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Clinical Obesity

M Reynolds, S Driver, M Bennett, S Patel, E Rainey, A M Warren
The increased incidence of obesity in the general population translates into clinicians caring for an increased number of trauma patients with obesity. Previous research has documented the unique anatomical and physiological challenges that clinicians face when caring for trauma patients with obesity; however, little is known about psychological challenges that trauma patients with obesity may also experience in the months following injury. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between obesity and (i) mental health, (ii) demographic and injury-related variables and (iii) quality-of-life outcomes among trauma patients between hospitalization and 3-months post-injury...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Obesity
A O Fowokan, B M Sakakibara, N Onsel, Z Punthakee, C Waddell, M Rosin, S A Lear
The prevalence of hypertension in children is increasing globally. Addressing this will require a robust understanding of associated risk factors. To this end, we conducted a systematic review to identify correlates of elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. Literature searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms from three academic databases. The abstract and full text of identified studies were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. A total of 100 studies were included in this systematic review...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Obesity
C D Madigan, A J Hill, C Hendy, J Burk, I D Caterson
The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of a brief intervention to reduce instances of indulgent energy intake. Forty-five participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg m-2 were randomized to one of three groups for 8 weeks. The control group was asked to complete a questionnaire every 4 days, the self-monitoring group was given the same instructions but also asked to 'say no' to indulgences. The self-monitoring and feedback group was asked to do the same but in addition to send a photograph or description of that to which they had 'said no' and were then provided with feedback...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Obesity
A A Mamun, D H McIntyre, J M Najman, G M Williams, M Khatun, J Finlay, L Callaway
Pregnancies can end in miscarriage, birth or termination. Although it is well known that pregnancy results in weight gain across the life course, it is unknown whether pregnancies which end in termination and miscarriage contribute to this. The study used a sub-sample of 3630 adult offspring from the original cohort of the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes, in Brisbane, Australia. Anthropometric data were measured at 5, 14 and 21 years of age and experience of pregnancy including termination, miscarriage and births were self-reported at 21 years...
July 25, 2018: Clinical Obesity
J L Kuk, M Rotondi, X Sui, S N Blair, C I Ardern
Studies have examined mortality risk for metabolically healthy obesity, defined as zero or one metabolic risk factors but not as zero risk factors. Thus, we sought to determine the independent mortality risk associated with obesity or elevated glucose, blood pressure or lipids in isolation or clustered together. The sample included 54 089 men and women from five cohort studies (follow-up = 12.8 ± 7.2 years and 4864 [9.0%] deaths). Individuals were categorized as having obesity or elevated glucose, blood pressure or lipids alone or clustered with obesity or another metabolic factor...
July 12, 2018: Clinical Obesity
M K Bean, K S Ingersoll, P Powell, M Stern, R K Evans, E P Wickham, S E Mazzeo
The aim of this study is to examine outcomes from MI Values, a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention implemented adjunctive to obesity treatment. Adolescents (n = 99; 73% African American; 74% female; mean body mass index [BMI] percentile = 98.9 ± 1.2) were randomized to receive two MI sessions or education control. All adolescents participated in structured behavioural weight management treatment. Baseline, 3- and 6-month assessments of anthropometrics, dietary intake and physical activity were obtained...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Obesity
G D Traviss-Turner, U Philpot, J Wilton, K Green, S Heywood-Everett, A J Hill
An estimated 30% of patients accessing community weight management services experience symptoms of binge eating disorder (BED). Guided self-help (GSH) is the recommended first line of treatment for BED. This study is a preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of GSH delivered by dietitians for patients with binge eating within a weight management service and a consideration of the association between wellbeing, therapeutic relationship and outcomes. The study was conducted as a single group, pre- and post-intervention study with 24 patients reporting symptoms of binge eating who completed the self-help manual with guidance from a trained community dietitian...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
J N Davis, F M Asigbee, A K Markowitz, M J Landry, S Vandyousefi, E Khazaee, R Ghaddar, M I Goran
Research examining the impact of artificial sweetened beverages (ASBs) on obesity and metabolic diseases in adolescents is limited. The overall goal is to examine the longitudinal effects of ASBs on changes in adiposity and metabolic parameters in Hispanic adolescents. Longitudinal cohort with 98 Hispanics (12-18 years) who were overweight or had obesity with the following data at baseline and 1-year later: anthropometrics, diet (24-h recalls), body composition (DXA), glucose and insulin dynamics (oral glucose tolerance and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and fasting lipids...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
J L Benham, J M Yamamoto, C M Friedenreich, D M Rabi, R J Sigal
Preliminary evidence suggests exercise in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may improve reproductive and cardiometabolic parameters. Our primary aim was to determine the impact of exercise training on reproductive health in women with PCOS. Our secondary aim was to determine the effect of exercise training on cardiometabolic indices. A systematic review of published literature was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE based on a pre-published protocol (PROSPERO CRD42017065324). The search was not limited by year...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
L H Mundbjerg, C R Stolberg, E-M Bladbjerg, P Funch-Jensen, C B Juhl, B Gram
Obesity and physical inactivity are major health problems. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Physical activity lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. The aims of this study were to elucidate the effects of RYGB followed by 6 months of supervised physical training on physical capacity. In a randomized controlled trial, 60 participants eligible for RYGB were randomized 6 months post-surgery to either two weekly physical training sessions for 26 weeks (INT) or a control group (CON)...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
