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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Liv Gunvor Hove Midtbust, Atle Dyregrov, Heidi Wittrup Djup
A vast number of people annually are affected by natural disasters. Children are at risk of losing their lives and suffer mentally or physically after such events. The fostering of resilience and preparedness ahead of disasters can reduce untoward effects of disastrous events. Risk communication and disaster education are considered important aspects of disaster preparedness, but little is known about whether such strategies influence children's behaviour when natural disasters occur or how they cope in the aftermath...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Betty Pfefferbaum, Rose L Pfefferbaum, Richard L Van Horn
Background : Millions of children are affected by disasters every year. Children need not be passive victims, however, but instead may contribute to disaster risk reduction activities. Objective : This paper provides a theoretical foundation for children's involvement in disaster risk reduction activities. Method : The paper reviews and analyses the literature on children's participation, on their developmental capacity to participate, and on disaster risk reduction activities involving children. Results : Participation yields numerous potential benefits for children, including enhanced personal development and skills, self-efficacy, and interpersonal relationships, and for communities through improved social connections and networks and disaster preparedness...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Wissam El Hage, Florian Ferreri
Background : New technologies may profoundly change our way of understanding psychiatric disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Imaging and biomarkers, along with technological and medical informatics developments, might provide an answer regarding at-risk patient's identification. Recent advances in the concept of 'digital phenotype', which refers to the capture of characteristics of a psychiatric disorder by computerized measurement tools, is one paradigmatic example. Objective : The impact of the new technologies on health professionals practice in PTSD care remains to be determined...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Anouk Wagenmans, Agnes Van Minnen, Marieke Sleijpen, Ad De Jongh
Background : It is assumed that PTSD patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse benefit less from trauma-focused treatment than those without such a history. Objective : To test whether the presence of a history of childhood sexual abuse has a negative effect on the outcome of intensive trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Method : PTSD patients, 83% of whom suffered from severe PTSD, took part in a therapy programme consisting of 2 × 4 consecutive days of Prolonged Exposure (PE) and EMDR therapy (eight of each)...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Mayaris Zepeda Méndez, Mirjam J Nijdam, F Jackie June Ter Heide, Niels van der Aa, Miranda Olff
Background : Trauma-focused psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been demonstrated to be efficacious, but also have considerable non-response and dropout rates. Intensive treatment may lead to faster symptom reduction, which may contribute to treatment motivation and thereby to reduction of dropout. Objective : The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an intensive five-day inpatient treatment with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and trauma-informed yoga for patients with PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Joost Asselbergs, Marit Sijbrandij, Evert Hoogendoorn, Pim Cuijpers, Lara Olie, Kfir Oved, Job Merkies, Tessa Plooijer, Simone Eltink, Heleen Riper
Background : Vivid trauma-related intrusions are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and may be involved in its onset. Effective interventions to reduce intrusions and to potentially prevent the onset of subsequent PTSD are scarce. Studies suggest that playing the videogame Tetris, shortly after watching aversive film clips, reduces subsequent intrusions. Other studies have shown that taxing working memory (WM) while retrieving an emotional memory reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Louisa Lorenz, Axel Perkonigg, Andreas Maercker
Background: Adjustment disorder (AjD) was redefined for ICD-11 with core symptoms of preoccupation with a stressor and failure to adapt. The socio-interpersonal framework model for stress-response syndromes suggests that interpersonal factors, besides intrapersonal processes, substantially contribute to the development of AjD. Objective: The current study aimed to identify predictive factors in the development of AjD symptoms by the application of a framework model for stress-response syndromes. Method: N = 321 recently laid-off participants (47...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Lotte Hendriks, Rianne A de Kleine, Theo G Broekman, Gert-Jan Hendriks, Agnes van Minnen
Background: Suboptimal response and high dropout rates leave room for improvement of trauma-focused treatment (TFT) effectiveness in ameliorating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Objective: To explore the effectiveness and safety of intensive prolonged exposure (iPE) targeting chronic PTSD patients with a likely diagnosis of ICD-11 Complex PTSD following multiple interpersonal trauma and a history of multiple treatment attempts. Method: Participants (N = 73) received iPE in 12 × 90-minute sessions over four days (intensive phase) followed by four weekly 90-minute booster prolonged exposure (PE) sessions (booster phase)...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Maja Lis-Turlejska, Szymon Szumiał, Iwona Drapała
Background: There is growing evidence of the important role played by socio-interpersonal variables on the maintenance of PTSD. Many World War II survivors in Poland could, as a result of political circumstances during the aftermath of the war, have experienced a lack of social recognition of their war-related trauma. Objective: The main aim of the study was to examine the association between perceived social reactions and the level of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD) and depression. Method: Participants (N = 120) were aged 71-97 years (M = 82...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ehab Shiban, Jens Lehmberg, Ute Hoffmann, Jeff Thiel, Thomas Probst, Margret Friedl, Andreas Mühlberger, Bernhard Meyer, Youssef Shiban
Background: Growing evidence shows the significance of illness and surgical procedures as traumatizing stressors. Risk factors are widely investigated in various settings and samples, using numerous measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While pretrauma psychological distress is acknowledged as an influential factor, peritraumatic experiences are controversially still being discussed as relevant to the development of PTSD. Objective: In a group of patients consecutively undergoing elective spine surgery (N = 89) in a German hospital, this longitudinal study addressed the question of how pretrauma PTSD symptoms and peritrauma distress interact with one another in regard to the amount of posttrauma symptoms of PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Annemiek van Dijke, Juliette A B Hopman, Julian D Ford
