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Clinical Obesity

J J Annesi, N Mareno
Although health-enhancing weight reductions are associated with behavioural treatments initially, a trajectory towards full regain typically begins within 6-9 months. Women with obesity (body mass index = 30-40 kg m(-2) ) who lost at least 3% of their baseline weight within two trials of a new cognitive-behavioural treatment incorporating physical activity prior to changes in eating behaviours, and either regained ≥50% of that weight over 2 years (Regain group, n=32) or continued to lose weight (ContinuedLoss group, n = 34), were assessed from months 6 to 24 on changes in weight-loss behaviours and psychosocial predictors of those behaviours derived from established behavioural theories...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Obesity
H Dreber, S Reynisdottir, B Angelin, P Tynelius, F Rasmussen, E Hemmingsson
Young adults (18-25) with severe obesity constitute a challenging patient group, and there is limited evidence about their mental health status compared to population controls. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults with severe obesity (n = 121, mean body mass index [BMI] = 39.8 kg m(-2) ) was compared with matched (1:3 for age, gender and socioeconomic status) population controls of normal weight (n = 363, mean BMI = 22.4 kg m(-2) ), as well as unmatched population controls with class I obesity (n = 105, mean BMI = 32...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Obesity
W P Jayawardene, D Lohrmann, S Dickinson, S Talagala, M Torabi
Obesity tracks from childhood to adulthood most strongly of all cardiometabolic risk factors. To determine relationship of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with cardiometabolic risk (dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and elevated blood pressure) in a large U.S. population ages 12-19 and demographic subgroups. Pooled 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data were analyzed (N = 23 438). In addition to standard cutoffs of BMI and WC, risk levels were identified for each laboratory variable: HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol (category = lipids); fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (category = glucose); systolic/diastolic pressures (category =blood pressure)...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Obesity
A C L van der Meer, L S Hanna
Obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. More conservative prevention and management strategies are attractive due to the increased surgical risk and complication rates associated with obesity. The Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, Mirena) has been shown to reduce the risk of developing endometrial cancer. The recent joint Green Top Guideline on the Management of Endometrial Hyperplasia published by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) with the British Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) recommends the LNG-IUS for the medical management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Obesity
M J Sharman, A J Venn, K A Jose, D Williams, M Hensher, A J Palmer, S Wilkinson, D Ezzy
The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of waiting for publicly funded bariatric surgery in an Australian tertiary healthcare setting. Focus groups and individual interviews involving people waiting for or who had undergone publicly funded bariatric surgery were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. A total of 11 women and 6 men engaged in one of six focus groups in 2014, and an additional 10 women and 9 men were interviewed in 2015. Mean age was 53 years (range 23-66); mean waiting time was 6 years (range 0-12), and mean time since surgery was 4 years (range 0-11)...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Obesity
G Thom, M Lean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
M Powell, J Lara, G Mocciaro, C M Prado, A Battezzati, A Leone, A Tagliabue, R de Amicis, L Vignati, S Bertoli, M Siervo
The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
E A Sturgiss, G M Sargent, E Haesler, E Rieger, K Douglas
Therapeutic alliance is a well-recognized predictor of patient outcomes within psychological therapy. It has not been applied to obesity interventions, and Bordin's theoretical framework shows particular relevance to the management of obesity in primary health care. This cross-sectional study of a weight management programme in general practice aimed to determine if therapeutic alliance was associated with patient outcomes. The Working Alliance Inventory short revised version (WAI-SR) was administered to 23 patients and 11 general practitioners (GPs) at the end of a 6-month weight management programme...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
A Fleischman, S E Hourigan, H N Lyon, M G Landry, J Reynolds, S K Steltz, L Robinson, S Keating, H A Feldman, R C Antonelli, D S Ludwig, C B Ebbeling
In an integrated care model, involving primary care providers (PCPs) and obesity specialists, telehealth may be useful for overcoming barriers to treating childhood obesity. We conducted a pilot study comparing body mass index (BMI) changes between two arms (i) PCP in-person clinic visits plus obesity specialist tele-visits ( PCP visits + specialist tele-visits) and (ii) PCP in-person clinic visits only ( PCP visits only), with ongoing tele-consultation between PCPs and obesity specialists for both arms...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
R A G Christensen, L Raiber, A K Macpherson, J L Kuk
The aim of this article was to examine the associations between having had a sinus infection (SI) and BMI and physical activity (PA), diet quality, stress and/or sleep. A total of 2915 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between having had an SI with BMI and PA, diet quality, stress or sleep. As these factors are known to influence one another, a fully adjusted model with PA, diet quality, stress and sleep was also constructed to examine their independent associations with having had an SI...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