L Brackenridge, N Finer, R L Batterham, K Pedram, T Ding, J Stephenson, J Barry, P Hardiman
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of thromboembolism, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, miscarriage, congenital anomaly, macrosomia and stillbirth. The current practice, directed at reducing gestational weight gain, is largely ineffective. The present pilot study was designed to assess the acceptability of a 24-week intensive weight management programme (IWMP; full meal replacement followed by partial meal replacement and weight stabilization) to achieve weight loss for women with obesity requesting removal of their intra-uterine contraceptive device in order to conceive...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
M E Peden, A D Okely, M J Eady, R A Jones
The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate professional learning models (length, mode, content) offered as part of objectively measured physical childcare-based interventions. A systematic review of eight electronic databases was conducted to June 2017. Only English, peer-reviewed studies that evaluated childcare-based physical activity interventions, incorporated professional learning and reported objectively measured physical activity were included. Study designs included randomized controlled trails, cluster randomized trials, experimental or pilot studies...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
H J M Smelt, S Pouwels, M Said, J F Smulders
The rising rates of bariatric surgery (BS) are accompanied by neurological complications related to nutrient deficiencies. One of the risk factors for neurological complications in BS patients is poor vitamin and mineral supplementation. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are necessary parts of lifelong care after BS. Particularly important for optimal functioning of the nervous system are vitamin B1 , B6 , B12 (cobalamin), E, copper and possibly vitamin B11 (folic acid). In this case report, we narrate about a patient with anaemia and multiple vitamin and mineral deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with an alimentary limb of 150 cm and a biliopancreatic limb of 100 cm...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
C T Bramante, J M Clark, K A Gudzune
Having access to a scale is essential for individuals to engage in self-weighing; however, few studies examine scale access, particularly among low-income individuals. Our objectives were to (i) determine how many public housing residents have access to a scale and (ii) describe their self-weighing habits. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of public housing residents in Baltimore, MD, from August 2014 to August 2015. Participants answered questions about their access to a scale ('yes'/'no') and daily self-weighing habits ('no scale/never or hardly ever' vs...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
L P Johnson, F M Asigbee, R Crowell, A Negrini
Using a novel qualitative approach, Photovoice, researchers assessed social, psychological, physical and economic barriers encountered by patients of weight loss surgery. Applying the Photovoice approach and Williams' theory of narrative reconstruction for qualitative interviewing, the research team set out to investigate the bariatric patient experience from pre-surgery to hospitalization to post-surgery. Fifteen participants were given digital cameras and asked to take photographs that represented their weight loss journeys...
August 2018: Clinical Obesity
L Ells, P Watson, S Carlebach, C O'Malley, D Jones, T Machaira, V Whittaker, H Clements, P Walker, K Needham, C Summerbell, V Coulton, V Araujo-Soares
Adult obesity in the UK remains a public health priority. Current guidance recommends local areas provide multicomponent interventions to treat adults with overweight and obesity; however, there is currently a dearth of published evidence on the evaluation of these programmes. This study reports on a mixed method evaluation of seven tier 2 weight management programmes funded by a local authority in the North of England through their public health grant (a lifestyle multicomponent weight management programme for the treatment of adults with overweight and obesity, but not severe obesity, or obesity with severe co-morbidities)...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
J P H Wilding
In the UK, over one-quarter of the adult population have obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m-2 ). This has major implications for patients' health and the National Health Service. Despite published studies showing that significant weight loss can be achieved and maintained in primary care, and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, weight management services are inconsistently implemented. This may be due primarily to workload and financial constraints. There is also a lack of belief that specialist weight management services and anti-obesity medications (AOMs) are a viable alternative to bariatric surgery for long-term maintenance of weight loss...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
E Atlantis, N Kormas, K Samaras, P Fahey, P Sumithran, S Glastras, G Wittert, K Fusco, R Bishay, T Markovic, L Ding, K Williams, I Caterson, V Chikani, P Dugdale, J Dixon
We aimed to describe the current state of specialist obesity services for adults with clinically severe obesity in public hospitals in Australia, and to analyse the gap in resources based on expert consensus. We conducted two surveys to collect information about current and required specialist obesity services and resources using open-ended questionnaires. Organizational level data were sought from clinician expert representatives of specialist obesity services across Australia in 2017. Fifteen of 16 representatives of current services in New South Wales (n = 8), Queensland (n = 1), Victoria (n = 2), South Australia (n = 3), and the Australian Capital Territory (n = 1) provided data...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
D E Magouliotis, V S Tasiopoulou, G Tzovaras
We aim to review the available literature on morbidly obese patients treated with one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in order to compare the clinical outcomes of the two methods. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library and Scopus, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria (7452 patients). OAGB was associated with shorter mean operative time. The length of hospital stay was comparable between the two procedures...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
P Mistry, V Currie, P Super, C W le Roux, A A Tahrani, R Singhal
The long-term outcomes of weight loss maintenance induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) followed by multidisciplinary medical care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (beyond 3 years) are scarcely reported. Study aims were to determine the longer term metabolic outcomes following LAGB combined with medical care in patients with T2DM. This is a longitudinal analysis of 200 adults with T2DM who had LAGB between 2003 and 2008 and were followed up till 2013 at a single bariatric unit in a tertiary UK centre...
June 2018: Clinical Obesity
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