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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Chia-Ying Chou, Roberto La Marca, Andrew Steptoe, Chris R Brewin
Voluntary recall of trauma is a key element in exposure-based psychotherapies and can trigger spontaneous dissociative responses such as flashbacks, depersonalisation, and derealisation. In order to examine the associations between cardiovascular and psychological responses to voluntary recollection of trauma, individuals with PTSD recalled a traumatic memory. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded continuously and the episodes when different forms of dissociation were experienced during the recall were identified...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Martin Cernvall, Josefin Sveen, Kerstin Bergh Johannesson, Filip Arnberg
Background : There is a need for accessible interventions in the aftermath of traumatic events with documented efficacy for preventing or reducing negative mental health consequences. The PTSD Coach is a mobile app that has shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS). Objective : The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness and potential reductions of PTSS and symptoms of depression among participants using the Swedish version of the PTSD Coach...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Jin Cheng, YiMing Liang, Lin Fu, ZhengKui Liu
Background: Many studies have reported the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in children. However, the underlying relationship between PTSD and depression remains unclear. Objective: This study examines the relationship between PTSD and depressive symptoms in children who survived the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Methods: In total, 301 children were assessed at four months and then followed up at 29, 40 and 52 months after the disaster. The ages of the children ranged from 9...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Yuanyuan An, Guangzhe Yuan, Zhen Liu, Yuyang Zhou, Wei Xu
Background : Previous studies have shown that parental attachment is associated with low severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and low academic burnout in individuals who have experienced traumatic events. Objective : The present study investigated the ways in which parental attachment is related to PTSD symptoms and academic burnout in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of dispositional mindfulness. Method : A total of 443 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado one year prior to this study completed measures of parental attachment, dispositional mindfulness, PTSD and academic burnout...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Lindi Martin, Sian Megan Joanna Hemmings, Martin Kidd, Soraya Seedat
Background : Anxiety disorders in youth are attributable to multiple causal mechanisms, comprising biological vulnerabilities, such as genetics and temperament, and unfavourable environmental influences, such as childhood maltreatment (CM). Objective : A gene-environment (G x E) interaction study was conducted to determine the interactive effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and CM to increase susceptibility to anxiety sensitivity (AS) in a sample of mixed race adolescents. Method : Participants ( n =  308, mean age = 15...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Harmen A Zoet, Anouk Wagenmans, Agnes van Minnen, Ad de Jongh
Background : There is a widely-held belief in the trauma field that the presence of dissociative symptoms is associated with poor treatment response. However, previous research on the effect of dissociation in treatment outcomes pertained to specific patients and trauma populations. Objective : To test the hypothesis that the presence of the dissociative subtype of PTSD (DS) would have a detrimental effect on the outcome of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme. Methods : PTSD symptom scores (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] and PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report [PSS-SR]) were analysed using the data of 168 consecutive patients (70...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Jenna E Boyd, Alina Protopopescu, Charlene O'Connor, Richard W J Neufeld, Rakesh Jetly, Heather K Hood, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Background : Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant functional impairment in important areas, including interpersonal relationships and occupational or educational roles. Preliminary evidence suggests that the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD+DS), characterized by marked symptoms of depersonalization and derealization, is associated with increased functional impairment and disease severity, including among military members and veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Similarly, first responders (e...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
The field of treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a pacesetter for the changing face of psychotherapy, as is illustrated in the introduction of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy. This paper outlines a novel approach that builds on a cognitive-motor interaction in a virtual interactive environment. It is based on the theory of memory reconsolidation and the embodiment of cognition. The framework we envision allows the patient to 'step into the past' by using forward motion as an essential ingredient to augment the impact of exposure to traumatic events...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Véronique S Grazioli, Simon Marmet, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Mélissa Lemoine, Gerhard Gmel, Joseph Studer
Background : Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is an increasing phenomenon associated with physical and psychological consequences. This study investigated the effects of distinct forms of stress on NMUPD. Methods : Data from 5308 young adult men from the Swiss cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF) were analysed regarding NMUPD of sleeping pills, tranquilizers, opioid analgesics, psychostimulants, and antidepressants. Various forms of stress (discrete, potentially traumatic events, recent and long-lasting social-environmental stressors) during the period preceding the NMUPD assessment were measured...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Claire Hoysted, Franz E Babl, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Markus A Landolt, Laura Jobson, Claire Van Der Westhuizen, Sarah Curtis, Anupam B Kharbanda, Mark D Lyttle, Niccolò Parri, Rachel Stanley, Eva Alisic
Background : Provision of psychosocial care, in particular trauma-informed care, in the immediate aftermath of paediatric injury is a recommended strategy to minimize the risk of paediatric medical traumatic stress. Objective : To examine the knowledge of paediatric medical traumatic stress and perspectives on providing trauma-informed care among emergency staff working in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Method : Training status, knowledge of paediatric medical traumatic stress, attitudes towards incorporating psychosocial care and barriers experienced were assessed using an online self-report questionnaire...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Gen Li, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Ruojiao Fang, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Jianxin Zhang, Brain J Hall, Jon D Elhai
