suggesting carrier-mediated system(s) to mediate its hepatobiliary clearance. Erlotinib has been identified in vitro as a substrate of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters which expression does not restrict to hepatocytes and may impact the tissue uptake of erlotinib in vivo...
August 16, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Stefanie Pektor, Lina Hilscher, Kerstin C Walzer, Isabelle Miederer, Nicole Bausbacher, Carmen Loquai, Mathias Schreckenberger, Ugur Sahin, Mustafa Diken, Matthias Miederer
BACKGROUND: [18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is commonly used in the clinic for diagnosis of cancer and for follow-up of therapy outcome. Additional to the well-established value in tumor imaging, it bears potential to depict immune processes in modern immunotherapies. T cells enhance their glucose consumption upon activation and are crucial effectors for the success of such novel therapies. In this study, we analyzed the T cell immunity in spleen after antigen-specific stimulation of T cells via highly innovative RNA-based vaccines using FDG-PET/MRI...
August 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Emma E Wolters, Sandeep S V Golla, Tessa Timmers, Rik Ossenkoppele, Chris W J van der Weijden, Philip Scheltens, Lothar Schwarte, Robert C Schuit, Albert D Windhorst, Frederik Barkhof, Maqsood Yaqub, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ronald Boellaard, Bart N M van Berckel
BACKGROUND: Off-target binding in the choroid plexus (CP) may cause spill-in of the tau PET tracer [18 F] flortaucipir into the adjacent hippocampus region. The impact of this spill-in on hippocampal uptake was assessed using a novel partial volume correction method (PVC). METHODS: PVC was performed on 20 [18 F] flortaucipir dynamic PET scans (10 probable AD and 10 controls). Volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined for both hippocampus and CP. The correlation between hippocampal and CP distribution volume (VT ), with and without PVC, was determined...
August 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Jakub Šimeček, Petr Hermann, Christof Seidl, Frank Bruchertseifer, Alfred Morgenstern, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Johannes Notni
BACKGROUND: The recently growing interest in targeted alpha-therapy (TAT) calls for improvement of the labelling chemistry of the corresponding radionuclides. 213 BiIII is a short-lived alpha emitter which emits only one alpha particle in its decay chain. Hence, it might be safer in application than other respective nuclides, such as 223 Ra or 225 Ac, because no alpha-emitting daughters are released upon recoil. We investigated cyclen derivatives with phosphorus-containing pendant arms regarding their suitability for 213 Bi labelling...
August 8, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Sarah Schumann, Uta Eberlein, Jessica Müller, Harry Scherthan, Michael Lassmann
BACKGROUND: Irradiation with α-particles creates densely packed damage tracks along particle trajectories in exposed cells, including complex DNA damage and closely spaced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in hit nuclei. Here, we investigated the correlation of the absorbed dose to the blood and the number of α-induced DNA damage tracks elicited in human blood leukocytes after ex-vivo in-solution exposure with Ra-224. The aim was to compare the data to previously published data on Ra-223 and to investigate differences in DNA damage induction between the two radium isotopes...
August 6, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Astrid Gosewisch, Andreas Delker, Sebastian Tattenberg, Harun Ilhan, Andrei Todica, Julia Brosch, Lena Vomacka, Anika Brunegraf, Franz Josef Gildehaus, Sibylle Ziegler, Peter Bartenstein, Guido Böning
BACKGROUND: The bone marrow (BM) is a main organ at risk in Lu-177-PSMA-617 therapy of prostate cancer and Lu-177-Octreotate therapy of neuroendocrine tumours. BM dosimetry is challenging and time-consuming, as different sequential quantitative measurements must be combined. The BM absorbed dose from the remainder of the body (ROB) can be determined from sequential whole-body planar (WB-P) imaging, while quantitative Lu-177-SPECT allows for more robust tumour and organ absorbed doses...
