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Current Protocols in Mouse Biology

Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Jill L Silverman
Preclinical animal models are indispensable tools for translational research for which behavioral characterization and phenotyping are essential to testing hypotheses and for evaluating the potential of novel therapeutic agents to treat diseases. The methods employed for comprehensive behavioral phenotyping and pharmacological experiments are complex and should be conducted exclusively by trained technicians with demonstrated proficiency. The ultimate goal is to identify disease-relevant and translational behavioral endpoints that are robust, reliable, and reproducible, and that can be employed to evaluate potential of novel therapeutic agents to treat disease...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Dany Gaillard, Jennifer M Stratford
The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Rebecca L Terry, Dominic J Wells
The muscular dystrophies are a diverse group of degenerative diseases for which many mouse models are available. These models are frequently used to assess potential therapeutic interventions and histological evaluation of multiple muscles is an important part of this assessment. Histological evaluation is especially useful when combined with tests of muscle function. This unit describes a protocol for necropsy, processing, cryosectioning, and histopathological evaluation of murine skeletal muscles, which is applicable to both models of muscular dystrophy and other neuromuscular conditions...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Onne A H O Ronda, Theo H van Dijk, H J Verkade, Albert K Groen
Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice. The percentage of absorbed cholesterol is calculated from a stable isotope-based double-label method. Cholesterol synthesis is calculated from MIDA after (13) C-acetate enrichment. Cholesterol is removed from the body via the feces...
December 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Christian Jäger, Karsten Hiller, Manuel Buttini
Metabolites are key mediators of cellular functions, and have emerged as important modulators in a variety of diseases. Recent developments in translational biomedicine have highlighted the importance of not looking at just one disease marker or disease inducing molecule, but at populations thereof to gain a global understanding of cellular function in health and disease. The goal of metabolomics is the systematic identification and quantification of metabolite populations. One of the most pressing issues of our times is the understanding of normal and diseased nervous tissue functions...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Anna Mikhaleva, Meghna Kannan, Christel Wagner, Binnaz Yalcin
This article describes a series of standard operating procedures for morphological phenotyping of the mouse brain using basic histology. Many histological studies of the mouse brain use qualitative approaches based on what the human eye can detect. Consequently, some phenotypic information may be missed. Here we describe a quantitative approach for the assessment of brain morphology that is simple and robust. A total of 78 measurements are made throughout the brain at specific and well-defined regions, including the cortex, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Andrew Parker, Lauren Chessum, Philomena Mburu, Jeremy Sanderson, Michael R Bowl
Mice are an invaluable model organism for the study of auditory function. Even though there are differences in size and frequency response, the anatomy and physiology of the mouse and human ear are remarkably similar. In addition, the tools available for genetic manipulation in the mouse have enabled the generation of models carrying mutations in orthologous human deafness-causing genes, helping to validate these lesions and assess their functional consequence. Reciprocally, novel gene mutations discovered to cause auditory deficits in the mouse highlight potential new loci for human hearing loss, and expand our basic knowledge of the mechanisms and pathways important for the function of the mammalian ear...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Alison Hugill, Kenju Shimomura, Roger D Cox
This article describes detailed protocols for in vitro measurements of insulin function and secretion in isolated mouse islets for the analysis of glucose homeostasis. We specify a method of enzyme digestion and hand picking to isolate and release the greatest number of high quality islets from the pancreas of the mouse. We describe an effective method for generating dynamic measurements of insulin secretion using a perifusion assay including a detailed protocol for constructing a peristaltic pump and tubing assembly...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Corinne G Jolivalt, Katie E Frizzi, Lucie Guernsey, Alex Marquez, Joseline Ochoa, Maria Rodriguez, Nigel A Calcutt
Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of chronic diabetes that most commonly presents as a distal degenerative polyneuropathy with sensory loss. Around 20% to 30% of such patients may also experience neuropathic pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are uncertain, and therapeutic options are limited. Rodent models of diabetes have been used for more than 40 years to study neuropathy and evaluate potential therapies. For much of this period, streptozotocin-diabetic rats were the model of choice...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Lee Moir, Liz Bentley, Roger D Cox
In mice with altered body composition, establishing whether it is food intake or energy expenditure, or both, that is the major determinant resulting in changed energy balance is important. In order to ascertain where the imbalance is, the acquisition of reproducible data is critical. Therefore, here we provide detailed descriptions of how to determine energy balance in mice. This encompasses protocols for establishing energy intake from home cage measurement of food intake, determining energy lost in feces using bomb calorimetry, and using equations to calculate parameters such as energy intake (EI), digested energy intake (DEI), and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) to determine overall energy balance...
