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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527860/biochemical-principles-and-inhibitors-to-interfere-with-viral-capping-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Etienne Decroly, Bruno Canard
Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527859/tackling-influenza-with-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#2
REVIEW
Davide Corti, Elisabetta Cameroni, Barbara Guarino, Nicole L Kallewaard, Qing Zhu, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity and inflammatory conditions and represent a new frontier for the treatment of infectious diseases. In the last decade, new methods have allowed the efficient interrogation of the human antibody repertoire from influenza immune individuals and the isolation of several monoclonal antibodies capable of dealing with the high variability of influenza viruses. Here, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the specificity, antiviral and immunological mechanisms of action and development into the clinic of broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies against influenza A and B viruses...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525878/vaccine-development-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
REVIEW
Barney S Graham
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important and ubiquitous respiratory pathogen for which no vaccine is available notwithstanding more than 50 years of effort. It causes the most severe disease at the extremes of age and in settings of immunodeficiency. Although RSV is susceptible to neutralizing antibody, it has evolved multiple mechanisms of immune evasion allowing it to repeatedly infect people despite relatively little genetic diversity. Recent breakthroughs in determining the structure and antigenic content of the fusion (F) glycoprotein in its metastable untriggered prefusion form (pre-F) and the stable rearranged postfusion form (post-F) have yielded vaccine strategies that can induce potent neutralizing antibody responses and effectively boost pre-existing neutralizing activity...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511116/functional-rna-structures-throughout-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genome
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca L Adams, Nathan Pirakitikulr, Anna Marie Pyle
The single-stranded Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome adopts a set of elaborate RNA structures that are involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle. Recent advances in chemical probing, sequencing, and structural biology have facilitated analysis of RNA folding on a genome-wide scale, revealing novel structures and networks of interactions. These studies have underscored the active role played by RNA in every function of HCV and they open the door to new types of RNA-targeted therapeutics.
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505524/inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccines-the-future-of-tiv-and-qiv
#5
REVIEW
Michael Schotsaert, Adolfo García-Sastre
Influenza viruses continue to be a major public health concern, despite the availability of vaccines. Currently licensed influenza vaccines aim at the induction of antibodies that target hemagglutinin, the major antigenic determinant on the surface of influenza virions that is responsible for attachment of the virus to the host cell that is to be infected. Currently licensed influenza vaccines come as inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines and are trivalent or quadrivalent as they contain antigens of two influenza A and one or two influenza B strains that circulate in the human population, respectively...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486135/recent-advances-in-human-flavivirus-vaccines
#7
REVIEW
Iris Scherwitzl, Juthathip Mongkolsapaja, Gavin Screaton
Dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses that cause thousands of human deaths and millions of illnesses each year. In the last decades, epidemic outbreaks of all three flaviviruses emerged and caused a major health and economical problem in many parts of the world. The increasing and expanding burden of flaviviruses has highlighted the need for effective human vaccines against all three viruses. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in DENV, WNV and ZIKV vaccines development with specific focus on candidates in human clinical development...
May 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475945/emerging-concepts-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-delta
#8
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Jeffrey S Glenn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis and is associated with a higher risk of cirrhosis, liver decompensation and liver cancer. Interferon alpha is the only agent that has demonstrated efficacy to date, although response rates are low and it is associated with significant side effects. A better understanding of the relevant molecular virology has resulted in the identification of new candidate targets. Future therapeutic options are rapidly evolving as several new agents have entered clinical development, including the entry inhibitor myrcludex-B, the nucleic acid polymer REP2139-Ca inhibiting HBV surface antigen secretion, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib that targets virus assembly, and a better tolerated interferon-interferon lambda...
May 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461143/letter-to-the-editor
#9
Mamun Al-Mahtab, Michel Bazinet, Andrew Vaillant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461142/reply-to-letter-to-the-editor
#10
Anika Wranke, Heiner Wedemeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460340/immunomonitoring-of-human-responses-to-the-rvsv-zebov-ebola-vaccine
#11
REVIEW
Donata Medaglini, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is currently the only Ebola vaccine with demonstrated clinical efficacy in a ring-vaccination clinical trial. It has been shown to be reactogenic but immunogenic and safe in several Phase I clinical studies. However, its mechanisms of protection are unknown and available immunogenicity data are mostly limited to classical serological analysis; it is now of paramount importance to apply cutting-edge technologies, including transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, and to perform integrative analyses with standard serology and clinical data to comprehensively profile the rVSV-ZEBOV immune signature...
