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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433762/novel-viral-and-host-targets-to-cure-hepatitis-b
#2
REVIEW
Chunkyu Ko, Thomas Michler, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health threat with 240 million chronic carriers at high risk to develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral treatment can efficiently control viral replication and reduce liver inflammation, but is still quite far from achieving a cure. Significant progress has been made in understanding the virus life cycle and virus-host interaction in the past few years. With identification of the HBV receptor, cell-culture infection systems have become available that allow drug screening and establishing a pipeline of potential antivirals targeting either viral or host factors...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#3
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419938/direct-acting-antivirals-the-endgame-for-hepatitis-c
#4
REVIEW
Roberta D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Degasperi, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Directly-acting antivirals (DAA) have finally allowed all patients to be potentially cured from chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. All-oral, Interferon (IFN)-free regimens are based upon the combination of molecules targeting different sites of the HCV replication process. Three classes of DAA exist: protease inhibitors (anti-NS3/4A), RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors (anti-NS5B) and anti-NS5A inhibitors, which are characterized by different antiviral potency and barrier to resistance and therefore are usually combined in different treatment schedules...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415052/viral-gene-products-actively-promote-latent-infection-by-epigenetic-silencing-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
David M Knipe, Priya Raja, Jennifer Lee
Many viruses undergo an acute infection in the host organism and then are cleared by the ensuing host immune response, but other viruses establish a persistent infection involving a latent infection or a chronic infection. Latent infection by the herpesviruses or human immunodeficiency virus involves epigenetic silencing of the DNA genome or proviral genome, respectively. Latent infection was previously thought to be a default pathway resulting from infection of a nonpermissive cell, but recent studies have shown that viral gene products can promote epigenetic silencing and latent infection...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414993/chikungunya-virus-infections-time-to-act-time-to-treat
#6
REVIEW
Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts, Leen Delang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that caused massive outbreaks of Chikungunya fever in several countries and regions in Africa, Asia and more recently in Central and South America. An acute CHIKV infection is usually associated with fever and arthritis and it is rarely fatal. However, 15-60% of patients suffer from chronic polyarthralgia for weeks, months or even for several years after the acute infection. There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414992/airway-proteases-an-emerging-drug-target-for-influenza-and-other-respiratory-virus-infections
#7
REVIEW
Manon Laporte, Lieve Naesens
To enter into airway epithelial cells, influenza, parainfluenza- and coronaviruses rely on host cell proteases for activation of the viral protein involved in membrane fusion. One protease, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) was recently proven to be crucial for hemagglutinin cleavage of some human influenza viruses. Since the catalytic sites of the diverse serine proteases linked to influenza, parainfluenza- and coronavirus activation are structurally similar, active site inhibitors of these airway proteases could have broad therapeutic applicability against multiple respiratory viruses...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412285/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-vaccines-current-status-and-novel-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Nisreen Ma Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a cause of severe respiratory infection in humans, specifically the elderly and people with comorbidities. The re-emergence of lethal coronaviruses calls for international collaboration to produce coronavirus vaccines, which are still lacking to date. Ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines should consider the different target populations (dromedary camels and humans) and the correlates of protection. Extending on our current knowledge of MERS, vaccination of dromedary camels to induce mucosal immunity could be a promising approach to diminish MERS-CoV transmission to humans...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411509/direct-acting-antivirals-and-host-targeting-strategies-to-combat-enterovirus-infections
#9
REVIEW
Lisa Bauer, Heyrhyoung Lyoo, Hilde M van der Schaar, Jeroen Rpm Strating, Frank Jm van Kuppeveld
Enteroviruses (e.g., poliovirus, enterovirus-A71, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-D68, rhinovirus) include many human pathogens causative of various mild and more severe diseases, especially in young children. Unfortunately, antiviral drugs to treat enterovirus infections have not been approved yet. Over the past decades, several direct-acting inhibitors have been developed, including capsid binders, which block virus entry, and inhibitors of viral enzymes required for genome replication. Capsid binders and protease inhibitors have been clinically evaluated, but failed due to limited efficacy or toxicity issues...