It has been well-documented that posttraumatic stress symptoms cause impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Until now we have little data on how DSM-5 PTSD symptom dimensions relate to different aspects of HRQoL. Clarifying this question would be informative to improve the quality of life of PTSD patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dimensions of a well-supported seven-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms on physical and psychosocial HRQoL. A total of 1063 adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake took part in this study nine years after the disaster...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit, Sarah Dokkedahl, Mark Shevlin
With the publication of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th edition (ICD-11) due for release in 2018, a number of studies have assessed the factorial validity of the proposed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex (CPTSD) diagnostic criteria and whether the disorders are correlated but distinct constructs. As the specific nature of CPTSD symptoms has yet to be firmly established, this study aimed to examine the dimension of affect dysregulation as two separate constructs representing hyper-activation and hypo-activation...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Andreas F Elrond, Annie Høgh, Søren B Andersen
Background : Soldiers' perception of leadership during military deployment has gained research attention as a potentially modifiable factor to buffer against the development of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within nonmilitary research, the organizational justice (OJ) framework, i.e. distributive justice, procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ), has been found to relate to mental health outcomes. Aspects of OJ may, therefore, be protective against PTSD. Objectives : We examined the prospective relationship between aspects of OJ, namely the perceptions of PJ and IJ by subordinate soldiers without leadership obligations in relationship to immediate superiors and PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kasper Eskelund, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Soren B Andersen
Background : Anhedonia is a common symptom following exposure to traumatic stress and a feature of the PTSD diagnosis. In depression research, anhedonia has been linked to deficits in reward functioning, reflected in behavioural and neural responses. Such deficits following exposure to trauma, however, are not well understood. Objective : The current study aims to estimate the associations between anhedonia, PTSD symptom-clusters and behavioural and electrophysiological responses to reward. Methods : Participants ( N = 61) were recruited among Danish treatment-seeking veterans at the Department of Military Psychology in the Danish Defence...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Beatriz Ponce de León, Søren Andersen, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Ask Elklit
Objective : This study investigated whether pre-deployment dissociation was associated with previously identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories from before to 2.5 years after military deployment. Furthermore, it examined whether the tendency to dissociate, pre-deployment personality factors, conceptualized by the Big Five model, and previous trauma represented independent risk factors for post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Method : This prospective study included the entire team of 743 soldiers from the Danish Contingent of the International Security Assistance Force 7 deployed to Afghanistan in 2009...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Betty S Lai, Melissa C Osborne, Jennifer Piscitello, Shannon Self-Brown, Mary Lou Kelley
Background : Children are a vulnerable population following a natural disaster, due to their age and dependence on adults. The primary presenting problem children report after disasters is posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Prior research suggests that PTSS is inversely related to social support, which is often disrupted after a disaster. Objective : This study examined the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers) and PTSS in children affected by Hurricane Katrina. The research contributes to the literature by examining the mechanisms that drive this relationship over time...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Heidrun Hlodversdottir, Harpa Thorsteinsdottir, Edda Bjork Thordardottir, Urdur Njardvik, Gudrun Petursdottir, Arna Hauksdottir
Background : More than 500 million people worldwide live within exposure range of an active volcano and children are a vulnerable subgroup of such exposed populations. However, studies on the effects of volcanic eruptions on children's health beyond the first year are sparse. Objective : To examine the effect of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption on physical and mental health symptoms among exposed children in 2010 and 2013 and to identify potential predictive factors for symptoms. Method : In a population-based prospective cohort study, data was collected on the adult population ( N  = 1615) exposed to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption and a non-exposed group ( N  = 697)...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Naomi B Fine, Michal Achituv, Amit Etkin, Ofer Merin, Arieh Y Shalev
Background : The immediate aftermath of traumatic events is a period of enhanced neural plasticity, following which some survivors remain with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whereas others recover. Evidence points to impairments in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and broader executive functions as critically contributing to PTSD. Emerging evidence further suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying these functions remain plastic in adulthood and that targeted retraining of these systems may enhance their efficiency and could reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Miranda Olff
Psychotraumatology is on the move. Worldwide, there is an increasing awareness of the negative impact of psychotrauma, which is reflected in the number of publications on the topic. These publications become more and more available to the public (Open Access), even more so than in other fields, and thus lead to quicker implementation of research findings. In this editorial, the editor of the European Journal of Psychotraumatology (EJPT) provides a brief review of how the journal has been doing, including recent accomplishments, some metrics and the ESTSS EJPT award for best paper of 2017, and identifies a number of priorities for the next year...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Liv Gunvor Hove Midtbust, Atle Dyregrov, Heidi Wittrup Djup
A vast number of people annually are affected by natural disasters. Children are at risk of losing their lives and suffer mentally or physically after such events. The fostering of resilience and preparedness ahead of disasters can reduce untoward effects of disastrous events. Risk communication and disaster education are considered important aspects of disaster preparedness, but little is known about whether such strategies influence children's behaviour when natural disasters occur or how they cope in the aftermath...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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