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Current Opinion in Virology

Miranda de Graaf, Relja Beck, Simone M Caccio, Birgitta Duim, Pieter LA Fraaij, Françoise S Le Guyader, Marc Lecuit, Jacques Le Pendu, Emmie de Wit, Constance Schultsz
Bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic pathogens that transmit via the fecal-oral route have a major impact on global health. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of such pathogens from the animal reservoir and their persistence in the human population are poorly understood. Here, we present a framework of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic pathogens that considers the factors relevant for fecal-oral human-to-human transmission route at the levels of host, pathogen, and environment. We discuss current data gaps and propose future research directions...
November 23, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Anika Wranke, Heiner Wedemeyer
Hepatitis B-/D-virus co-infection causes the most severe form of viral hepatitis, frequently leading to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and consecutive liver-related mortality. Treatment options for hepatitis delta are limited. The only recommended therapy is pegylated interferon alpha which leads to virological responses in about 25-30% of patients. However, interferon therapy is associated with frequent side-effects and late HDV RNA relapses have been described during long-term follow even in patients who were HDV RNA negative 24 weeks after the end of therapy...
October 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Nathan D Grubaugh, Gregory D Ebel
West Nile virus remains the most common cause of arboviral encephalitis in North America. Since it was introduced, it has undergone adaptive genetic change as it spread throughout the continent. The WNV transmission cycle is relatively tractable in the laboratory. Thus the virus serves as a convenient model system for studying the population biology of mosquito-borne flaviviruses as they undergo transmission to and from mosquitoes and vertebrates. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the population dynamics of this virus within mosquito vectors...
October 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Fadila Amraoui, Anna-Bella Failloux
Since the first outbreak of chikungunya in Italy in 2007, Europe has been facing an increase in local transmission of arboviral diseases. Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are both transmitted by the mosquito Aedes albopictus present in 20 European countries. CHIKV emergence in Europe was mainly associated with the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype, recently exemplified by the 11 CHIKV cases in southern France in 2014. Despite hundreds of travelers returning from the Americas where the Asian CHIKV genotype was responsible for more than one million cases, no autochthonous transmission associated with the Asian genotype was reported in Europe...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Karla Kirkegaard, Nicholas J van Buuren, Roberto Mateo
If a freshly minted genome contains a mutation that confers drug resistance, will it be selected in the presence of the drug? Not necessarily. During viral infections, newly synthesized viral genomes occupy the same cells as parent and other progeny genomes. If the antiviral target is chosen so that the drug-resistant progeny's growth is dominantly inhibited by the drug-susceptible members of its intracellular family, its outgrowth can be suppressed. Precedent for 'dominant drug targeting' as a deliberate approach to suppress the outgrowth of inhibitor-resistant viruses has been established for envelope variants of vesicular stomatitis virus and for capsid variants of poliovirus and dengue virus...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Joana Rocha-Pereira, Jana Van Dycke, Johan Neyts
Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness causing both acute and chronic gastroenteritis. In recent years, a number of vaccine candidates entered (pre-) clinical development and the first efforts to develop antiviral therapy have been made. We here discuss aspects of norovirus genetic evolution, persistence in immunocompromised patients as well as the risk and potential consequences of resistance development toward future antiviral drugs.
October 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Frank Buchholz, Joachim Hauber
Chronic viral infections are often incurable because current antiviral strategies do not target chromosomally integrated or non-replicating episomal viral genomes. The rapid development of technologies for genome editing may possibly soon allow for therapeutic targeting of viral genomes and, hence, for development of curative strategies for persistent viral infection. However, detailed investigation of different antiviral genome editing approaches recently revealed various undesired effects. In particular, the problem of frequent and swift development of resistant viruses has to be thoroughly analysed before genome editing approaches become an established option for antiviral treatment...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Walter J Tabachnick
Mosquitoes transmit many viruses to a variety of hosts. Cycles of mosquito borne arbovirus transmission are the result of complex interactions between the mosquito, the arbovirus and the host that are influenced by genetic variations in a variety of traits in each that are all influenced by many environmental factors. R0, the basic reproduction number or mean number of individuals infected from a single infected individual, is a measure of mosquito borne arbovirus transmission. Understanding the causes for the distribution of R0 in any transmission cycle is a daunting challenge due to the lack of information on the genetic and environmental variances that influence R0...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Jennifer Totonchy, Ethel Cesarman
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are highly increased in incidence in individuals infected with HIV, and this continues to be the case in spite of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). New evidence has demonstrated that while successful virtual recovery of CD4 counts and elimination of HIV from peripheral blood can be achieved with cART, viral replication can still occur in lymphoid tissues. In addition, recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue provides an additional reservoir for HIV-infected macrophages and T lymphocytes even in the context of successful cART therapy...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Nelson Martins, Jean-Luc Imler, Carine Meignin
Developing antiviral drugs is challenging due to the small number of targets in viruses, and the rapid evolution of viral genes. Animals have evolved a number of efficient antiviral defence mechanisms, which can serve as a source of inspiration for novel therapies. The genetically tractable insect Drosophila belongs to the most diverse group of animals. Genetic and transcriptomic analyses have recently identified Drosophila genes encoding viral restriction factors. Some of them represent evolutionary novelties and their characterization may provide hints for the design of directly acting antivirals...