September 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Jef Verbeek, Ans Jacobs, Pieter Spincemaille, David Cassiman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD)...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Ans Jacobs, Anne-Sophie Warda, Jef Verbeek, David Cassiman, Pieter Spincemaille
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world. It is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and represents a spectrum of histological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can further progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver failure. To gain insight into the pathogenesis and evaluate treatment options, mouse models of NAFLD/NASH are of utmost importance. There is a high phenotypical variety in the available mouse models, however, models that truly display the full spectrum of histopathological and metabolic features associated with human NASH are rare...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Nincy Debeuf, Eline Haspeslagh, Mary van Helden, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways characterized by the presence of allergen-specific IgE, Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperreactivity, mucus overproduction, and structural changes in the airways. Investigators have tried to mimic these features of human allergic asthma in murine models. Whereas the surrogate allergen ovalbumin has been extremely valuable for unravelling underlying mechanisms of the disease, murine asthma models depend nowadays on naturally occurring allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and Alternaria alternata...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Jonathan M Williams, Carrie A Duckworth, Kate Vowell, Michael D Burkitt, D Mark Pritchard
The murine intestinal tract represents a difficult organ system to study due to its long convoluted tubular structure, narrow diameter, and delicate mucosa which undergoes rapid changes after sampling prior to fixation. These features do not make for easy histological analysis as rapid fixation in situ, or after simple removal without careful dissection, results in poor postfixation tissue handling and limited options for high quality histological sections. Collecting meaningful quantitative data by analysis of this tissue is further complicated by the anatomical changes in structure along its length...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Céline Caravagna, Alexandre Jaouën, Franck Debarbieux, Geneviève Rougon
Neuroinflammation demands a comprehensive appraisal in situ to gain in-depth knowledge on the roles of particular cells and molecules and their potential roles in therapy. Because of the lack of appropriate tools, direct visualization of cells has been poorly investigated up to the present. In this context, reporter mice expressing cell-specific fluorescent proteins, combined with multiphoton microscopy, provide a window into cellular processes in living animals. In addition, the ability to collect multiple fluorescent colors from the same sample makes in vivo microscopy uniquely useful for characterizing many parameters from the same area, supporting powerful correlative analyses...
June 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Laura Mangiavini, Christophe Merceron, Ernestina Schipani
To investigate skeletal development, pathophysiological mechanisms of cartilage and bone disease, and eventually assess innovative treatments, the mouse is a very important resource. During embryonic development, mesenchymal condensations are formed, and cells within these mesenchymal condensations either directly differentiate into osteoblasts and give origin to intramembranous bone, or differentiate into chondrocytes and form a cartilaginous anlage. The cartilaginous anlage or fetal growth plate is then replaced with bone...
March 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Wenning Qin, Peter M Kutny, Richard S Maser, Stephanie L Dion, Jeffrey D Lamont, Yingfan Zhang, Greggory A Perry, Haoyi Wang
The CRISPR-Cas9 system in bacteria and archaea has recently been exploited for genome editing in various model organisms, including mice. The CRISPR-Cas9 reagents can be delivered directly into the mouse zygote to derive a mutant animal carrying targeted genetic modifications. The major components of the system include the guide RNA, which provides target specificity, the Cas9 nuclease that creates the DNA double-strand break, and the donor oligonucleotide or plasmid carrying the intended mutation flanked by sequences homologous to the target site...
March 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Colin K L Phoon, Daniel H Turnbull
The mouse is the mammalian model of choice for investigating cardiovascular biology, given our ability to manipulate it by genetic, pharmacologic, mechanical, and environmental means. Imaging is an important approach to phenotyping both function and structure of cardiac and vascular components. This review details commonly used imaging approaches, with a focus on echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging and brief overviews of other imaging modalities. We also briefly outline emerging imaging approaches but caution that reliability and validity data may be lacking...
March 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Pooja Jha, Xu Wang, Johan Auwerx
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that harvest energy in the form of ATP through a process termed oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which occurs via the protein complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC). In recent years it has become unequivocally clear that mitochondrial complexes of the ETC are not static entities in the inner mitochondrial membrane. These complexes are dynamic and in mammals they aggregate in different stoichiometric combinations to form supercomplexes (SCs) or respirasomes. It has been proposed that the net respiration is more efficient via SCs than via isolated complexes...
March 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Sabine M Hölter, Jan Einicke, Bettina Sperling, Annemarie Zimprich, Lillian Garrett, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst
Phenotyping of inbred mouse strains and genetically modified mouse models for characteristics related to neuropsychiatric diseases includes assessing their anxiety-related behavior. A variety of tests have been developed to measure anxiety in laboratory rodents and these tests have been placed under scrutiny over the years concerning their validity. Here we describe the most widely used tests for anxiety in mice. The protocols we present are established methods used in the German Mouse Clinic (GMC), with which alterations in anxiety could successfully be discovered in mouse mutants...
December 2, 2015: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
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