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EJNMMI Research

Zhao-Hui Jin, Atsushi B Tsuji, Mélissa Degardin, Aya Sugyo, Yukie Yoshii, Kotaro Nagatsu, Ming-Rong Zhang, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi, Pascal Dumy, Didier Boturyn, Tatsuya Higashi
BACKGROUND: The present study proposed a new concept for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) to improve the intratumoral distribution of radioactivity using two different radiopharmaceuticals. We examined the efficacy of a combination of a tetrameric cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) peptide-based radiopharmaceutical, 64 Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-)4 (64 Cu-RaftRGD, an αV β3 integrin [αV β3 ] tracer), and 64 Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4 -methylthiosemicarbazone) (64 Cu-ATSM, a supposed tracer for hypoxic metabolism) in a small animal tumor model...
June 19, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Milan Grkovski, Louise Fanchon, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty, James Russell, John L Humm
BACKGROUND: Quantitative imaging can facilitate patient stratification in clinical trials. The hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide recently failed a phase III trial in pancreatic cancer. However, the study did not attempt to select for patients with hypoxic tumors. We tested the ability of 18 F-fluoromisonidazole to predict evofosfamide uptake in an orthotopic xenograft model (BxPC3). METHODS: Two forms of evofosfamide were used: (1) labeled on the active moiety (3 H) and (2) on the hypoxia targeting nitroimidazole group (14 C)...
June 18, 2018: EJNMMI Research
John M Floberg, Kathryn J Fowler, Dominique Fuser, Todd A DeWees, Farrokh Dehdashti, Barry A Siegel, Richard L Wahl, Julie K Schwarz, Perry W Grigsby
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the spatial relationship of 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18 F]FDG-PET) standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) derived from magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion imaging on a voxel level using simultaneously acquired PET/MR data. We performed an institutional retrospective analysis of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer who received a pre-treatment simultaneously acquired [18 F]FDG-PET/MR...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Sibel Isal, Julien Pierson, Laetitia Imbert, Alexandra Clement, Charlotte Collet, Sophie Pinel, Nicolas Veran, Aurélie Reinhard, Sylvain Poussier, Guillaume Gauchotte, Steeven Frezier, Gilles Karcher, Pierre-Yves Marie, Fatiha Maskali
BACKGROUND: Tracers triggering αvβ3 integrins, such as certain RGD-containing peptides, were found promising in previous pilot studies characterizing high-grade gliomas. However, only limited comparisons have been performed with current PET tracers. This study aimed at comparing the biodistribution of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) with that of 68 Ga-NODAGA-RGD, an easily synthesized monomeric RGD compound with rapid kinetics, in two different rodent models of engrafted human glioblastoma...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Xavier Palard-Novello, Anne-Lise Blin, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Anne Devillers, Giulio Gambarota, Solène Querellou, Patrick Bourguet, Hervé Saint-Jalmes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal temporal sampling of time-activity curves (TAC) from dynamic 18 F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH) PET images may introduce bias in quantification of FCH uptake in prostate cancer assessment. We sought to define an optimal temporal sampling protocol for dynamic FCH PET imaging. Seven different time samplings were tested: 5 × 60″, 10 × 30″, 15 × 15″-1 × 75″, 6 × 10″-8 × 30″, 12 × 5″-8 × 30″; 10 × 5″-4 × 10″-3 × 20″-5 × 30″, and 8 × 3″-8 × 12″-6 × 30″...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Jonathan D Allred, Jeremy Niedbala, Justin K Mikell, Dawn Owen, Kirk A Frey, Yuni K Dewaraja
BACKGROUND: A major toxicity concern in radioembolization therapy of hepatic malignancies is radiation-induced pneumonitis and sclerosis due to hepatopulmonary shunting of 90 Y microspheres. Currently, 99m Tc macroaggregated albumin (99m Tc-MAA) imaging is used to estimate the lung shunt fraction (LSF) prior to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy/precision of LSF estimated from 99m Tc planar and SPECT/CT phantom imaging, and within this context, to compare the corresponding LSF and lung-absorbed dose values from 99m Tc-MAA patient studies...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Takehito Ito, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Masanori Ichise, Keita Yokokawa, Kazunori Kawamura, Hidehiko Takahashi, Makoto Higuchi, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: The histamine H3 receptor is regarded as a drug target for cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders. H3 receptors are expressed in neocortical areas, including the prefrontal cortex, the key region of cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the role of prefrontal H3 receptors in working memory has not yet been clarified. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques, we aimed to investigate the association between the neural activity of working memory and the density of H3 receptors in the prefrontal cortex...
