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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609677/bluetongue-virus-structure-and-assembly
#1
REVIEW
Polly Roy
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of wild ruminants and livestock in many parts of the world. The virion particle is a complex structure of consecutive layers of protein surrounding a genome of ten double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. BTV has been studied as a model system for large, non-enveloped dsRNA viruses. Several new techniques have been applied to define the virus-encoded enzymes required for RNA replication to provide an order for the assembly of the capsid shell and the protein sequestration required for it...
June 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601688/structure-and-organization-of-paramyxovirus-particles
#2
REVIEW
Robert M Cox, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solved, but the available information concerning overall virion organization remains limited...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577474/promiscuous-viruses-how-do-viruses-survive-multiple-unrelated-hosts
#3
REVIEW
Gregory D Ebel
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) require efficient replication in taxonomically divergent hosts in order to perpetuate in nature. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic position of arthropod-borne viruses relative to insect-specific viruses, which appear to be more common and ecological requirements for successful adoption of the 'arbovirus phenotype.' Several molecular and other mechanisms that permit replication in divergent hosts are also discussed.
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551476/variability-in-viral-pathogenesis-modeling-the-dynamic-of-acute-and-persistent-infections
#4
REVIEW
Peter V Lidsky, Raul Andino, Igor M Rouzine
Virus infection often results in diverse outcomes. This variability of virus pathogenesis is not well understood. Here we revise theoretical arguments to further our understanding of factors controlling infection and its severity. We propose that variability in these factors results in different clinical outcomes, which ultimately ensure virus reproduction.
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550816/designing-an-hcv-vaccine-a-unique-convergence-of-prevention-and-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Christopher M Walker
Direct acting antivirals can cure chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but whether they will reduce global liver disease burden is uncertain. Most chronic infections are undiagnosed and transmission has increased in recent years. The first trial of a preventive vaccine is now underway in humans at risk for HCV infection. It will test the novel hypothesis that T cell-mediated immunity alone can prevent persistent HCV infection. Another vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies is at an advanced stage of development...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538165/the-complexity-in-herpesvirus-entry
#6
REVIEW
Karthik Sathiyamoorthy, Jia Chen, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Enveloped viruses have evolved diverse transmembrane proteins and protein complexes to enable host cell entry by regulating and activating membrane fusion in a target cell-specific manner. In general terms, the entry process requires a receptor binding step, an activation step and a membrane fusion step, which can be encoded within a single viral protein or distributed among multiple viral proteins. HIV and influenza virus, for example, encode all of these functions in a single trimeric glycoprotein, HIV env or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)...
May 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527860/biochemical-principles-and-inhibitors-to-interfere-with-viral-capping-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Etienne Decroly, Bruno Canard
Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527859/tackling-influenza-with-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#8
REVIEW
Davide Corti, Elisabetta Cameroni, Barbara Guarino, Nicole L Kallewaard, Qing Zhu, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity and inflammatory conditions and represent a new frontier for the treatment of infectious diseases. In the last decade, new methods have allowed the efficient interrogation of the human antibody repertoire from influenza immune individuals and the isolation of several monoclonal antibodies capable of dealing with the high variability of influenza viruses. Here, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the specificity, antiviral and immunological mechanisms of action and development into the clinic of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies against influenza A and B viruses...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525878/vaccine-development-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
REVIEW
Barney S Graham
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important and ubiquitous respiratory pathogen for which no vaccine is available notwithstanding more than 50 years of effort. It causes the most severe disease at the extremes of age and in settings of immunodeficiency. Although RSV is susceptible to neutralizing antibody, it has evolved multiple mechanisms of immune evasion allowing it to repeatedly infect people despite relatively little genetic diversity. Recent breakthroughs in determining the structure and antigenic content of the fusion (F) glycoprotein in its metastable untriggered prefusion form (pre-F) and the stable rearranged postfusion form (post-F) have yielded vaccine strategies that can induce potent neutralizing antibody responses and effectively boost pre-existing neutralizing activity...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511116/functional-rna-structures-throughout-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genome
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca L Adams, Nathan Pirakitikulr, Anna Marie Pyle
The single-stranded Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome adopts a set of elaborate RNA structures that are involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle. Recent advances in chemical probing, sequencing, and structural biology have facilitated analysis of RNA folding on a genome-wide scale, revealing novel structures and networks of interactions. These studies have underscored the active role played by RNA in every function of HCV and they open the door to new types of RNA-targeted therapeutics.
