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Clinical Obesity

M Powell, J Lara, G Mocciaro, C M Prado, A Battezzati, A Leone, A Tagliabue, R de Amicis, L Vignati, S Bertoli, M Siervo
The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Obesity
A Fleischman, S E Hourigan, H N Lyon, M G Landry, J Reynolds, S K Steltz, L Robinson, S Keating, H A Feldman, R C Antonelli, D S Ludwig, C B Ebbeling
In an integrated care model, involving primary care providers (PCPs) and obesity specialists, telehealth may be useful for overcoming barriers to treating childhood obesity. We conducted a pilot study comparing body mass index (BMI) changes between two arms (i) PCP in-person clinic visits plus obesity specialist tele-visits ( PCP visits + specialist tele-visits) and (ii) PCP in-person clinic visits only ( PCP visits only), with ongoing tele-consultation between PCPs and obesity specialists for both arms...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Obesity
E A Sturgiss, G M Sargent, E Haesler, E Rieger, K Douglas
Therapeutic alliance is a well-recognized predictor of patient outcomes within psychological therapy. It has not been applied to obesity interventions, and Bordin's theoretical framework shows particular relevance to the management of obesity in primary health care. This cross-sectional study of a weight management programme in general practice aimed to determine if therapeutic alliance was associated with patient outcomes. The Working Alliance Inventory short revised version (WAI-SR) was administered to 23 patients and 11 general practitioners (GPs) at the end of a 6-month weight management programme...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Obesity
R A G Christensen, L Raiber, A K Macpherson, J L Kuk
The aim of this article was to examine the associations between having had a sinus infection (SI) and BMI and physical activity (PA), diet quality, stress and/or sleep. A total of 2915 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between having had an SI with BMI and PA, diet quality, stress or sleep. As these factors are known to influence one another, a fully adjusted model with PA, diet quality, stress and sleep was also constructed to examine their independent associations with having had an SI...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Obesity
Y Hassan, V Head, D Jacob, M O Bachmann, S Diu, J Ford
Severe obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition and is often associated with long-term comorbidities, reduced survival and higher healthcare costs. Non-surgical methods avoid the side effects, complications and costs of surgery, but it is unclear which non-surgical method is most effective. The objective of this article was to systematically review the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions compared to standard or minimal care for weight loss in adults with severe obesity. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, databases of on-going studies, reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews and the Cochrane Library database were searched from inception to February 2016 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Obesity
K K Mahawar, P K Small
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Clinical Obesity
J M Utley, O Affuso, A C Rucks
Multilevel/hierarchical obesity studies analyze adolescent and family, neighbourhood and social settings' characteristics to generate data needed to design prevention interventions. This scoping study summarizes such studies' characteristics and key findings to provide information to decision makers, which allows them to quickly grasp the state of the evidence and potential policy implications for adolescent obesity prevention. PubMed, CINAHLplus, PsychINFO and Sociological Abstracts were searched for peer-reviewed studies spanning 1 January 2000-31 August 2014...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
F L Greenway, W Shanahan, R Fain, T Ma, D Rubino
Lorcaserin is a novel selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for chronic weight management in adults with obesity or overweight with ≥1 comorbidity. The safety and efficacy of lorcaserin were established during two Phase III clinical trials in patients without diabetes (BLOOM and BLOSSOM) and one Phase III clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (BLOOM-DM). Headache was the most common adverse event experienced by patients during all Phase III trials...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
A Laurenius, M Engström
Early dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery due to rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel causing intense symptoms is often described as a complication. Twelve patients, mean age 47 years, were interviewed approximately 9 years post-operation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, followed by an inductive content analysis to reveal patients' experience of the dumping syndrome. The core category 'Dumping syndrome is a positive consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and a tool to control food intake' was identified based on the following four sub-categories: (i) 'The multidimensional emergence and effects of dumping syndrome', (ii) 'Dumping syndrome as something positive although unpleasant', (iii) 'Developing coping mechanisms and ingenious strategies' and (iv) 'My own fault if I expose myself to dumping syndrome'...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
I S Zenlea, C Milliren, S Herel, E Thomaseo Burton, N Askins, D S Ludwig, E T Rhodes
We aimed to reduce attrition of newly referred patients in a paediatric weight management programme by implementing an orientation to address families' expectations and screen for and support behavioural and mental health problems and psychosocial stressors at programme outset. Orientation impact was monitored with run charts with percentages of scheduled encounters completed. Long-term impact was assessed by comparing patients in the initial 6 months of the orientation to a baseline group of referred patients during the same 6-month time interval in the prior year (Pre-Orientation Group)...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
