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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459261/the-immune-response-to-cmv-infection-and-vaccination-in-mice-monkeys-and-humans-recent-developments
#1
REVIEW
Ann B Hill
The immune response to CMV is characterized by extremely large T cell and antibody responses that persist for a lifetime, but do not prevent superinfection with other CMV strains. This makes generation of a vaccine against CMV very difficult, but has facilitated development of CMV-vectored vaccines, which have shown promise in mouse tumor models and in monkey models of infectious disease. The serendipitous use of a mutant rhesus CMV vector for the SIV vaccine elicited extraordinary, CD8 T cell responses restricted by MHCII and non-classical MHCI molecules which apparently provide protection against SIV...
February 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456115/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor
#2
LETTER
Menashe Elazar, Jeffrey Glenn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454995/role-of-hbx-in-hepatitis-b-virus-persistence-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#3
REVIEW
Betty L Slagle, Michael J Bouchard
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a significant risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HBx protein is required for virus replication, but the lack of robust infection models has hindered our understanding of HBx functions that could be targeted for antiviral purposes. We briefly review three properties of HBx: its binding to DDB1 and its regulation of cell survival and metabolism, to illustrate how a single viral protein can have multiple effects in a cell. We propose that different functions of HBx are needed, depending on the changing hepatocyte environment encountered during a chronic virus infection, and that these functions might serve as novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting hepatitis B virus replication and the development of associated diseases...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454894/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-article-emerging-concepts-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-delta-menashe-elazar-and-jeffrey-s-glenn-curr-opin-virol-24-2017-55-59
#4
LETTER
Andrew Vaillant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453099/impact-of-integrated-viral-dna-on-the-goal-to-clear-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-with-different-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Magnus Lindh, Gustaf E Rydell, Simon B Larsson
A hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of patients. Sustained loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg from the blood are main goals for treatment, and considered as functional cure. It is rarely achieved with long-term nucleoside analogue treatment though, both because cccDNA, the template for viral replication, is not completely cleared, and probably also because hepatocytes with HBV DNA integrated into their chromosomes persist and continue to produce large amounts of HBsAg...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453098/control-of-viral-transcripts-as-a-concept-for-future-hbv-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Christoph Seeger
Chronic hepatitis B virus infections affect over 250 million people world-wide, and, at present, are not curable. Of those, over 800000 are expected to die yearly from complications including cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A viral episomal DNA intermediate, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) can persist in nuclei of infected hepatocytes and trigger production of infectious virus. Current standard of care treatments against chronic HBV infections primarily rely on nucleoside analogs (NA) that inhibit de novo virus production by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase and, as a consequence, reducing virus titers...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452995/immune-barriers-of-ebola-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Anita K McElroy, Elke Mühlberger, César Muñoz-Fontela
Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444493/modulators-of-innate-immunity-as-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
REVIEW
Aleksei Suslov, Stefan Wieland, Stephan Menne
The first line defense mechanisms against viral infection are mediated by the innate immune system. Viral components are detected by infected cells and/or innate immune cells that express different sensory receptors. They in turn mediate induction of direct antiviral mechanisms and further modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. For evading the innate system, most viruses have evolved efficient mechanisms to block sensing and/or antiviral functions of the innate response. Interestingly, hepatitis B virus (HBV) seems to act like a stealth virus that escapes cell intrinsic antiviral mechanisms through avoiding recognition by the innate system rather than blocking its effector functions...
February 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414066/strategies-to-overcome-hbv-specific-t-cell-exhaustion-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-metabolic-re-programming
#9
REVIEW
Paola Fisicaro, Carolina Boni, Valeria Barili, Diletta Laccabue, Carlo Ferrari
HBV-specific T cells play a key role in antiviral protection and failure to control HBV is associated with severely dysfunctional T cell responses. Therefore, functional T cell reconstitution represents a potential way to treat chronically infected patients. The growing understanding of the dysregulated transcriptional/epigenetic and metabolic programs underlying T cell exhaustion allows to envisage functional T cell reconstitution strategies based on the combined/sequential use of compounds able to induce decline of antigen load, checkpoint modulation, metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming with possible boosting of functionally restored responses by specific vaccines...
