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Current Opinion in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319790/within-host-rna-virus-persistence-mechanisms-and-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Richard E Randall, Diane E Griffin
In a prototypical response to an acute viral infection it would be expected that the adaptive immune response would eliminate all virally infected cells within a few weeks of infection. However many (non-retrovirus) RNA viruses can establish 'within host' persistent infections that occasionally lead to chronic or reactivated disease. Despite the importance of 'within host' persistent RNA virus infections, much has still to be learnt about the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses establish persistent infections, why innate and adaptive immune responses fail to rapidly clear these infections, and the epidemiological and potential disease consequences of such infections...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288385/alphaviruses-suppress-host-immunity-by-preventing-myeloid-cell-replication-and-antagonizing-innate-immune-responses
#2
REVIEW
Derek W Trobaugh, William B Klimstra
Alphaviruses are medically important mosquito-borne viruses that cause a range of diseases in humans from febrile illness to arthritis or encephalitis. The innate immune response functions to suppress virus replication through upregulation of antiviral molecules and contributes to development of the adaptive immune response. Myeloid cells act as master regulators of virus infection by initiating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Alphaviruses are capable of antagonizing individual components of these responses to increase replicative fitness in vivo...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285152/development-of-a-vaccine-against-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Kate Luisi, Mayuri Sharma, Dong Yu
Human cytomegalovirus causes disabling congenital disease in neonates and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, making it a high priority for vaccine development. A prophylactic vaccine needs to outperform natural immunity and a therapeutic vaccine needs to elicit rapid protective antiviral responses. This review highlights the three major approaches undertaken by vaccine developers-virus-derived, protein subunit, and gene-based approaches. Each approach offers a unique promise for a successful vaccine by eliciting either a broad immune response or inducing neutralizing antibody responses order(s) of magnitudes greater than natural immunity...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282583/control-of-immune-escaped-human-papilloma-virus-is-regained-after-therapeutic-vaccination
#4
REVIEW
Wenbo Ma, Cornelis Jm Melief, Sjoerd H van der Burg
High-risk human papillomaviruses infect the basal cells of human epithelia. There it deploys several mechanisms to suppress pathogen receptor recognition signalling, impeding the immune system to control viral infection. Furthermore, infected cells become more resistant to type I and II interferon, tumour necrosis factor-α and CD40 activation, via interference with downstream programs halting viral replication or regulating the proliferation and cell death. Consequently, some infected individuals fail to raise early protein-specific T-cell responses that are strong enough to protect against virus-induced premalignant disease and ultimately cancer...
March 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#5
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214731/jumping-species-a-mechanism-for-coronavirus-persistence-and-survival
#6
REVIEW
Vineet D Menachery, Rachel L Graham, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic transmission of novel viruses represents a significant threat to global public health and is fueled by globalization, the loss of natural habitats, and exposure to new hosts. For coronaviruses (CoVs), broad diversity exists within bat populations and uniquely positions them to seed future emergence events. In this review, we explore the host and viral dynamics that shape these CoV populations for survival, amplification, and possible emergence in novel hosts.