June 14, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Masakatsu Kanazawa, Shingo Nishiyama, Fumio Hashimoto, Takeharu Kakiuchi, Hideo Tsukada
BACKGROUND: The potential of the D-isomerization of 4-borono-2-18 F-fluoro-phenylalanine (18 F-FBPA) to improve its target tumor to non-target normal brain tissue ratio (TBR) was evaluated in rat brain glioma and compared with those of L- and D-11 C-methyl-tyrosine (11 C-CMT). The L- or D-isomer of 18 F-FBPA was injected into rats through the tail vein, and their whole body kinetics and distributions were assessed using the tissue dissection method up to 90 min after the injection. The kinetics of L- and D-18 F-FBPA or L- and D-11 C-CMT in the C-6 glioma-inoculated rat brain were measured for 90 or 60 min, respectively, using high-resolution animal PET, and their TBRs were assessed...
June 13, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Ambra Buschiazzo, Vanessa Cossu, Matteo Bauckneht, Annamaria Orengo, Patrizia Piccioli, Laura Emionite, Giovanna Bianchi, Federica Grillo, Anna Rocchi, Francesco Di Giulio, Francesco Fiz, Lizzia Raffaghello, Flavio Nobili, Silvia Bruno, Giacomo Caviglia, Silvia Ravera, Fabio Benfenati, Michele Piana, Silvia Morbelli, Gianmario Sambuceti, Cecilia Marini
BACKGROUND: The close connection between neuronal activity and glucose consumption accounts for the clinical value of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) imaging in neurodegenerative disorders. Nevertheless, brain metabolic response to starvation (STS) might hamper the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT when the cognitive impairment results in a severe food deprivation. METHODS: Thirty six-week-old BALB/c female mice were divided into two groups: "control" group (n = 15) were kept under standard conditions and exposed to fasting for 6 h before the study; the remaining "STS" mice were submitted to 48 h STS (absence of food and free access to water) before imaging...
June 11, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Colm J McGinnity, Daniela A Riaño Barros, William Trigg, David J Brooks, Rainer Hinz, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp, Alexander Hammers
INTRODUCTION: The NMDA receptor radiotracer [18 F]GE-179 has been used with 90-min scans and arterial plasma input functions. We explored whether (1) arterial blood sampling is avoidable and (2) shorter scans are feasible. METHODS: For 20 existing [18 F]GE-179 datasets, we generated (1) standardised uptake values (SUVs) over eight intervals; (2) volume of distribution (VT ) images using population-based input functions (PBIFs), scaled using one parent plasma sample; and (3) VT images using three shortened datasets, using the original parent plasma input functions (ppIFs)...
June 11, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Johanna Päivärinta, Niina Koivuviita, Vesa Oikonen, Hidehiro Iida, Kaisa Liukko, Ilkka Manner, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Pirjo Nuutila, Kaj Metsärinne
BACKGROUND: Microvascular function plays an important role in ARVD (atherosclerotic renovascular disease). RFR (renal flow reserve), the capacity of renal vasculature to dilate, is known to reflect renal microvascular function. In this pilot study, we assessed PET (positron emission tomography)-based RFR values of healthy persons and renal artery stenosis patients. Seventeen patients with ARVD and eight healthy subjects were included in the study. Intravenous enalapril 1 mg was used as a vasodilatant, and the maximum response (blood pressure and RFR) to it was measured at 40 min...
June 11, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Natsumi Miyajima, Miwa Ito, Takemi Rokugawa, Hitoshi Iimori, Sotaro Momosaki, Shigeki Omachi, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa, Kohji Abe
BACKGROUND: Translocator protein (TSPO) imaging can be used to detect neuroinflammation (including microglial activation) after acute cerebral infarction. However, longitudinal changes of TSPO binding after mild ischemia that induces selective neuronal loss (SNL) without acute infarction are not well understood. Here, we performed TSPO imaging with [18 F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of neuroinflammation and SNL after mild focal ischemia. RESULTS: Mild focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 20 min...
June 8, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Marc G Stevenson, Lukas B Been, Harald J Hoekstra, Albert J H Suurmeijer, Ronald Boellaard, Adrienne H Brouwers
BACKGROUND: This study explores various volume of interest (VOI) delineation techniques for fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET-CT) scans during neoadjuvant extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS) treatment. RESULTS: During neoadjuvant treatment, hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) and preoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), 11 patients underwent three 18 F-FDG PET-CT scans. The first scan was made prior to the HILP, the second after the HILP but prior to the start of the EBRT, and the third prior to surgical resection...
