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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777955/perspectives-and-limitations-for-nucleo-t-side-analogs-in-future-hbv-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Massimo Levrero, Miroslava Subic, Francois Villeret, Fabien Zoulim
The latest generation of nucleo(t)side analogs (NAs) provide robust virus suppression with high barrier to resistance. Long term NAs treatment is associated with a partial restoration in HBV-specific T-cell functions, regression of fibrosis, no disease progression and a reduction of HCC risk but rarely lead to cure and life-long treatments is often required. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775812/virus-entry-and-its-inhibition-to-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Tu, Stephan Urban
While chronic infection with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) inflict major health burdens worldwide, current therapies cannot cure patients. One possible novel approach is blocking virus entry to prevent the establishment of infection in naïve hepatocytes. As HBV and HDV use identical viral envelope proteins and the same entry mechanisms, such a strategy would target both viruses. Entry inhibitors (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) have been relegated to the limited role of prophylaxis...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754860/norovirus-glycans-and-attachment
#3
REVIEW
Stefan Taube, Alvaro Mallagaray, Thomas Peters
Noroviruses engage glycans as essential attachment factors to promote infection of host cells. The past decade has witnessed significant progress in the field of norovirus research. Cell culture systems and animal models have become available, and structural biology and biophysics have significantly expanded our understanding of norovirus-glycan interactions. From crystallography, many high-resolution crystal structures are now available disclosing key elements of glycan recognition at atomic resolution. On this basis, NMR spectroscopy, native mass spectrometry, and biophysical techniques targeting membrane attached glycans have raised more intricate questions about the nature of norovirus-glycan attachment implying that a static picture of glycan recognition is insufficient...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751272/overcoming-immune-tolerance-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-by-therapeutic-vaccination
#4
REVIEW
Claudia Dembek, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf
The currently used nucleoside analogs (i.e. entecavir and tenofovir) with high barrier-to-resistance efficiently suppress viral replication, limit inflammation and reduce the sequelae of chronic hepatitis B, but cannot cure the disease and thus have to be applied long-term. Therapeutic vaccination as an approach to cure chronic hepatitis B has shown promising pre-clinical results, nevertheless the proof of its efficacy in clinical trials is still missing. This may be partially due to suboptimal vaccine design...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738926/viral-envelope-specific-antibodies-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Davide Corti, Fabio Benigni, Daniel Shouval
While the cellular immune response associated with acute and chronic HBV infection has been thoroughly studied, the B cell response in chronic hepatitis B and the role of antibodies raised against the HBV envelope antigens in controlling and prevention of infection requires further investigation. The detection of anti-HBs antibodies is considered as one of the biomarkers for functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, as well as for protective immunity. Indeed, vaccine-induced neutralizing anti-HBs antibodies have been shown to protect against HBV challenge...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684735/crispr-genetic-screens-to-discover-host-virus-interactions
#6
REVIEW
William M McDougall, Jill M Perreira, Erin C Reynolds, Abraham L Brass
Viruses impose an immense burden on human health. With the goal of treating and preventing viral infections, researchers have carried out genetic screens to improve our understanding of viral dependencies and identify potential anti-viral strategies. The emergence of CRISPR genetic screening tools has facilitated this effort by enabling host-virus screens to be undertaken in a more versatile and fidelitous manner than previously possible. Here we review the growing number of CRISPR screens which continue to increase our understanding of host-virus interactions...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655092/why-who-and-when-to-start-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#7
REVIEW
Grace E Dolman, Apostolos Koffas, William S Mason, Patrick Tf Kennedy
Chronic hepatitis B remains a major global health challenge due to morbidity and mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma and complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatment regimens are non-curative and, once initiated, treatment is of indefinite duration for the majority. The decision to initiate treatment decisions is based on risk stratification. Advances in our understanding of the natural history of chronic hepatitis B have led to a paradigm shift in recommendations for treatment. Emerging non-invasive biomarkers of disease activity will further enhance disease stratification...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642053/current-status-of-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-vaccine-development
#8
REVIEW
Lisa M Reece, David Wc Beasley, Gregg N Milligan, Vanessa V Sarathy, Alan Dt Barrett
Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) is a new emerging tick-borne disease caused by the phlebovirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The virus was discovered in central China in 2009 and has since been identified in both Japan and South Korea. Significant progress has been made on the molecular biology of the virus, and this has been used to develop diagnostic assays and reagents. Less progress has been made on the epidemiology, maintenance and transmission, clinical manifestations, immunological responses, and treatment regimens...
April 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604551/the-use-of-humanized-mice-for-studies-of-viral-pathogenesis-and-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Florian Douam, Alexander Ploss
Humanized mice, that is, animals engrafted with human tissues and/or expressing human genes, have been instrumental in improving our understanding of the pathogenesis and immunological processes that define some of the most challenging human-tropic viruses. In particular, mice engrafted with components of a human immune system (HIS) offer unprecedented opportunities for mechanistic studies of human immune responses to infection. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current panel of HIS mouse models available and cite recent examples of how such humanized animals have been used to study immune responses and pathogenesis elicited by human-tropic viruses...