August 3, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Keelara Abiraj, Samer Ursillo, Maria Luisa Tamma, Svetlana N Rylova, Beatrice Waser, Edwin C Constable, Melpomeni Fani, Guillaume P Nicolas, Jean Claude Reubi, Helmut R Maecke
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin receptor targeting radiopeptides are successfully being used to image, stage, and monitor patients with neuroendocrine tumours. They are exclusively agonists that internalise upon binding to the relevant receptor. According to recent reports, antagonists may be preferable to agonists. To date, 99m Tc-labelled somatostatin receptor antagonists have attracted little attention. Here, we report on a new somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) antagonist, SS-01 (p-Cl-Phe-cyclo(D-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)D-Tyr-NH2 ), with the aim of developing 99m Tc-labelled ligands for SPECT/CT imaging...
August 2, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Per Stenkrona, Granville J Matheson, Simon Cervenka, Pontus Plavén Sigray, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde
BACKGROUND: The D1 -dopamine receptor radioligand [11 C]SCH23390 has been frequently used in PET studies. In drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, the findings have been inconsistent, with decreases, increases, and no change in the frontal cortex D1 -dopamine receptors. While these discrepancies are likely primarily due to a lack of statistical power in these studies, we speculated that an additional explanation may be the differences due to methods of image analysis between studies, affecting reliability as well as bias between groups...
August 2, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Daniel R McGowan, Michael Skwarski, Bartlomiej W Papiez, Ruth E Macpherson, Fergus V Gleeson, Julia A Schnabel, Geoff S Higgins, John D Fenwick
BACKGROUND: To determine the relative abilities of compartment models to describe time-courses of 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) tumor uptake in patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) imaged using dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET), and study correlations between values of the blood flow-related parameter K1 obtained from fits of the models and an independent blood flow measure obtained from perfusion CT (pCT). NSCLC patients had a 45-min dynamic FMISO PET/CT scan followed by two static PET/CT acquisitions at 2 and 4-h post-injection...
August 1, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Thomas Koopman, Niels Verburg, Robert C Schuit, Petra J W Pouwels, Pieter Wesseling, Albert D Windhorst, Otto S Hoekstra, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ronald Boellaard, Maqsood Yaqub
BACKGROUND: This study identified the optimal tracer kinetic model for quantification of dynamic O-(2-[18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18 F]FET) positron emission tomography (PET) studies in seven patients with diffuse glioma (four glioblastoma, three lower grade glioma). The performance of more simplified approaches was evaluated by comparison with the optimal compartment model. Additionally, the relationship with cerebral blood flow-determined by [15 O]H2 O PET-was investigated. RESULTS: The optimal tracer kinetic model was the reversible two-tissue compartment model...
July 31, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Ashwin V Venkataraman, Nicholas Keat, James F Myers, Samuel Turton, Inge Mick, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Jan Passchier, Christine A Parker, Robin J Tyacke, David J Nutt
BACKGROUND: We measured whole body distribution of 11 C-BU99008, a new PET biomarker for non-invasive identification of the imidazoline2 binding site. The purpose of this phase I study was to evaluate the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 11 C-BU99008 in healthy human subjects. METHODS: A single bolus injection of 11 C-BU99008 (296 ± 10.5 MBq) was administered to four healthy subjects who underwent whole-body PET/CT over 120 min from the cranial vertex to the mid-thigh...
July 30, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Jasper van der Aart, Sandeep S V Golla, Marieke van der Pluijm, Lothar A Schwarte, Robert C Schuit, Pieter J Klein, Athanasios Metaxas, Albert D Windhorst, Ronald Boellaard, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Bart N M van Berckel
BACKGROUND: Efforts to develop suitable positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the ion channel site of human N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have had limited success. [18 F]PK-209 is a GMOM derivative that binds to the intrachannel phencyclidine site with high affinity and selectivity. Primate PET studies have shown that the volume of distribution in the brain was reduced by administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, consistent with substantial specific binding...
July 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Urs J Muehlematter, Hannes W Nagel, Anton Becker, Julian Mueller, Kerstin N Vokinger, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Edwin E G T Ter Voert, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Irene A Burger
Unfortunately, after publication of this article [1], it was noticed that the name of Urs J. Muehlematter was incorrectly displayed as Urs J. Mühlematter. The corrected author list can be seen above and the original article has been corrected to reflect this.
