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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216533/assessing-the-zoonotic-potential-of-arboviruses-of-african-origin
#1
REVIEW
Marietjie Venter
Several African arboviruses have emerged over the past decade in new regions where they caused major outbreaks in humans and/or animals including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. This raise questions regarding the importance of less known zoonotic arboviruses in local epidemics in Africa and their potential to emerge internationally. Syndromic surveillance in animals may serve as an early warning system to detect zoonotic arbovirus outbreaks. Rift Valley fever and Wesselsbronvirus are for example associated with abortion storms in livestock while West Nile-virus, Shuni virus and Middelburg virus causes neurological disease outbreaks in horses and other animals...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182939/the-lyssavirus-host-specificity-conundrum-rabies-virus-the-exception-not-the-rule
#2
REVIEW
Denise A Marston, Ashley C Banyard, Lorraine M McElhinney, Conrad M Freuling, Stefan Finke, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Müller, Anthony R Fooks
Lyssaviruses are a diverse range of viruses which all cause the disease rabies. Of the 16 recognized species, only rabies viruses (RABV) have multiple host reservoirs. Although lyssaviruses are capable of infecting all mammals, onward transmission in a new host population requires adaptation of the virus, in a number of stages with both host and virus factors determining the outcome. Due to an absence of recorded non-RABV host shifts, RABV data is extrapolated to draw conclusions for all lyssaviruses. In this article, we have focused on evidence of host shifts in the same insectivorous bat reservoir species in North America (RABV) and Europe (EBLV-1, EBLV-2 and BBLV)...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175730/formation-and-function-of-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-during-viral-infection
#3
REVIEW
Haina Shin
Memory T cells are an important component of the adaptive immune response. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are a recently described subset of memory T cells that reside in peripheral tissues and are maintained independently of circulating subsets of memory T cells. Importantly, TRM are frequently found in barrier tissues that commonly serve as entry portals for pathogens such as viruses. Mounting evidence shows that TRM are superior to their circulating counterparts in conferring protective immunity against a wide range of viruses...
November 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175731/consequences-of-perinatal-infections-with-rubella-measles-and-mumps
#4
REVIEW
Erika R Schwarz
Measles, mumps, and rubella have recently taken the stage as re-emerging diseases of public health importance-particularly in regards to the consequences seen with perinatal infections. Effective vaccination strategies have successfully reduced the spread of measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States, but a current trend of increased vaccination hesitancy, fear of vaccine safety, and spread of misconceptions surrounding the science of vaccines have led to a relative resurgence of these diseases in the developed world...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175515/innate-immune-control-of-alphavirus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Kathryn S Carpentier, Thomas E Morrison
Alphaviruses are important human pathogens that cause diseases ranging from acute and chronic polyarthralgia to encephalitis. Transmitted by mosquito vectors, alphaviruses have high potential for emergence and have initiated several recent epidemics. The innate immune response is critical for controlling the acute phase of alphavirus disease, and the induction of type I interferon (IFN) is essential in this response. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of innate host sensors that initiate antiviral responses following alphavirus infection, and the IFN-induced effector proteins that limit alphavirus replication and dissemination...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172071/zika-virus-infection-of-first-trimester-human-placentas-utility-of-an-explant-model-of-replication-to-evaluate-correlates-of-immune-protection-ex-vivo
#6
REVIEW
Matthew Petitt, Takako Tabata, Henry Puerta-Guardo, Eva Harris, Lenore Pereira
The emergence of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) disease, with its devastating effects on the fetus, has prompted development of vaccines and examination of how ZIKV breaches the maternal-fetal barrier. Infection of placental and decidual tissue explants has demonstrated cell types at the uterine-placental interface susceptible to infection and suggests routes for transmission across the placenta and amniochorionic membrane. ZIKV replicates in proliferating Hofbauer cells within chorionic villi in placentas from severe congenital infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172070/vertical-transmission-of-positive-sense-single-stranded-rna-viruses-in-plants-as-a-model-for-arboviral-induced-teratogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Kelli L Barr
Teratogenic viruses have increased public health importance with the emergence of Zika virus and a recent decline in rubella virus vaccination. Of the seven viruses known to cause birth defects in humans, three are mosquito-borne pathogens. Ethical oversight, compliance, rising costs, and the need for specialized training slow the pace of study of these human pathogens compared to study of similar teratogenic viruses in plants. Plant viruses have served as models for human viruses which can be applied to animal systems...