June 7, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Takemi Rokugawa, Haruyo Konishi, Miwa Ito, Hitoshi Iimori, Ryohei Nagai, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa, Kohji Abe
BACKGROUND: Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which express integrin αvβ3, are a major fibrogenic factor in NASH pathophysiology. 18 F-labeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid penta-peptide (18 F-FPP-RGD2 ) has been used as a PET probe for tumors expressing integrin αvβ3. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of PET with 18 F-FPP-RGD2 to detect hepatic integrin αvβ3 expression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. RESULTS: Thirty-two male C57BL/6 mice aged 6 weeks were fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) for 3 and 8 weeks...
May 31, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Urs J Mühlematter, Hannes W Nagel, Anton Becker, Julian Mueller, Kerstin N Vokinger, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Edwin E G T Ter Voert, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Irene A Burger
BACKGROUND: Accurate attenuation correction (AC) is an inherent problem of positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) systems. Simulation studies showed that time-of-flight (TOF) detectors can reduce PET quantification errors in MRI-based AC. However, its impact on lesion detection in a clinical setting with 18 F-choline has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, we compared TOF and non-TOF 18 F-choline PET for absolute and relative difference in standard uptake values (SUV) and investigated the detection rate of metastases in prostate cancer patients...
May 31, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Berend van der Wildt, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Wissam Beaino, Esther J M Kooijman, Robert C Schuit, John G J M Bol, John J P Breve, Ralf Pasternack, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert D Windhorst, Benjamin Drukarch
BACKGROUND: The protein cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2; EC is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. Recently, the synthesis and initial evaluation of two high-potential radiolabelled irreversible TG2 inhibitors were reported by us. In the present study, these two compounds were evaluated further in a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) tumour xenograft model for imaging active tissue transglutaminase in vivo. RESULTS: The metabolic stability of [11 C]1 and [18 F]2 in SCID mice was comparable to the previously reported stability in Wistar rats...
May 25, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Jens Maus, Frank Hofheinz, Ivayla Apostolova, Michael C Kreissl, Jörg Kotzerke, Jörg van den Hoff
BACKGROUND: The current de facto standard for quantification of tumor metabolism in oncological whole-body PET is the standardized uptake value (SUV) approach. SUV determination requires accurate scanner calibration. Residual inaccuracies of the calibration lead to biased SUV values. Especially, this can adversely affect multicenter trials where it is difficult to ensure reliable cross-calibration across participating sites. The goal of the present work was the evaluation of a new method for monitoring scanner calibration utilizing the image-derived arterial blood SUV (BSUV) averaged over a sufficiently large number of whole-body FDG-PET investigations...
May 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Barbara K Geist, Pascal Baltzer, Barbara Fueger, Martina Hamboeck, Thomas Nakuz, Laszlo Papp, Sazan Rasul, Lalith Kumar Shiyam Sundar, Marcus Hacker, Anton Staudenherz
BACKGROUND: A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information...
May 9, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Jonathan Christopher Taylor, Charles Romanowski, Eleanor Lorenz, Christine Lo, Oliver Bandmann, John Fenner
BACKGROUND: For (123 I)FP-CIT imaging, a number of algorithms have shown high performance in distinguishing normal patient images from those with disease, but none have yet been tested as part of reporting workflows. This study aims to evaluate the impact on reporters' performance of a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) tool developed from established machine learning technology. Three experienced (123 I)FP-CIT reporters (two radiologists and one clinical scientist) were asked to visually score 155 reconstructed clinical and research images on a 5-point diagnostic confidence scale (read 1)...
May 8, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Chengbo Tan, Songji Zhao, Kei Higashikawa, Zifeng Wang, Masahito Kawabori, Takeo Abumiya, Naoki Nakayama, Ken Kazumata, Naoyuki Ukon, Hironobu Yasui, Nagara Tamaki, Yuji Kuge, Hideo Shichinohe, Kiyohiro Houkin
BACKGROUND: The potential application of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) therapy in stroke has been anticipated due to its immunomodulatory effects. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) with [18 F]DPA-714, a translocator protein (TSPO) ligand, has become available for use as a neural inflammatory indicator. We aimed to evaluate the effects of BMSC administration after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using [18 F]DPA-714 PET. The BMSCs or vehicle were administered intravenously to rat MCAO models at 3 h after the insult...
May 2, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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