July 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Edwin E G W Ter Voert, Urs J Muehlematter, Gaspar Delso, Daniele A Pizzuto, Julian Müller, Hannes W Nagel, Irene A Burger
BACKGROUND: In contrast to ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM), block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM) positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction algorithms can run until full convergence while controlling image quality and noise. Recent studies with BSREM and 18 F-FDG PET reported higher signal-to-noise ratios and higher standardized uptake values (SUV). In this study, we investigate the optimal regularization parameter (β) for clinical 68 Ga-PSMA PET/MR reconstructions in the pelvic region applying time-of-flight (TOF) BSREM in comparison to TOF OSEM...
July 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Ephraim E Parent, Marc Benayoun, Ijeoma Ibeanu, Jeffrey J Olson, Constantinos G Hadjipanayis, Daniel J Brat, Vikram Adhikarla, Jonathon Nye, David M Schuster, Mark M Goodman
BACKGROUND: The ability to accurately and non-invasively distinguish high-grade glioma from low-grade glioma remains a challenge despite advances in molecular and magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the ability of fluciclovine (18 F) PET as a means to identify and distinguish these lesions in patients with known gliomas and to correlate uptake with Ki-67. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with a total of 18 newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas (n = 6) and high grade gliomas (n = 12) underwent fluciclovine PET imaging after histopathologic assessment...
July 25, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Lucia Baratto, Sonya Youngju Park, Negin Hatami, Praveen Gulaka, Shreyas Vasanawala, Thomas Koshy Yohannan, Robert Herfkens, Ronald Witteles, Andrei Iagaru
BACKGROUND: Florbetaben, a 18 F-labeled stilbene derivative (Neuraceq®, formerly known as BAY-949172), is a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical developed to visualize β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Here, we report a pilot study evaluating patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis for systemic extent of disease. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled nine patients, 61-86 year old (mean ± SD 69.4 ± 8.6), referred from the cardiac amyloid clinic. First, dynamic imaging of the heart was acquired immediately after injection of 222-318...
July 24, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Silvia Taralli, Martina Sollini, Michele Milella, Germano Perotti, Angelina Filice, Massimo Menga, Annibale Versari, Vittoria Rufini
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumor. Currently, 18 F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18 F-FDG) PET/CT is the functional imaging modality of choice. Few data are available on the use of 68 Ga-somatostatin analogs. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of 18 F-FDG and 68 Ga-somatostatin analog PET/CT in MCC patients. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (12 males, 3 females; median age 73 years; range 41-81 years) with histologically proven MCC (4 with unknown primary lesion) who underwent both 18 F-FDG and 68 Ga-somatostatin analog PET/CT for staging, re-staging, or treatment response assessment were retrospectively evaluated...
July 21, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Albert Christersson, Sune Larsson, Jens Sörensen
BACKGROUND: Localizing and removing the infected sequestrum in long-standing trauma-related chronic osteomyelitis remains a clinical challenge. PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) has a high sensitivity for chronic osteomyelitis and 18F-sodium-fluoride PET/CT (NaF-PET) has a high specificity for identifying non-viable bone. Combining both, high signal on FDG-PET in the bone without signal on NaF-PET could potentially guide surgery to become more precise with curative intent. Eight patients with long-standing (average 22 years) posttraumatic (n = 7) or postoperative (n = 1) chronic osteomyelitis in the lower extremity and with multiple futile attempts for curative surgery were recruited in this prospective pilot study...
July 21, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Tong Wang, Kai Yi Wu, Robert C Miner, Jennifer M Renaud, Rob S B Beanlands, Robert A deKemp
BACKGROUND: Graphical methods of radiotracer kinetic modeling in PET are ideal for parametric imaging and data quality assurance but can suffer from noise bias. This study compared the Logan and Multilinear Analysis-1 (MA1) graphical models to the standard one-tissue-compartment (1TC) model, including correction for partial-volume effects, in dynamic PET-CT studies of myocardial sympathetic innervation in the left ventricle (LV) using [11 C]HED. METHODS: Test and retest [11 C]HED PET imaging (47 ± 22 days apart) was performed in 18 subjects with heart failure symptoms...
July 20, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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