November 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172107/immune-responses-in-influenza-a-virus-and-human-coronavirus-infections-an-ongoing-battle-between-the-virus-and-host
#8
REVIEW
Jian Zheng, Stanley Perlman
Respiratory viruses, especially influenza A viruses and coronaviruses such as MERS-CoV, represent continuing global threats to human health. Despite significant advances, much needs to be learned. Recent studies in virology and immunology have improved our understanding of the role of the immune system in protection and in the pathogenesis of these infections and of co-evolution of viruses and their hosts. These findings, together with sophisticated molecular structure analyses, omics tools and computer-based models, have helped delineate the interaction between respiratory viruses and the host immune system, which will facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies and vaccines with enhanced efficacy...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156318/how-host-metabolism-impacts-on-virus-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Barry T Rouse
The outcome of virus infections depends on multiple factors. This review deals with the role of host metabolism as one such factor. We describe how different cells in the immune system employ differential metabolic pathways and how this relates to the outcome of virus infections. We also discuss how nutritional and metabolic diseases can influence the nature of viral pathogenesis as well as how targeted therapies against metabolic processes can impact on the outcome of virus infections. The case is also made for metabolic profiling as a potential tool to predict the outcome of a virus infection and to guide therapies that enhance host resistance...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128744/comparison-of-two-zoonotic-viruses-from-the-order-bunyavirales
#10
REVIEW
Leela E Noronha, William C Wilson
A comparison of two geographicallly distinct viruses in the order Bunyavirales that are zoonotic and known to cause congenital abnormalities in ruminant livestock was performed. One of these viruses, Cache Valley fever virus, is found in the Americas and is primarily associated with disease in sheep. The other, Rift Valley fever virus, is found in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with disease in camels, cattle, goats and sheep. Neither virus has been associated with teratogenicity in humans to date. These two viruses are briefly reviewed and potential for genetic changes especially if introduced into new ecology that could affect pathogenicity are discussed...
November 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121508/host-and-virus-ecology-as-determinants-of-influenza-a-virus-transmission-in-wild-birds
#11
REVIEW
Jacintha Gb van Dijk, Josanne H Verhagen, Michelle Wille, Jonas Waldenström
Low pathogenic influenza A virus (LPIAV) prevalence and subtype distribution differs between and across bird taxa. A crucial factor in the epidemiology of these viruses and virus subtypes is the ability to transmit between and within different host taxa and individuals. Successful viral transmission depends on availability of susceptible hosts and exposure of host to virus. Exposure to viruses and susceptibility to virus infection and/or disease are shaped by both host and virus traits. In this review we have identified key host and virus traits that can affect LPIAV transmission, both in terms of exposure and susceptibility...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107849/teratogenic-bluetongue-and-related-orbivirus-infections-in-pregnant-ruminant-livestock-timing-and-pathogen-genetics-are-critical
#12
REVIEW
N James Maclachlan, Bennie I Osburn
Congenital infections of domestic animals with viruses in several families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviridae, Parvoviridae, and Reoviridae, are the cause of naturally occurring teratogenic central nervous system and/or musculoskeletal defects (arthrogryposis) in domestic animals. Congenital infections of ruminant livestock with bluetongue virus (BTV) and some related members of the genus Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) have clearly shown the critical role of gestational age at infection in determining outcome...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107838/genetic-bottlenecks-in-intraspecies-virus-transmission
#13
REVIEW
John T McCrone, Adam S Lauring
Ultimately, viral evolution is a consequence of mutations that arise within and spread between infected hosts. The transmission bottleneck determines how much of the viral diversity generated in one host passes to another during transmission. It therefore plays a vital role in linking within-host processes to larger evolutionary trends. Although many studies suggest that transmission severely restricts the amount of genetic diversity that passes between individuals, there are important exceptions to this rule...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096232/akabane-aino-and-schmallenberg-virus-where-do-we-stand-and-what-do-we-know-about-the-role-of-domestic-ruminant-hosts-and-culicoides-vectors-in-virus-transmission-and-overwintering