April 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456056/virus-population-dynamics-during-infection
#12
REVIEW
Enzo Z Poirier, Marco Vignuzzi
During RNA virus infection of a host, error-prone viral replication will give rise to a cloud of genetically-linked mutants, as well as truncated, defective genomes. In this review, we describe the dynamics of viral diversity during infection, illustrating that the viral population fluctuates greatly in number of genomes and composition of mutants, in relation with the existence of physical barriers or immune pressures. We illustrate the importance of generating diversity by analyzing the case of fidelity variants, largely attenuated in vivo...
April 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453967/therapeutic-vaccination-for-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
REVIEW
Anna D Kosinska, Tanja Bauer, Ulrike Protzer
A therapeutic vaccine is meant to activate the patient's immune system to fight and finally control or ideally eliminate an already established infectious pathogen. Whereas the success of prophylactic vaccination is based on rapid antibody-mediated neutralization of an invading pathogen, control and elimination of persistent viruses such as hepatitis, herpes or papilloma viruses requires multi-specific and polyfunctional effector T cell responses. These are ideally directed against continuously expressed viral antigens to keep the pathogen in check...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#14
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433762/novel-viral-and-host-targets-to-cure-hepatitis-b
#15
REVIEW
Chunkyu Ko, Thomas Michler, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health threat with 240 million chronic carriers at high risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral treatment can efficiently control viral replication and reduce liver inflammation, but is still quite far from achieving a cure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the virus life cycle and virus-host interaction in the past few years. With identification of the HBV receptor, cell-culture infection systems have become available that allow drug screening and establishing a pipeline of potential antivirals targeting either viral or host factors...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#16
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419938/direct-acting-antivirals-the-endgame-for-hepatitis-c
#17
REVIEW
Roberta D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Degasperi, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Directly-acting antivirals (DAA) have finally allowed all patients to be potentially cured from chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. All-oral, Interferon (IFN)-free regimens are based upon the combination of molecules targeting different sites of the HCV replication process. Three classes of DAA exist: protease inhibitors (anti-NS3/4A), RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors (anti-NS5B) and anti-NS5A inhibitors, which are characterized by different antiviral potency and barrier to resistance and therefore are usually combined in different treatment schedules...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415052/viral-gene-products-actively-promote-latent-infection-by-epigenetic-silencing-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
David M Knipe, Priya Raja, Jennifer Lee
Many viruses undergo an acute infection in the host organism and then are cleared by the ensuing host immune response, but other viruses establish a persistent infection involving a latent infection or a chronic infection. Latent infection by the herpesviruses or human immunodeficiency virus involves epigenetic silencing of the DNA genome or proviral genome, respectively. Latent infection was previously thought to be a default pathway resulting from infection of a nonpermissive cell, but recent studies have shown that viral gene products can promote epigenetic silencing and latent infection...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414993/chikungunya-virus-infections-time-to-act-time-to-treat
#19
REVIEW
Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts, Leen Delang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that caused massive outbreaks of Chikungunya fever in several countries and regions in Africa, Asia and more recently in Central and South America. An acute CHIKV infection is usually associated with fever and arthritis and it is rarely fatal. However, 15-60% of patients suffer from chronic polyarthralgia for weeks, months or even for several years after the acute infection. There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414992/airway-proteases-an-emerging-drug-target-for-influenza-and-other-respiratory-virus-infections
#20
REVIEW
Manon Laporte, Lieve Naesens
To enter into airway epithelial cells, influenza, parainfluenza- and coronaviruses rely on host cell proteases for activation of the viral protein involved in membrane fusion. One protease, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) was recently proven to be crucial for hemagglutinin cleavage of some human influenza viruses. Since the catalytic sites of the diverse serine proteases linked to influenza, parainfluenza- and coronavirus activation are structurally similar, active site inhibitors of these airway proteases could have broad therapeutic applicability against multiple respiratory viruses...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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