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Current Protocols in Mouse Biology

Megan S Keiser, Yong Hong Chen, Beverly L Davidson
Stereotaxic intracranial injection of viral vectors is a valuable technique to directly deliver genetic material to a specific population of cells in the central nervous system of a mouse model. This enables scientists to test candidate gene therapies or disease modulators that can then provide insight into the pathological mechanisms of disease. In this article, we present a standardized method of conducting intracranial stereotaxic injection of adeno-associated virus into a specific brain region in a mouse model...
November 5, 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Andrew Blease, Patricia Das Neves Borges, Marcia Curtinha, Behzad Javaheri, Isabell S von Loga, Ida Parisi, Jadwiga Zarebska, Andrew Pitsillides, Tonia L Vincent, Paul K Potter
With the increasing availability and complexity of mouse models of disease, either spontaneous or induced, there is a concomitant increase in their use in the analysis of pathogenesis. Among such diseases is osteoarthritis, a debilitating disease with few treatment options. While advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis has advanced through clinical investigations and genome-wide association studies, there is still a large gap in our knowledge, hindering advances in therapy. Patient samples are available ex vivo, but these are generally in the very late stages of disease...
September 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Gregory C Addicks, Phillip Marshall, Bernard J Jasmin, Jean-Marc Renaud, Hongbo Zhang, Keir J Menzies
Muscle function and health progressively deteriorate during the progression of muscle dystrophies. The ability to objectively characterize muscle function and muscle damage is useful not only when comparing variants of dystrophy models, but also for characterizing the effects of interventions aiming to improve or halt the progressive decline of muscle function and muscle health. The protocols in this chapter describe the use of ex vivo eccentric contraction of the diaphragm muscle as a measure of muscle susceptibility to damage...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Shuaiyu Wang, Bao Zhang, Gregory C Addicks, Hui Zhang, Keir J Menzies, Hongbo Zhang
Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are essential for maintaining muscle homeostasis by providing progenitor cells for muscle regeneration after injury and in muscular diseases. MuSC properties dynamically change, reflecting physiology or pathological status. For instance, MuSCs are activated after muscle injury, but become exhausted in late stages of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) disease and senescent during aging. Therefore, characterization of MuSCs, including proliferation, activation, senescence, and apoptosis, etc...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Stephan C Collins, Christel Wagner, Léo Gagliardi, Perrine F Kretz, Marie-Christine Fischer, Pascal Kessler, Meghna Kannan, Binnaz Yalcin
In this article, we present a standardized protocol for fast and robust neuroanatomical phenotyping of the adult mouse brain, which complements a previously published article (doi: 10.1002/cpmo.12) in Current Protocols in Mouse Biology. It is aimed at providing an experimental pipeline within an academic research setting from experimental work to data analysis. Our analysis focuses on one single parasagittal plane, covering the majority of brain regions involved in higher order cognitions such as the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, for a total of 166 parameters of area, length, and cell-level measurements in contrast to 78 parameters in our previously published coronal screen...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Lucie Crouzier, Tangui Maurice
Here we provide instructions to measure topographic memory in mice using the Hamlet test, a complex environment. The apparatus mimics a small hamlet with a central agora and five houses, which are functionalized since mice can drink, eat pellets, hide within a small maze, run in an activity wheel, or interact with a stranger mouse behind a grid. The houses are interconnected through a network of streets in a five-arm star shape, and a video tracking system takes information from the activity in each house or follows a single mouse by trajectometry...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Brian J Nieman, Matthijs C van Eede, Shoshana Spring, Jun Dazai, R Mark Henkelman, Jason P Lerch
This article describes a detailed set of protocols for mouse brain imaging using MRI. We focus primarily on measuring changes in neuroanatomy, and provide both instructions for mouse preparation and details on image acquisition, image processing, and statistics. Practical details as well as theoretical considerations are provided. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Pilib Ó Broin, Michael V Beckert, Tomohisa Takahashi, Takeshi Izumi, Kenny Ye, Gina Kang, Patricia Pouso, Mackenzie Topolski, Jose L Pena, Noboru Hiroi
Neonatal vocalization is structurally altered in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our published data showed that pup vocalization, under conditions of maternal separation, contains sequences whose alterations in a genetic mouse model of ASD impair social communication between pups and mothers. We describe details of a method which reveals the statistical structure of call sequences that are functionally critical for optimal maternal care. Entropy analysis determines the degree of non-random call sequencing...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Andrew Blease, Thomas Nicol, Sara Falcone, Becky Starbuck, Simon Greenaway, Marie Hutchinson, Paul K Potter
Aging is inevitable, and our society must deal with the consequences: namely, an increased incidence of disease and ill health. Many mouse models of disease are acute or early onset or are induced in young mice, despite the fact that aging is a significant risk factor for a range of significant diseases. To improve modeling of such diseases, we should incorporate aging into our models. Many systems are affected by aging, with a decline in mitochondrial function, an increase in senescence, a loss of resilience, telomere shortening, and a decline in immune function being key factors in the increased susceptibility to disease that is associated with aging...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Laura C Anderson, Torrian L Green, Tracy McGarr, Gaylynn Wells, Shawn S Winter
The relationship between chronological age (lifespan) and biological age (healthspan) varies amongst individuals. Understanding the normal trajectory and characteristic traits of aging mice throughout their lifespan is important for selecting the most reliable and reproducible measures to test hypotheses. The protocols herein describe assays used for aging studies at The Jackson Laboratory's Mouse Neurobehavioral Phenotyping Facility and include assessments of frailty, cognition, and sensory (hearing, vision, olfaction), motor, and fine motor function that can be used for assessing phenotypes in aged mice across their lifespan as well as provide guidance for setting up and validating these behavioral measures...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Pierre L Roubertoux, Adeline Ghata, Michèle Carlier
