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Clinical Obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426064/successful-weight-loss-initiation-and-maintenance-among-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-does-age-matter
#1
D Rancourt, C D Jensen, K M Duraccio, E W Evans, R R Wing, E Jelalian
Treatments for adolescents with overweight/obesity demonstrate mixed success, which may be due to a lack of consideration for developmental changes during this period. Potential developmental differences in weight loss motivations, weight maintenance behaviours and the role of parents in these efforts were examined in a sample of successful adolescent weight losers. Participants enrolled in the Adolescent Weight Control Registry (n = 49) self-reported demographic information and weight history, reasons for weight loss and weight control, weight loss approach and weight maintenance strategies, and perceived parental involvement with weight loss...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377636/association-of-early-pregnancy-body-mass-index-with-post-partum-weight-change-among-african-american-women
#2
C R Schneider, J R Biggio, P C Chandler-Laney
Post-partum weight retention is relatively common and increases the risk for future obesity. Women who are overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, or who gain excessively during pregnancy, are more likely to retain weight post-partum. Much of the existing research is limited by a single post-partum body-weight measure and therefore cannot distinguish post-partum weight retention from post-partum weight accrual. This study tested the hypothesis that early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with post-partum weight change, independent of gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding (BF) among African-American women, a demographic group with greater risk for obesity...
January 28, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372593/lipoedema-in-patients-after-bariatric-surgery-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#3
S Pouwels, S Huisman, H J M Smelt, M Said, J F Smulders
Lipoedema is a disorder of adipose tissue that is characterized by abnormal subcutaneous fat deposition, leading to swelling and enlargement of the lower limbs as well as the trunk. This entity is often misdiagnosed as lymphoedema or obesity and, therefore, may be overlooked and missed in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery. Patients with lipoedema who undergo bariatric surgery may have to continue to have extensive lower extremity and trunk adiposity despite adequate weight loss. In this report, we present two patients who had extensive trunk and lower extremity adiposity, one of them before and the other after the bariatric surgery...
January 25, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356351/how-adolescents-decide-on-bariatric-surgery-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis
#4
J Doyle, S Colville, P Brown, D Christie
The National Institute of Clinical Excellence states that bariatric surgery may be considered for adolescents with severe obesity in 'exceptional circumstances'. However, it is not clear what is deemed to be exceptional, and there is a lack of long-term outcomes data or research, which would inform patient selection. This is an in-depth qualitative study involving five adolescents who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (between 1 and 3 years postoperatively) and four who were being assessed for the treatment...
January 21, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334695/complex-interplay-among-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-bone-health
#5
REVIEW
C Ma, K T Tonks, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Obesity and osteoporosis are common public health problems. Paradoxically, while obesity is associated with higher bone density, type 2 diabetic obese individuals have an increased fracture risk. Although obesity and insulin resistance co-exist, some obese individuals remain insulin-sensitive. We suggest that the apparent paradox relating obesity, bone density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes may be at least partly influenced by differences in bone strength and quality between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive obese individuals...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327430/knowledge-attitudes-representations-and-declared-practices-of-nurses-and-physicians-about-obesity-in-a-university-hospital-training-is-essential
#6
S Bucher Della Torre, D S Courvoisier, A Saldarriaga, X E Martin, N J Farpour-Lambert
In the context of a worldwide obesity epidemic, healthcare providers play a key role in obesity management. Knowledge of current guidelines and attitudes to prevent stigmatization are especially important. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, perception of opportunity for intervention, declared practices and need for training and material of nurses and physicians about obesity in a Swiss University Hospital. A total of 834 physicians and nurses filled an online survey. The questionnaire was based on literature, exploratory interviews and expert committee review...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271129/shorter-preschool-leukocyte-telomere-length-is-associated-with-obesity-at-age-9-in-latino-children
#7
T W Kjaer, D Faurholt-Jepsen, K M Mehta, V B Christensen, E Epel, J Lin, E Blackburn, J M Wojcicki
The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of leukocyte telomere length as a biomarker for development of childhood obesity in a low-income Latino population. A birth cohort of Latino children (N = 201) in San Francisco (recruited May 2006-May 2007) was followed until age 9 and assessed annually for obesity and dietary intake. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at 4 and 5 years (n = 102) and assessed as a predictor for obesity at age 9, adjusting for known risk factors. Furthermore, leukocyte telomere length at age 4 and 5 was evaluated as a possible mediator of the relationship between excessive sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and obesity at age 9...