January 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396307/editorial-overview-intraspecies-transmission-of-viruses
#10
EDITORIAL
Sander Herfst, Martin Ludlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452994/transmission-routes-of-respiratory-viruses-among-humans
#11
REVIEW
Jasmin S Kutter, Monique I Spronken, Pieter L Fraaij, Ron Am Fouchier, Sander Herfst
Respiratory tract infections can be caused by a wide variety of viruses. Airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols enables some of these viruses to spread efficiently among humans, causing outbreaks that are difficult to control. Many outbreaks have been investigated retrospectively to study the possible routes of inter-human virus transmission. The results of these studies are often inconclusive and at the same time data from controlled experiments is sparse. Therefore, fundamental knowledge on transmission routes that could be used to improve intervention strategies is still missing...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316493/transmission-of-morbilliviruses-within-and-among-marine-mammal-species
#12
REVIEW
Wendy K Jo, Albert Dme Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Transmission of morbilliviruses within and among marine mammal species has been documented in a variety of marine habitats. Cetacean morbillivirus spreads between cetacean species in the aquatic environment whereas both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus have been associated with transmission within and between pinniped and terrestrial carnivore species in their natural habitat and at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Periodically these viruses have caused large epizootics involving thousands of animals, due to sustained intra-species virus transmission...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306179/vector-mediated-transmission-of-persistently-transmitted-plant-viruses
#13
REVIEW
Dongsheng Jia, Qian Chen, Qianzhuo Mao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Xiangzhen Yu, Zhiqiang Wang, Taiyun Wei
Many vector-borne plant viruses of agricultural importance are persistently transmitted from plant to plant by sap-sucking insects. So far, the mechanisms for vector-mediated horizontal transmission of the viruses to plant hosts and for vertical transmission to insect offspring have been poorly understood. During horizontal transmission, intact virions or virus-induced inclusions are exploited by persistently transmitted viruses to overcome the midgut and salivary gland barriers. The existing oocyte entry paths used by vitellogenin or symbiont bacteria can mediate the vertical transmission of viruses by female insects...
January 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289900/new-advances-in-cns-immunity-against-viral-infection
#14
REVIEW
Monica Manglani, Dorian B McGavern
The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized organ where restrictive barrier structures protect the parenchyma from inflammation and infection. This protection is important in preventing damage to non-renewable resident cell populations, such as neurons, responsible for functions ranging from executive to autonomic. Despite these barriers, the CNS can be infected through several entry portals, giving rise to meningitis and encephalitis. Following infection, resident cells recruit peripherally derived immune cells to sites of viral infection...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288901/understanding-orthopoxvirus-host-range-and-evolution-from-the-enigmatic-to-the-usual-suspects
#15
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Yoshinori J Nakazawa, Jeffrey B Doty, Matthew R Mauldin
In general, orthopoxviruses can be considered as falling into one of three host-utilization categories: highly specialized, single-host; broad host range; or 'cryptic', the last encompassing those viruses about which very little is known. Single-host viruses tend to exploit abundant hosts that have consistent patterns of interaction. For these viruses, observed genome reduction and loss of presumptive host-range genes is thought to be a consequence of relaxed selection. In contrast, the large genome size retained among broad host range orthopoxviruses suggests these viruses may depend on multiple host species for persistence in nature...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287222/in-vivo-imaging-of-adaptive-immune-responses-to-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Marco De Giovanni, Matteo Iannacone
Viral infections represent a major threat for mankind. The adaptive immune system plays a key role in both viral clearance and disease pathogenesis, and, accordingly, understanding how lymphocytes interact with different viruses is critical to design more effective vaccination and therapeutic strategies. The recent advent of intravital microscopy has enabled the real-time visualization of the complex interplay between viruses and the ensuing adaptive immune response in living organisms. Here, we will review the most significant recent insights on antiviral adaptive immune responses obtained through intravital imaging...
December 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275182/the-impact-of-hiv-1-within-host-evolution-on-transmission-dynamics
#17
REVIEW
Kristof Theys, Pieter Libin, Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña, Ann Nowé, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Ana B Abecasis
The adaptive potential of HIV-1 is a vital mechanism to evade host immune responses and antiviral treatment. However, high evolutionary rates during persistent infection can impair transmission efficiency and alter disease progression in the new host, resulting in a delicate trade-off between within-host virulence and between-host infectiousness. This trade-off is visible in the disparity in evolutionary rates at within-host and between-host levels, and preferential transmission of ancestral donor viruses. Understanding the impact of within-host evolution for epidemiological studies is essential for the design of preventive and therapeutic measures...
December 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245054/understanding-the-transmission-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-at-different-scales
#18
REVIEW
David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Donald P King
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious, but despite the large quantities of FMD virus released into the environment and the extreme susceptibility of host species to infection, transmission is not always predictable. Whereas virus spread in endemic settings is characterised by frequent direct and indirect animal contacts, incursions into FMD-free countries may be seeded by low-probability events such as fomite or wind-borne aerosol routes. There remains a void between data generated from small-scale experimental studies and our ability to reliably reconstruct transmission routes at different scales between farms, countries and regions...
December 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216533/assessing-the-zoonotic-potential-of-arboviruses-of-african-origin
#19
REVIEW
Marietjie Venter
Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for example associated with abortion storms in livestock while West Nile-virus, Shuni virus and Middelburg virus causes neurological disease outbreaks in horses and other animals...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223217/editorial-overview
#20
EDITORIAL
Laura D Kramer, Maureen T Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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