#14
REVIEW
Nick De Regge
Akabane, Aino and Schmallenberg virus belong to the Simbu serogroup of Orthobunyaviruses and depend on Culicoides vectors for their spread between ruminant hosts. Infections of adults are mostly asymptomatic or associated with only mild symptoms, while transplacental crossing of these viruses to the developing fetus can have important teratogenic effects. Research mainly focused on congenital malformations has established a correlation between the developmental stage at which a fetus is infected and the outcome of an Akabane virus infection...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096233/parvovirus-b19-infection-in-pregnancy-awareness-and-opportunities
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Bonvicini, Gloria Bua, Giorgio Gallinella
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogenic virus associated with a wide range of clinical conditions. In pregnancy, B19V poses a potential hazard to the fetus as crossing the placental barrier and infecting erythroid progenitor cells in bone marrow and liver, it blocks fetal erythropoiesis leading to profound anemia, hydrops and/or fetal death. The virus is not regarded as a teratogen, however more scientific awareness is emerging on mechanisms and consequences of intrauterine infection and possible sequelae in the neonatal development...
October 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080429/consequences-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Derek J Platt, Jonathan J Miner
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas led to the discovery that ZIKV causes congenital abnormalities including microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and eye disease that can result in blindness. Studies in animal models and human organoid cultures, together with human epidemiological studies, have shown that ZIKV crosses the placenta and subsequently replicates within fetal tissues including the developing brain. Preferential infection of neural cell precursors causes damage to the developing fetal brain...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080420/activation-and-trafficking-of-cd8-t-cells-during-viral-skin-infection-immunological-lessons-learned-from-vaccinia-virus
#17
REVIEW
Samuel J Hobbs, Jossef F Osborn, Jeffrey C Nolz
Epicutaneous delivery of vaccinia virus (VacV) by scarification of the skin generates robust and durable protective immunity, which was ultimately responsible for eradicating smallpox from the human race. Therefore, infection of the skin with VacV is often used in experimental model systems to study the activation of adaptive immunity, as well as the development and functional features of immunological memory. Here, we describe recent advances using this viral infection to identify and characterize the mechanisms regulating the activation and trafficking of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells into the inflamed skin, the migratory features of CD8(+) T cells within the skin microenvironment, and finally, their subsequent differentiation into tissue-resident memory cells...
October 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035743/transmission-of-henipaviruses
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Weatherman, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
The genus Henipavirus has expanded rapidly in geographic range, number of species, and host range. Hendra and Nipah virus are two henipaviruses known to cause severe disease in humans with a high case-fatality rate. Pteropid spp. bats are the natural reservoir of Hendra and Nipah virus. From these bats, virus can be transmitted to an amplifying host, horses and pigs, and from these hosts to humans, or the virus can be transmitted directly to humans. Although the main route of shedding varies between host species, close contact is required for transmission in all hosts...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024905/hantavirus-maintenance-and-transmission-in-reservoir-host-populations
#19
REVIEW
Kristian M Forbes, Tarja Sironen, Alexander Plyusnin
Hantaviruses are primarily hosted by mammalian species of the orders Rodentia, Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Spillover to humans is common, and understanding hantavirus maintenance and transmission in reservoir host populations is important for efforts to curtail human disease. Recent field research challenges traditional phases of virus shedding kinetics derived from laboratory rodent infection experiments. Organ infection sites in non-rodent hosts suggest similar transmission routes to rodents, but require direct assessment...
October 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223217/editorial-overview
#20
EDITORIAL
Laura D Kramer, Maureen T Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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