December 22, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29266824/everyday-discrimination-in-a-racially-diverse-sample-of-patients-with-obesity
#8
R L Pearl, T A Wadden, J Shaw Tronieri, A M Chao, N Alamuddin, R I Berkowitz
Weight discrimination affects a significant proportion of individuals with obesity and contributes to poor mental and physical health. Prior research on weight discrimination has been limited by a lack of racial diversity in samples and has not considered other potential forms of discrimination that individuals with obesity may experience. The current study assessed different reasons for discrimination in a racially diverse sample of treatment-seeking individuals with obesity (N = 122, 66.4% black, mean body mass index = 38...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239129/association-of-prenatal-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-with-offspring-body-composition-and-regional-body-fat-distribution
#9
M Kearney, J Perron, I Marc, S J Weisnagel, A Tchernof, J Robitaille
The aim of this cohort study was to compare body composition and regional body fat distribution between children exposed (GDM+) or unexposed (GDM-) in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate the association with the glycaemic and the insulin profile. Data from 56 GDM+ and 30 GDM- were analysed. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Total and regional body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin, glucose and HbA1c were obtained from a fasting plasma sample, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224241/cost-effectiveness-of-bariatric-surgery-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-in-the-uk
#10
M Panca, R M Viner, B White, T Pandya, H Melo, M Adamo, R Batterham, D Christie, S Kinra, S Morris
Evidence shows that surgery for severe obesity in adults improves health and psychological functioning, and is cost-effective. Data on bariatric surgery for adolescents with severe obesity are extremely limited, with no evidence on cost-effectiveness. We evaluated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery compared with no surgery in adolescents with severe obesity from the UK's National Health Service perspective. Eighteen adolescents with body mass index ≥40 kg m-2 who underwent bariatric surgery (laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass [RYGB] [N = 9], and laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy [SG] [N = 9]) at University College London Hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 were included...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224227/capacity-oriented-approaches-to-developing-childhood-obesity-interventions-a-systematic-review
#11
B A Foster, E Fu, N Bendiks, C S Gaspard, M Sharifi
Capacity-oriented approaches to health interventions seek to empower the target population or community to manage the health issue themselves using resources they can control. Positive deviance, resilience and asset-based approaches are three such methods of developing and implementing health interventions. This study aimed to review the efficacy of interventions explicitly applying these methods in addressing childhood obesity using adiposity as the primary outcome, measured by standardized body mass index...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218787/waist-circumference-at-five-common-measurement-sites-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-adults-which-site-is-most-optimal
#12
R E Brown, A K Randhawa, K L Canning, M Fung, D Jiandani, S Wharton, J L Kuk
The aim of this study was to determine (i) if adults would measure their own waist circumference (WC), (ii) which WC site(s) are the most intuitive and easy to measure and (iii) if measurement accuracy and association between WC and blood pressure differs across five measurement sites. Participants (n = 198) measured their WC first with no instruction and then using visual instructions for the iliac crest, last rib, midpoint, minimal waist and umbilicus. Without instruction, men most commonly measured their WC at the umbilicus and iliac crest, while women measured their WC at the umbilicus and minimal WC...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224232/physical-activity-and-family-based-obesity-treatment-a-review-of-expert-recommendations-on-physical-activity-in-youth
#13
REVIEW
C Foster, J B Moore, C R Singletary, J A Skelton
Targeting physical inactivity in children is pertinent to aiding in the decrease of childhood obesity rates. Only 33% of adolescents are obtaining the recommended goal of at least 60 min of physical activity per day. The objectives of this review are to summarize professional recommendations for physical activity and exercise in children and adolescents, and identify family-centred strategies that can be implemented by weight management clinicians. Clinically oriented recommendations and policy statements from professional organizations were identified through literature and internet searches, summarized using rubrics of aerobic, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening exercise, then examined for details on family-based focus, inclusion of child developmental stage and age, and application to the prevention and treatment of obesity...