March 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598852/editorial-overview-preventive-and-therapeutic-vaccines
#10
EDITORIAL
Marc Hv Van Regenmortel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597086/the-use-of-longitudinal-cohorts-for-studies-of-dengue-viral-pathogenesis-and-protection
#11
REVIEW
Leah C Katzelnick, Eva Harris
In this review, we describe how longitudinal prospective community-based, school-based, and household-based cohort studies contribute to improving our knowledge of viral disease, focusing specifically on contributions to understanding and preventing dengue. We describe how longitudinal cohorts enable measurement of essential disease parameters and risk factors; provide insights into biological correlates of protection and disease risk; enable rapid application of novel biological and statistical technologies; lead to development of new interventions and inform vaccine trial design; serve as sentinels in outbreak conditions and facilitate development of critical diagnostic assays; enable holistic studies on disease in the context of other infections, comorbidities, and environmental risk factors; and build research capacity that strengthens national and global public health response and disease surveillance...
March 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558678/the-use-of-single-cell-rna-seq-to-understand-virus-host-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Sara Cristinelli, Angela Ciuffi
Single-cell analyses allow uncovering cellular heterogeneity, not only per se, but also in response to viral infection. Similarly, single cell transcriptome analyses (scRNA-Seq) can highlight specific signatures, identifying cell subsets with particular phenotypes, which are relevant in the understanding of virus-host interactions.
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550741/recent-advances-in-veterinary-applications-of-structural-vaccinology
#13
REVIEW
Bryan Charleston, Simon P Graham
The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549802/fundamental-challenges-to-the-development-of-a-preventive-hiv-vaccine
#14
REVIEW
Adan Rios
There is consensus that only a preventive vaccine can contain the HIV/AIDS pandemic. After 30 years still there is no preventive HIV vaccine. This article examines fundamental challenges to the development of a preventive HIV vaccine. They include the initially erroneous but powerful perception of the natural history of HIV disease, as an acute rather than a chronic illness even in the absence of therapy, the lack of appreciation of the quasispecies biology of HIV and the abandonment of principles of immunology theory caused by the allure of technological prowess...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544088/the-need-for-improved-vaccines-against-foot-and-mouth-disease
#15
REVIEW
Teresa de Los Santos, Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Luis L Rodriguez
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be the viral disease posing the greatest economic threat to agriculture. An unusually fast replication rate, extreme transmissibility, broad species tropism and antigenic diversity have made its etiologic agent, FMD virus, a difficult pathogen to defeat. Over the last 70 years, use of an inactivated virus vaccine has played a key role in disease control and eradication was possible in certain regions of the world. However, a rapidly changing environment, increased trade, population growth, international travel and migration, contribute to disease resurgence, challenging the capabilities of any available vaccine...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735182/-unknown-title
#16
EDITORIAL
Harry B Greenberg, Diane E Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#17
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514112/rift-valley-fever-vaccines-current-and-future-needs
#18
REVIEW
Baptiste Dungu, Baratang A Lubisi, Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne bunyaviral disease associated with high abortion rates, neonatal deaths, and fetal malformations in ruminants, and mild to severe disease in humans. Outbreaks of RVF cause huge economic losses and public health impacts in endemic countries in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A proper vaccination strategy is important for preventing or minimizing outbreaks. Vaccination against RVF is not practiced in many countries, however, due to absence or irregular occurrences of outbreaks, despite serological evidence of RVF viral activity...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477122/recent-advances-in-viral-vectors-in-veterinary-vaccinology
#19
REVIEW
Michael D Baron, Munir Iqbal, Venugopal Nair
Viral vectored vaccines, particularly using vectors such as adenovirus, herpesvirus and poxviruses, are used widely in veterinary medicine, where this technology has been adopted much more quickly than in human medicine. There are now a large number of programmes to develop viral vector vaccine platforms for humans and very similar or identical vectors are being developed for veterinary medicine. The shared experiences of developing these new vaccine platforms across the two disciplines is accelerating progress, a striking example of the value of a 'One Health' approach...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444493/modulators-of-innate-immunity-as-novel-therapeutics-for-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
REVIEW
Aleksei Suslov, Stefan Wieland, Stephan Menne
The first line defense mechanisms against viral infection are mediated by the innate immune system. Viral components are detected by infected cells and/or innate immune cells that express different sensory receptors. They in turn mediate induction of direct antiviral mechanisms and further modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. For evading the innate system, most viruses have evolved efficient mechanisms to block sensing and/or antiviral functions of the innate response. Interestingly, hepatitis B virus (HBV) seems to act like a stealth virus that escapes cell intrinsic antiviral mechanisms through avoiding recognition by the innate system rather than blocking its effector functions...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
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