September 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Brian G Pierce, Zhen-Yong Keck, Steven Kh Foung
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global disease burden, often leading to chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis, cancer, and death in those infected. Despite the recent approval of antiviral therapeutics, a preventative vaccine is recognized as the most effective means to control HCV globally, particularly in at-risk and developing country populations. Here we describe the efforts and challenges related to the development of an HCV vaccine, which after decades of research have not been successful. Viral sequence variability poses a major challenge, yet recent research has provided unprecedented views of the atomic structure of HCV epitopes and immune recognition by antibodies and T cell receptors...
September 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Eliana G Acosta, Ralf Bartenschlager
Dengue virus (DENV) is a human threat of increasing importance. Although a tetravalent vaccine has been recently approved, owing to limited efficacy there is still an urgent need for antiviral drugs to prevent or treat DENV infections. Traditionally, antiviral drug discovery has focused on molecules targeting viral factors. However, thus far the identification of direct-acting antiviral drugs with potent DENV pan-serotypic activity has been problematic. An alternative are host-targeting antiviral drugs that hold great promise for broad-spectrum activity...
September 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Kerry E Mauck
Virus infection can elicit changes in host plant cues that mediate vector orientation, feeding, and dispersal. Given the importance of plant cues for vector-mediated virus transmission, it is unlikely that selection is blind to these effects. Indeed, there are many examples of viruses altering plant cues in ways that should enhance transmission. However, there are also examples of viruses inducing transmission-limiting plant phenotypes. These apparently mal-adaptive effects occur when viruses experience host plant environments that also limit infectivity or within-host multiplication...
September 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Svetlana Atasheva, Dmitry M Shayakhmetov
The host immune system developed multiple ways for recognition of viral pathogens. Upon disseminated adenovirus infection, the immune system senses adenovirus invasion from the moment it enters the bloodstream. The soluble blood factors, FX, antibodies, and complement, can bind and activate plethora of host-protective immune responses. Adenovirus binding to the cellular β3 integrin and endosomal membrane rupture trigger activation of IL-1α/IL-1R1 proinflammatory cascade leading to attraction of cytotoxic immune cells to the site of infection...
September 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Chiara Borsotti, Ester Borroni, Antonia Follenzi
Lentiviral vectors (LVs)-mediated gene transfer is an efficient method for ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy. Actually, LVs have been used in several clinical trials and therapeutic correction was reached in affected patients. However, in order to be effective gene therapy needs to be efficient without detrimental effects for target cells. Successful cell transduction by LVs can be hampered by several factors such as the activation of innate immune sensors during cell transduction and different restriction factors (RFs) inhibiting viral replication inside the cells...
September 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
William F Goins, Bonnie Hall, Justus B Cohen, Joseph C Glorioso
Gene therapy applications depend on vector delivery and gene expression in the appropriate target cell. Vector infection relies on the distribution of natural virus receptors that may either not be present on the desired target cell or distributed in a manner to give off-target gene expression. Some viruses display a very limited host range, while others, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), can infect almost every cell within the human body. It is often an advantage to retarget virus infectivity to achieve selective target cell infection...
September 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Thomas F Baumert, Catherine Schuster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Ann Moormann, Christian Münz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Michaela U Gack, Michael S Diamond
Dengue (DENV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses are mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Disease severity and pathogenesis of DENV and WNV infections in humans depend on many factors, including pre-existing immunity, strain virulence, host genetics and virus-host interactions. Among the flavivirus-host interactions, viral evasion of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity has a critical role in modulating pathogenesis. DENV and WNV have evolved effective strategies to evade immune surveillance pathways that lead to IFN induction and to block signaling downstream of the IFN-α/β receptor...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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