February 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024558/overweight-obesity-and-adiposity-in-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
K-W Wang, A Fleming, D L Johnston, S M Zelcer, S R Rassekh, S Ladhani, A Socha, J Shinuda, S Jaber, S Burrow, S K Singh, L Banfield, R J de Souza, L Thabane, M C Samaan
Survivors of childhood brain tumours (SCBT) have increased cardiometabolic risks, but the determinants of these risks are unclear. This systematic review aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as adiposity measures between SCBT and non-cancer controls. The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases were searched. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of overweight and obesity based on body mass index. The secondary outcomes were adiposity measures including percent fat mass, waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios...
February 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834164/children-s-food-and-satiety-responsiveness-in-association-with-post-prandial-glucose-following-a-standardized-liquid-meal
#15
M A Gowey, P C Chandler-Laney
Children's responsiveness to food cues and satiety may put them at greater risk for obesity; however, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying children's responsiveness to food and satiety. The objective of this study was to examine the association between children's post-prandial glucose responses and maternal report of their eating behaviours. A secondary data analysis was conducted using partial correlation analyses adjusted for gender in a sample of children aged 5-10 years and their mothers (N = 28 dyads)...
February 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871630/changes-in-psychosocial-health-during-a-7-week-paediatric-weight-management-program
#16
J M Tucker, K Howard, K DeLaFuente, A Cadieux, K E Yee
Youth with obesity are at increased risk of psychosocial symptoms; however, little is known regarding the impact of paediatric weight management (PWM) on psychosocial health. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in psychosocial health among children who completed a 7-week PWM program. Participants aged 5 to 16 years with a BMI ≥85th percentile completed a 7-week, family-centred PWM program focused on health behaviour education, exercise and mentored goal setting. The Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) was assessed via parent report to evaluate psychosocial symptoms before and after the program, and subscales were calculated for internalizing (PSC-IS), externalizing (PSC-ES) and attention symptoms (PSC-AS)...
December 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849619/stated-conclusion-about-industry-funding-is-opposite-to-what-the-paper-s-data-show-letter-regarding-selective-outcome-reporting-in-obesity-clinical-trials-a-cross-sectional-review
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841271/who-seeks-bariatric-surgery-psychosocial-functioning-among-adolescent-candidates-other-treatment-seeking-adolescents-with-obesity-and-healthy-controls
#18
C C Call, M J Devlin, I Fennoy, J L Zitsman, B T Walsh, R Sysko
Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range...
December 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119687/combining-biological-and-psychosocial-baseline-variables-did-not-improve-prediction-of-outcome-of-a-very-low-energy-diet-in-a-clinic-referral-population
#19
P Sumithran, K Purcell, S Kuyruk, J Proietto, L A Prendergast
Consistent, strong predictors of obesity treatment outcomes have not been identified. It has been suggested that broadening the range of predictor variables examined may be valuable. We explored methods to predict outcomes of a very-low-energy diet (VLED)-based programme in a clinically comparable setting, using a wide array of pre-intervention biological and psychosocial participant data. A total of 61 women and 39 men (mean ± standard deviation [SD] body mass index: 39.8 ± 7.3 kg/m2 ) underwent an 8-week VLED and 12-month follow-up...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110411/incidence-of-new-onset-benign-anal-disorders-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
O Cano-Valderrama, A Sánchez-Pernaute, M A Rubio, P Talavera, E Martín-Antona, A J Torres
New-onset benign anal disorders (NBADs) represent a potential complication following bariatric surgery, although their incidence in this population is not well studied. The preoperative characteristics, weight loss, bowel habits and NBADs data of 196 patients with bariatric surgery were collected by telephone interviews and medical records review and evaluated retrospectively. Ninety-nine patients had undergone gastric bypass (GBP) and 97 had a modified biliopancreatic diversion (MBPD). Fifty-nine patients were excluded...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Obesity
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