K Hong, K Herrmann, C Dybala, A E Halseth, H Lam, J P Foreyt
Naltrexone/bupropion extended release (NB) is indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index of ≥30 or ≥27 kg m(-2) and ≥1 weight-related comorbidity (e.g. hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia). In phase 3 clinical studies, nausea occurred in significantly higher proportions of subjects randomized to NB vs. placebo (PBO). In this pooled analysis of three phase 3, 56-week, PBO-controlled studies, we characterized nausea and weight loss in NB- and PBO-treated subjects without diabetes...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
C Liné, M R Moro, H Lefèvre, J Thievenaz, J Lachal
Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
C F Nicoletti, B M Kimura, B A P de Oliveira, M A S de Pinhel, W Salgado, J S Marchini, C B Nonino
Uncoupling protein 2 ( UCP2 ) plays an important role in body weight and energy metabolism and may be related to the control of food consumption. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of UCP2 gene variants on the dietary intake on a population after bariatric surgery. This study enrolled 150 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35kg m(-2) ) who submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Weight (kg), BMI (kg m(-2) ), energy (kcal d(-1) ) and macronutrients intake (g d(-1) ) of preoperative and 1-year postoperative period were collected from medical records...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
Vatcharapan Umpaichitra
We report, for the first time, a case of an accumulation of glycogen in the liver causing elevation of liver enzymes in a 15-year-old morbidly obese adolescent male with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Notably, the patient did not have poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and did not require insulin. After normalization of the A1c with metformin, elevated liver enzymes returned to normal.
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
B M Madhok, W R J Carr, C McCormack, M Boyle, N Jennings, N Schroeder, S Balupuri, P K Small
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric operation, but postoperative reflux symptoms can sometimes necessitate revisional surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred operation in morbidly obese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In 2011, we introduced preoperative endoscopy to assess for hiatus hernia or evidence of oesophagitis in conjunction with an assessment of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms for all patients undergoing bariatric surgery with a view to avoid sleeve gastrectomy for these patients...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
C Lin, J R Andersen, V Våge, T Rajalahti, S A Mjøs, O M Kvalheim
Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
L Jones, J Cleator, J Yorke
Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is the gold standard treatment for severe obesity. Concern exists that patients are regaining weight in the longer term. Success and cost-effectiveness of surgery are threatened due to the re-emergence of related conditions such as diabetes. This exploratory qualitative study investigates patients' expectations and experiences of weight regain (WR) 2 years or more after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Ten participants (two men and eight women) who experienced WR were interviewed between 2 and 6 years following surgery...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
Sandra Peláez, Stephanie Alexander, Jean-Baptiste Roberge, Melanie Henderson, Jean-Luc Bigras, Tracie A Barnett
Screens have become ubiquitous in modern society. Their use frequently underlies sedentary behaviour, a well-established determinant of obesity. As part of a family oriented clinic offering a 2-year lifestyle program for obese children and youth, we explored parents' experiences with a 24-h no screen-time challenge, an intervention designed to raise awareness of screen-time habits and to help families develop strategies to limit their use. In total, 15 parents representing 13 families participated. A focus group with nine parents and six phone interviews with those who could not join in person were conducted...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
N Paterson, A M Sharma, C Maxwell, E M Greenblatt
This study assessed whether an obesity-related health status instrument (Edmonton obesity scoring system - EOSS) or body mass index (BMI) better predicted pregnancy rates in overweight women undergoing fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) undergoing a fertility treatment cycle (ovulation induction, superovulation, or in vitro fertilization). Obesity-related health status including blood pressure, blood work, health history, and functional assessment were assessed...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
R L Kolotkin, K Fujioka, M L Wolden, J H Brett, J B Bjorner
Obesity has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes study investigated the effect of liraglutide 3.0 mg, as adjunct to diet and exercise, on HRQoL in patients with obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg m(-2) ] or overweight (BMI ≥ 27 kg m(-2) ) with comorbidity. Participants were advised on a 500 kcal d(-1) deficit diet and a 150-min week(-1) exercise programme and were randomised 2:1 to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3.0 mg or placebo. HRQoL was assessed using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) v2 health questionnaires...
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
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