Y Hassan, V Head, D Jacob, M O Bachmann, S Diu, J Ford
Severe obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition and is often associated with long-term comorbidities, reduced survival and higher healthcare costs. Non-surgical methods avoid the side effects, complications and costs of surgery, but it is unclear which non-surgical method is most effective. The objective of this article was to systematically review the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions compared to standard or minimal care for weight loss in adults with severe obesity. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, databases of on-going studies, reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews and the Cochrane Library database were searched from inception to February 2016 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
K K Mahawar, P K Small
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
J M Utley, O Affuso, A C Rucks
Multilevel/hierarchical obesity studies analyze adolescent and family, neighbourhood and social settings' characteristics to generate data needed to design prevention interventions. This scoping study summarizes such studies' characteristics and key findings to provide information to decision makers, which allows them to quickly grasp the state of the evidence and potential policy implications for adolescent obesity prevention. PubMed, CINAHLplus, PsychINFO and Sociological Abstracts were searched for peer-reviewed studies spanning 1 January 2000-31 August 2014...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
F L Greenway, W Shanahan, R Fain, T Ma, D Rubino
Lorcaserin is a novel selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for chronic weight management in adults with obesity or overweight with ≥1 comorbidity. The safety and efficacy of lorcaserin were established during two Phase III clinical trials in patients without diabetes (BLOOM and BLOSSOM) and one Phase III clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (BLOOM-DM). Headache was the most common adverse event experienced by patients during all Phase III trials...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
A Laurenius, M Engström
Early dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery due to rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel causing intense symptoms is often described as a complication. Twelve patients, mean age 47 years, were interviewed approximately 9 years post-operation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, followed by an inductive content analysis to reveal patients' experience of the dumping syndrome. The core category 'Dumping syndrome is a positive consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and a tool to control food intake' was identified based on the following four sub-categories: (i) 'The multidimensional emergence and effects of dumping syndrome', (ii) 'Dumping syndrome as something positive although unpleasant', (iii) 'Developing coping mechanisms and ingenious strategies' and (iv) 'My own fault if I expose myself to dumping syndrome'...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
I S Zenlea, C Milliren, S Herel, E Thomaseo Burton, N Askins, D S Ludwig, E T Rhodes
We aimed to reduce attrition of newly referred patients in a paediatric weight management programme by implementing an orientation to address families' expectations and screen for and support behavioural and mental health problems and psychosocial stressors at programme outset. Orientation impact was monitored with run charts with percentages of scheduled encounters completed. Long-term impact was assessed by comparing patients in the initial 6 months of the orientation to a baseline group of referred patients during the same 6-month time interval in the prior year (Pre-Orientation Group)...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
K Hong, K Herrmann, C Dybala, A E Halseth, H Lam, J P Foreyt
Naltrexone/bupropion extended release (NB) is indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index of ≥30 or ≥27 kg m(-2) and ≥1 weight-related comorbidity (e.g. hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia). In phase 3 clinical studies, nausea occurred in significantly higher proportions of subjects randomized to NB vs. placebo (PBO). In this pooled analysis of three phase 3, 56-week, PBO-controlled studies, we characterized nausea and weight loss in NB- and PBO-treated subjects without diabetes...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
C Liné, M R Moro, H Lefèvre, J Thievenaz, J Lachal
Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
C F Nicoletti, B M Kimura, B A P de Oliveira, M A S de Pinhel, W Salgado, J S Marchini, C B Nonino
Uncoupling protein 2 ( UCP2 ) plays an important role in body weight and energy metabolism and may be related to the control of food consumption. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of UCP2 gene variants on the dietary intake on a population after bariatric surgery. This study enrolled 150 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35kg m(-2) ) who submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Weight (kg), BMI (kg m(-2) ), energy (kcal d(-1) ) and macronutrients intake (g d(-1) ) of preoperative and 1-year postoperative period were collected from medical records...
October 2016: Clinical Obesity
Vatcharapan Umpaichitra
We report, for the first time, a case of an accumulation of glycogen in the liver causing elevation of liver enzymes in a 15-year-old morbidly obese adolescent male with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Notably, the patient did not have poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and did not require insulin. After normalization of the A1c with metformin, elevated liver enzymes returned to normal.
August 2016: Clinical Obesity
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