April 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410486/how-to-treat-ebola-virus-infections-a-lesson-from-the-field
#10
REVIEW
Sophie Duraffour, Denis Malvy, Daouda Sissoko
The reported case fatality ratios (CFR) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been as high as 90% in previous outbreaks. While the cumulative CFR among patients medically evacuated and treated in Western countries was inferior to 20%, it peaked to approximately 75% between September and December 2014 in West Africa, thereafter decreasing to less than 40% (May 2015) without current evidence of major virus mutations capable to alter virus pathogenicity over the course of the epidemic. Therefore, the observed diminution of CFR is likely to reflect improvement of EVD patient care...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340374/ebola-virus-persistence-as-a-new-focus-in-clinical-research
#11
REVIEW
Katie Caviness, Jens H Kuhn, Gustavo Palacios
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe acute human disease with high lethality. Viremia is typical during the acute disease phase. However, EBOV RNA can remain detectable in immune-privileged tissues for prolonged periods of time after clearance from the blood, suggesting EBOV may persist during convalescence and thereafter. Eliminating persistent EBOV is important to ensure full recovery of survivors and decrease the risk of outbreak re-ignition caused by EBOV spread from apparently healthy survivors to naive contacts...
March 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319790/within-host-rna-virus-persistence-mechanisms-and-consequences
#12
REVIEW
Richard E Randall, Diane E Griffin
In a prototypical response to an acute viral infection it would be expected that the adaptive immune response would eliminate all virally infected cells within a few weeks of infection. However many (non-retrovirus) RNA viruses can establish 'within host' persistent infections that occasionally lead to chronic or reactivated disease. Despite the importance of 'within host' persistent RNA virus infections, much has still to be learnt about the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses establish persistent infections, why innate and adaptive immune responses fail to rapidly clear these infections, and the epidemiological and potential disease consequences of such infections...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288385/alphaviruses-suppress-host-immunity-by-preventing-myeloid-cell-replication-and-antagonizing-innate-immune-responses
#13
REVIEW
Derek W Trobaugh, William B Klimstra
Alphaviruses are medically important mosquito-borne viruses that cause a range of diseases in humans from febrile illness to arthritis or encephalitis. The innate immune response functions to suppress virus replication through upregulation of antiviral molecules and contributes to development of the adaptive immune response. Myeloid cells act as master regulators of virus infection by initiating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Alphaviruses are capable of antagonizing individual components of these responses to increase replicative fitness in vivo...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285152/development-of-a-vaccine-against-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Kate Luisi, Mayuri Sharma, Dong Yu
Human cytomegalovirus causes disabling congenital disease in neonates and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, making it a high priority for vaccine development. A prophylactic vaccine needs to outperform natural immunity and a therapeutic vaccine needs to elicit rapid protective antiviral responses. This review highlights the three major approaches undertaken by vaccine developers-virus-derived, protein subunit, and gene-based approaches. Each approach offers a unique promise for a successful vaccine by eliciting either a broad immune response or inducing neutralizing antibody responses order(s) of magnitudes greater than natural immunity...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282583/control-of-immune-escaped-human-papilloma-virus-is-regained-after-therapeutic-vaccination
#15
REVIEW
Wenbo Ma, Cornelis Jm Melief, Sjoerd H van der Burg
High-risk human papillomaviruses infect the basal cells of human epithelia. There it deploys several mechanisms to suppress pathogen receptor recognition signalling, impeding the immune system to control viral infection. Furthermore, infected cells become more resistant to type I and II interferon, tumour necrosis factor-α and CD40 activation, via interference with downstream programs halting viral replication or regulating the proliferation and cell death. Consequently, some infected individuals fail to raise early protein-specific T-cell responses that are strong enough to protect against virus-induced premalignant disease and ultimately cancer...
March 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214731/jumping-species-a-mechanism-for-coronavirus-persistence-and-survival
#17
REVIEW
Vineet D Menachery, Rachel L Graham, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic transmission of novel viruses represents a significant threat to global public health and is fueled by globalization, the loss of natural habitats, and exposure to new hosts. For coronaviruses (CoVs), broad diversity exists within bat populations and uniquely positions them to seed future emergence events. In this review, we explore the host and viral dynamics that shape these CoV populations for survival, amplification, and possible emergence in novel hosts.
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279326/editorial-overview-viral-immunology-dealing-with-bad-news
#18
EDITORIAL
Jonathan W Yewdell, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279325/editorial-overview-intraspecies-transmission-of-viruses-human-to-human-transmission
#19
EDITORIAL
Ron Am Fouchier, Lin-Fa Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088686/immune-history-and-influenza-virus-susceptibility
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Cobey, Scott E Hensley
Antibody responses to influenza viruses are critical for protection, but the ways in which repeated viral exposures shape antibody evolution and effectiveness over time remain controversial. Early observations demonstrated that viral exposure history has a profound effect on the specificity and magnitude of antibody responses to a new viral strain, a phenomenon called 'original antigenic sin.' Although 'sin' might suppress some aspects of the immune response, so far there is little indication that hosts with pre-existing immunity are more susceptible to viral infections compared to naïve hosts...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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