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113112/interplay-between-hiv-1-innate-sensing-and-restriction-in-mucosal-dendritic-cells-balancing-defense-and-viral-transmission
#7
REVIEW
Nina Hertoghs, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Carla M S Ribeiro
Innate sensing of HIV-1 by dendritic cells (DCs) initiates cell-intrinsic signalling programs that direct virus restriction and antiviral defenses. These responses include the production of type I interferon (IFN) and a large number of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with a broad spectrum of antiviral effector functions. Initial interactions of HIV-1 at the mucosal surfaces with DC-expressed innate immune factors including cGAS, TRIM5α and SAMHD1 are predictive of viraemia, inflammation and disease pathogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279326/editorial-overview-viral-immunology-dealing-with-bad-news
#8
EDITORIAL
Jonathan W Yewdell, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279325/editorial-overview-intraspecies-transmission-of-viruses-human-to-human-transmission
#9
EDITORIAL
Ron Am Fouchier, Lin-Fa Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088686/immune-history-and-influenza-virus-susceptibility
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Cobey, Scott E Hensley
Antibody responses to influenza viruses are critical for protection, but the ways in which repeated viral exposures shape antibody evolution and effectiveness over time remain controversial. Early observations demonstrated that viral exposure history has a profound effect on the specificity and magnitude of antibody responses to a new viral strain, a phenomenon called 'original antigenic sin.' Although 'sin' might suppress some aspects of the immune response, so far there is little indication that hosts with pre-existing immunity are more susceptible to viral infections compared to naïve hosts...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#11
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088123/antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-and-influenza-virus
#12
REVIEW
Hillary A Vanderven, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent
Antibodies are a key defence against influenza infection and disease, but neutralizing antibodies are often strain-specific and of limited utility against divergent or pandemic viruses. There is now considerable evidence that influenza-specific antibodies with Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), can assist in the clearance of influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. Further, ADCC-mediating antibodies that recognize a broad array of influenza strains are common in humans, likely as a result of being regularly exposed to influenza infections...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086150/the-role-of-cd27-in-anti-viral-t-cell-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Emma J Grant, Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, E Bridie Clemens, Katherine Kedzierska
CD27 is a co-stimulatory immune-checkpoint receptor, constitutively expressed on a broad range of T-cells (αβ and γδ), NK-cells and B-cells. Ligation of CD27 with CD70 results in potent co-stimulatory effects. In mice, co-stimulation of CD8(+) T-cells through CD27 promotes immune activation and enhances primary, secondary, memory and recall responses towards viral infections. Limited in vitro human studies support mouse experiments and show that CD27 co-stimulation enhances antiviral T-cell immunity. Given the potent co-stimulatory effects of CD27, manipulating CD27 signalling is of interest for viral, autoimmune and anti-tumour immunotherapies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081485/the-elucidation-of-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-antigen-processing-through-the-study-of-viral-antigens
#14
REVIEW
Asha Purnima Veerappan Ganesan, Laurence C Eisenlohr
By convention, CD4(+) T cells are activated predominantly by Major Histocompatibility Complex class II-bound peptides derived from extracellular (exogenous) antigens. It has been known for decades that alternative sources of antigen, particularly those synthesized within the antigen-presenting cell, can also supply peptides but the impact on TCD4+ responses, sometimes considerable, has only recently become appreciated. This review focuses on the contributions that studies of viral antigen have made to this shift in perspective, concluding with discussions of relevance to rational vaccine design, autoimmunity and cancer immunotherapy...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081484/new-insights-into-antiviral-immunity-gained-through-intravital-imaging
#15
REVIEW
Heather D Hickman
Viral infections pose an ongoing challenge for mankind. Much of our knowledge of the immune response to viral infections comes from ex vivo analyses of infected animals, which provide important yet static information about events occurring within the host. Recently, a relatively new technique known as intravital microscopy (IVM) has been applied to the study of antiviral immunity. Intravital imaging affords a unique, real-time view of both viral dynamics and the ensuing immune response (along with their interplay) in the living animal...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056379/capturing-norovirus-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Miranda de Graaf, Nele Villabruna, Marion Pg Koopmans
Human norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and is efficiently transmitted between humans and around the globe. The burden of norovirus infections in the global community and in health-care settings warrant the availability of outbreak prevention strategies and control measures that are tailored to the pathogen, outbreak setting and population at risk. A better understanding of viral and host determinants of transmission would aid in developing and fine-tuning such efforts. Here, we describe mechanisms of transmission, available model systems for studying norovirus transmission and their strengths and weaknesses as well as future research strategies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987416/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-and-viral-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Pamela C Rosato, Lalit K Beura, David Masopust
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) constitute a recently identified T cell lineage that is responsible for frontline defense against viral infections. In contrast to central and effector memory T cells, which constitutively recirculate between tissues and blood, TRM reside permanently within tissues. As the main surveyors of non-lymphoid tissues, TRM are positioned to rapidly respond upon reinfection at barrier sites. During a viral reinfection, TRM trigger the local tissue environment to activate and recruit immune cells and establish an antiviral state...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951430/protect-this-house-cytosolic-sensing-of-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Michael J McFadden, Nandan S Gokhale, Stacy M Horner
The ability to recognize invading viral pathogens and to distinguish their components from those of the host cell is critical to initiate the innate immune response. The efficiency of this detection is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of the cell to viral infection. Innate sensing of viruses is, therefore, an indispensable step in the line of defense for cells and organisms. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel sensors of viral components and hallmarks of infection, as well as mechanisms by which cells discriminate between self and non-self...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936448/flavivirus-transmission-focusing-on-zika
#19
REVIEW
Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#20
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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