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505524/inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccines-the-future-of-tiv-and-qiv
#11
REVIEW
Michael Schotsaert, Adolfo García-Sastre
Influenza viruses continue to be a major public health concern, despite the availability of vaccines. Currently licensed influenza vaccines aim at the induction of antibodies that target hemagglutinin, the major antigenic determinant on the surface of influenza virions that is responsible for attachment of the virus to the host cell that is to be infected. Currently licensed influenza vaccines come as inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines and are trivalent or quadrivalent as they contain antigens of two influenza A and one or two influenza B strains that circulate in the human population, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486135/recent-advances-in-human-flavivirus-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Iris Scherwitzl, Juthathip Mongkolsapaja, Gavin Screaton
Dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses that cause thousands of human deaths and millions of illnesses each year. In the last decades, epidemic outbreaks of all three flaviviruses emerged and caused a major health and economical problem in many parts of the world. The increasing and expanding burden of flaviviruses has highlighted the need for effective human vaccines against all three viruses. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in DENV, WNV and ZIKV vaccines development with specific focus on candidates in human clinical development...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475945/emerging-concepts-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-delta
#14
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Jeffrey S Glenn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis and is associated with a higher risk of cirrhosis, liver decompensation and liver cancer. Interferon alpha is the only agent that has demonstrated efficacy to date, although response rates are low and it is associated with significant side effects. A better understanding of the relevant molecular virology has resulted in the identification of new candidate targets. Future therapeutic options are rapidly evolving as several new agents have entered clinical development, including the entry inhibitor myrcludex-B, the nucleic acid polymer REP2139-Ca inhibiting HBV surface antigen secretion, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib that targets virus assembly, and a better tolerated interferon-interferon lambda...
May 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461143/letter-to-the-editor
#15
Mamun Al-Mahtab, Michel Bazinet, Andrew Vaillant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461142/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor
#16
Anika Wranke, Heiner Wedemeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460340/immunomonitoring-of-human-responses-to-the-rvsv-zebov-ebola-vaccine
#17
REVIEW
Donata Medaglini, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is currently the only Ebola vaccine with demonstrated clinical efficacy in a ring-vaccination clinical trial. It has been shown to be reactogenic but immunogenic and safe in several Phase I clinical studies. However, its mechanisms of protection are unknown and available immunogenicity data are mostly limited to classical serological analysis; it is now of paramount importance to apply cutting-edge technologies, including transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, and to perform integrative analyses with standard serology and clinical data to comprehensively profile the rVSV-ZEBOV immune signature...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456056/virus-population-dynamics-during-infection
#18
REVIEW
Enzo Z Poirier, Marco Vignuzzi
During RNA virus infection of a host, error-prone viral replication will give rise to a cloud of genetically-linked mutants, as well as truncated, defective genomes. In this review, we describe the dynamics of viral diversity during infection, illustrating that the viral population fluctuates greatly in number of genomes and composition of mutants, in relation with the existence of physical barriers or immune pressures. We illustrate the importance of generating diversity by analyzing the case of fidelity variants, largely attenuated in vivo...
April 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453967/therapeutic-vaccination-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
REVIEW
Anna D Kosinska, Tanja Bauer, Ulrike Protzer
A therapeutic vaccine is meant to activate the patient's immune system to fight and finally control or ideally eliminate an already established infectious pathogen. Whereas the success of prophylactic vaccination is based on rapid antibody-mediated neutralization of an invading pathogen, control and elimination of persistent viruses such as hepatitis, herpes or papilloma viruses requires multi-specific and polyfunctional effector T cell responses. These are ideally directed against continuously expressed viral antigens to keep the pathogen in check...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#20
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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