The immaturity at birth and the slowness of ontogenic processes in mice provide the opportunity to measure rates of development. We describe here 18 measures covering the sensorial and motor onset from birth to weaning. The measures are non-invasive, making a follow-up strategy possible. The first basic protocol indicates how to produce mice with known conceptional or chronological age, as the control of the age is a prerequisite to compare rates of development in groups of mice. The second basic protocol describes a set of methods for identifying the pups during a follow-up study...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Junzo Kinoshita, Neal S Peachey
Overall retinal function can be monitored by recording the light-evoked response of the eye at the corneal surface. The major components of the electroretinogram (ERG) provide important information regarding the functional status of many retinal cell types including rod photoreceptors, cone photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The ERG can be readily recorded from mice, and this unit describes procedures for mouse anesthesia and the use of stimulation and recording procedures for measuring ERGs that reflect the response properties of different retinal cell types...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Marina Gertsenstein, Lauryl M J Nutter
Mice carrying patient-associated point mutations are powerful tools to define the causality of single-nucleotide variants to disease states. Epitope tags enable immuno-based studies of genes for which no antibodies are available. These alleles enable detailed and precise developmental, mechanistic, and translational research. The first step in generating these alleles is to identify within the target sequence-the orthologous sequence for point mutations or the N or C terminus for epitope tags-appropriate Cas9 protospacer sequences...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Lillian Garrett, Marie-Claire Ung, Tamara Heermann, Kristina M Niedermeier, Sabine Hölter
A better alignment of preclinical and clinical neurobiological measures could help improve neuropsychiatric disease therapeutic development. This unit describes a compendium of hypothesis-driven neuroanatomical phenotyping strategies to be employed in genetic mouse models. Using neuropsychiatric disease-based alterations as a guide, these are histological and immunohistochemical methodologies also applied to human tissue. They include quantification assays of neurochemical-, newly born neuron- and glial-cell markers, synaptic proteins, regional volumetrics, dendritic complexity and spine number as well as an index of excitation/inhibition balance...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Devra D Huey, Stefan Niewiesk
The development of humanized mice has become a prominent tool for translational animal studies of human diseases. Here we show how immune deficient mice can be "humanized" by injections of human umbilical cord stem cells. The engraftment of these cells and development into human lymphocytes has been possible because of the development of novel severely immune deficient mouse strains. Here we present proven protocols for the generation and analysis of humanized mice on the NSG mouse background.
March 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Justin D Vidal, Adam J Filgo
Evaluation of the female reproductive system is an important part of basic reproductive biology research, toxicology testing, and mutant mouse phenotype assessment. The female reproductive system is dynamic and the onset of puberty and the normal changes observed during estrous cyclicity can create challenges for an investigator. Experimental work in the female mouse requires an understanding of the potential impact of the estrous cycle and tracking normal changes throughout the cycle allows for control of this key variable...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Jessica B Graham, Jessica L Swarts, Jennifer M Lund
The use of a mouse model to study the breadth of symptoms and disease severity seen in human West Nile virus (WNV) infection can provide insight into the kinetics of the immune response and the specific pathways responsible for control of WNV infection and viral clearance. Here, we provide protocols for performing WNV infection of mice, as well as complete immunophenotyping analysis of the cellular immune response to infection in both the periphery and the central nervous system in a mouse model of WNV infection...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
T Bouchery, B Volpe, K Shah, L Lebon, K Filbey, G LeGros, N Harris
Hookworm infections (Necator americanus or Ancylostoma duodenale) represent a major neglected tropical disease, affecting approximately 700 million people worldwide, and can cause severe morbidity due to the need for these worms to feed on host blood. N. brasiliensis and H. polygrus, both rodent parasites, are the two most commonly employed laboratory models of experimental hookworm infection. Both parasites evoke type 2 immune responses, and their use has been instrumental in generating fundamental insight into the molecular mechanisms of type-2 immunity and for understanding how the immune response can control parasite numbers...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Annemarie Zimprich, Jörn Niessing, Lior Cohen, Lillian Garrett, Jan Einicke, Bettina Sperling, Mathias V Schmidt, Sabine M Hölter
Adaptive social behavior is important in mammals, both for the well-being of the individual and for the thriving of the species. Dysfunctions in social behavior occur in many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, and research into the genetic components of disease-relevant social deficits can open up new avenues for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and therapeutic interventions. Genetically modified mouse models are particularly useful in this respect, and robust experimental protocols are needed to reliably assess relevant social behavior phenotypes...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Brad Bolon, Susan Newbigging, Kelli L Boyd
Necropsy (or autopsy) is the post mortem dissection of an animal to examine and collect organs and tissues in order to understand the effects and causes of disease. The systematic harvesting of samples at necropsy is an essential step in defining the reason for an unexpected death and in characterizing the features (i.e., phenotype) of a newly discovered condition. Phenotypic evaluation of young (neonatal and juvenile) mice emphasizes morphologic (macroscopic and microscopic) techniques and biochemical (clinical chemistry, hematologic, and molecular) analyses...
September 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
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