Objective: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Regina Steil, Clara Dittmann, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Anne Dyer, Anne-Marie Maasch, Kathlen Priebe
Background: Dialectical behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (DBT-PTSD), which is tailored to treat adults with PTSD and co-occurring emotion regulation difficulties, has already demonstrated its efficacy, acceptance and safety in an inpatient treatment setting. It combines elements of DBT with trauma-focused cognitive behavioural interventions. Objective: To investigate the feasibility, acceptance and safety of DBT-PTSD in an outpatient treatment setting by therapists who were novice to the treatment, we treated 21 female patients suffering from PTSD following childhood sexual abuse (CSA) plus difficulties in emotion regulation in an uncontrolled clinical trial...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Frédérique Vallières, Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Maj Hansen, Mark Shevlin, Ask Elklit, Ruth Ceannt, Cherie Armour, Nana Wiedemann, Mette Munk, Cecilie Dinesen, Geraldine O'Hare, Twylla Cunningham, Ditte Askerod, Pernille Spitz, Noeline Blackwell, Angela McCarthy, Leonie O'Dowd, Shirley Scott, Tracey Reid, Andreas Mokake, Rory Halpin, Camila Perera, Christina Gleeson, Rachel Frost, Natalie Flanagan, Kinan Aldamman, Trina Tamrakar, Maria Louison Vang, Larissa Sherwood, Áine Travers, Ida Haahr-Pedersen, Catherine Walshe, Tracey McDonagh, Rikke Holm Bramsen
In this paper we present a description of the Horizon2020, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action funded, research and training programme CONTEXT: COllaborative Network for Training and EXcellence in psychoTraumatology. The three objectives of the programme are put forward, each of which refers to a key component of the CONTEXT programme. First, we summarize the 12 individual research projects that will take place across three priority populations: (i) refugees and asylum seekers, (ii) first responders, and (iii) perpetrators and survivors of childhood and gender-based violence...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Mark Shevlin, Philip Hyland, Neil P Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
Background: Two 'sibling disorders' have been proposed for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11): Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). To date, no research has attempted to identify the optimal symptom indicators for the 'Disturbances in Self-Organization' (DSO) symptom cluster. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess the psychometric performance of scores of 16 potential DSO symptom indicators from the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ)...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ida Frugård Strøm, Helene Flood Aakvaag, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Erika Felix, Siri Thoresen
Background: Psychological distress following experiencing bullying victimization in childhood has been well documented. Less is known about the impact of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment problems in young adulthood and about potential pathways, such as shame. Moreover, bullying victimization is often studied in isolation from other forms of victimization. Objective: This study investigated (1) whether childhood experiences of bullying victimization and violence were associated with psychosocial adjustment (distress, impaired functioning, social support barriers) in young adulthood; (2) the unique effect of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment; and (3) whether shame mediated the relationship between bullying victimization and these outcomes in young adulthood...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Nina Mørkved, Steven R Thorp
The bulk of the literature on effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused on children, adolescents, and young adults. The evidence on treatments for older adults is sparse. This case report presents the application of narrative exposure therapy (NET) for a 70-year-old Norwegian woman suffering from PTSD as a result of multiple childhood and late life traumatic events. NET is a manualized, short-term, cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD, originally developed to meet the needs of survivors of war and organized violence...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ulrich Schnyder, Ingo Schäfer, Helene F Aakvaag, Dean Ajdukovic, Anne Bakker, Jonathan I Bisson, Douglas Brewer, Marylène Cloitre, Grete A Dyb, Paul Frewen, Juliana Lanza, Robyne Le Brocque, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Gladys K Mwiti, Misari Oe, Rita Rosner, Julia Schellong, Jun Shigemura, Kitty Wu, Miranda Olff
Trauma is a global issue. The great majority of the global burden of disease arising from mental health conditions occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), among populations in political, economic, and/or cultural transition and those struck by forced migration. These mental health problems frequently arise as a result of traumatic events that adversely affect adults, children, and families, including war, mass violence, natural disasters, and accidents. In response to this, the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) launched the Global Initiative to have a stronger global impact on trauma-related issues...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Dominic Murphy, Jana Ross, Rachel Ashwick, Cherie Armour, Walter Busuttil
Background: Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective: This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Lisa J M van den Berg, Marieke S Tollenaar, Philip Spinhoven, Brenda W J H Penninx, Bernet M Elzinga
Background: There is an ongoing debate about the validity of the A1 criterion of PTSD. Whereas the DSM-5 has opted for a more stringent A1 criterion, the ICD-11 will leave it out as a key criterion. Objective: Here we investigated whether formal DSM-IV-TR traumatic (A1) and stressful (non-A1) events differ with regard to PTSD symptom profiles, and whether there is a gender difference in this respect. Method: This was examined in a large, mostly clinical sample from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n = 1433)...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kathryn M Magruder, Katie A McLaughlin, Diane L Elmore Borbon
Exposure to trauma is pervasive in societies worldwide and is associated with substantial costs to the individual and society, making it a significant global public health concern. We present evidence for trauma as a public health issue by highlighting the role of characteristics operating at multiple levels of influence - individual, relationship, community, and society - as explanatory factors in both the occurrence of trauma and its sequelae. Within the context of this multi-level framework, we highlight targets for prevention of trauma and its downstream consequences and provide examples of where public health approaches to prevention have met with success...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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