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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Matthew Price, Katherine Van Stolk-Cooke, Alison C Legrand, Zoe M F Brier, Hannah L Ward, Julie P Connor, Jennifer Gratton, Kalev Freeman, Christian Skalka
Background : PTSD is posited to develop in the acute posttrauma period. Few studies have examined psychopathology symptoms within this period due to the demands on individuals in the first month after a trauma. Mobile devices can overcome these barriers. The feasibility of using mobile devices for this purpose, however, is unclear. Objective : The present study evaluated the acceptability of administering PTSD symptom assessments via a mobile application throughout the acute posttrauma period. Method : Participants ( N  = 90) were recruited from a Level 1 Trauma Center within M  = 4...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Georgina Clifford, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Rebecca D Johnson, Caitlin Hitchcock, Tim Dalgleish
Individuals who experience repeated interpersonal trauma exposure often present with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with more complex features. There is currently no consensus regarding whether current evidence-based interventions for PTSD need to be tailored to better account for these complex features. However, one recommended adaptation is to adopt a phase-based or sequenced approach involving three phases, each with a distinct function. This paper describes the development of a 12-session Emotion- and Memory-Processing Group Programme, adapted from Cloitre's Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) phase-based treatment protocol...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Agnes Van Minnen, Lotte Hendriks, Rianne De Kleine, Gert-Jan Hendriks, Marije Verhagen, Ad De Jongh
Background : Trauma-focused treatments (TFTs) for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly effective, yet underused by therapists. Objective : To describe a new way of implementing (adequate use of) TFTs, using a therapist rotation model in which one patient is treated by several therapists. Method : In this article, we will present two examples of working with therapist rotation teams in two treatment settings for TFT of PTSD patients. We explore the experiences with this model from both a therapist and a patient perspective...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ingvild S Rasmussen, Kjersti Arefjord, Dagfinn Winje, Anders Dovran
Background: While previous research has found strong associations between childhood maltreatment trauma and substance use disorders (SUDs), the role of possible moderating effects of gender and mediating effects of psychopathology and SUD is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate differences in self-reported childhood maltreatment trauma, general psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress symptoms between 112 patients in treatment for substance use disorders (SUD group) and 112 matched controls with mild to moderate mental health disorders (comparison group)...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kathlen Priebe, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Andrea Schropp, Anne Dyer, Antje Krüger-Gottschalk, Christian Schmahl, Regina Steil, Martin Bohus
Background: A diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires the identification of one or more traumatic events, designated the index trauma, which serves as the basis for assessment of severity of PTSD. In patients who have experienced more than one traumatic event, severity may depend on the exact definition of the index trauma. Defining the index trauma as the worst single incident may result in PTSD severity scores that differ from what would be seen if the index trauma included multiple events...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
C Van Woudenberg, E M Voorendonk, H Bongaerts, H A Zoet, M Verhagen, C W Lee, A van Minnen, A De Jongh
Background: There is room for improvement regarding the treatment of severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intensifying treatment to increase patient retention is a promising development. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme over 8 days for individuals suffering from severe PTSD. Method: Treatment was provided for 347 PTSD patients (70% women; mean age = 38.32 years, SD  = 11.69) and consisted of daily sessions of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy (16 sessions in total), physical activity, and psycho-education...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Karen-Inge Karstoft, Tine Nielsen, Anni B S Nielsen
The potential stressors associated with military deployment are related to an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Perceived exposure to combat has been found to be proportional to the severity of post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, other perceived adversities during deployment, such as witnessing danger, distress, and hardship in the war zone, have been less systematically studied, but might play an equally substantial role for post-deployment mental health. The development and validation of scales that assess these related constructs are needed to distinguish their contribution to post-deployment risk of PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Christine Frank, Mark A Zamorski, Jennifer E C Lee, Ian Colman
Objective: Military research has attempted to identify whether women have an increased vulnerability to mental health issues following deployment-related trauma, but findings have been mixed. Most studies have controlled for childhood abuse, but not other non-deployment trauma (e.g. life-threatening illness), which may partly explain previous mixed results. This study assessed gender differences in the association between deployment-related trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) while controlling for non-deployment trauma...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Revathi N Krishna, Kevin R Ronan, Eva Alisic
Little is known about children's experiences and involvement in disaster preparation and recovery, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. Eliciting community members' perspectives on the 2015 floods in Tamil Nadu, India, may generate useful insights for improving services in low-resource settings. This qualitative study aimed to understand how children in Chennai experienced the floods, as reported by the adults in their community, and to explore children's involvement in disaster preparedness, response and recovery efforts as reported from the adults' perspective...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Christina M Sheerin, Kelcey J Stratton, Ananda B Amstadter, The Va Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research Education Clinical Center Mirecc Workgroup, Scott D McDonald
Background : The term resilience is applied in numerous ways in the mental health field, leading to different perspectives of what constitutes a resilient response and disparate findings regarding its prevalence following trauma. Objective : illustrate the impact of various definitions on our understanding and prevalence of resilience, we compared various resilience definitions (absence of PTSD, absence of current mental health diagnosis, absence of generalized psychological distress, and an alternative trauma load-resilience discrepancy model of the difference between actual and predicted distress given lifetime trauma exposure) within a combat-exposed military personnel and veteran sample...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Dietrich Munz, Nikolaus Melcop
The special issue of the European Journal of Psychotraumatology released on 7 November 2017 focused on traumatized refugees and on the mental health burden, screening instruments and interventions in different groups of refugees. This contribution takes up this discussion on the needs and challenges for mental healthcare of traumatized refugees from the point of view of the practitioners. It reports on the findings of a survey on the treatment situation and the delivery reality of healthcare for refugees in 14 European countries, identifies treatment gaps, and sets recommendations for action at the political and therapeutic levels...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Eva Schäflein, Heribert Sattel, Ulrike Schmidt, Martin Sack
Background : Patients suffering from dissociative disorders (DD) are characterized by an avoidance of aversive stimuli. Clinical experience has shown that DD patients typically avoid the confrontation with their own faces in a mirror (CFM). Objective : To investigate potential CFM-associated self-reported and psychophysiological stress reactions of DD patients, which most likely inform on the still unknown pathophysiology of dysfunctional self-perception in DD. Method : Eighteen DD patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs) underwent CFM...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Victoria Williamson, Rachel M Hiller, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Cathy Creswell, Tim Dalgleish, Pasco Fearon, Ben Goodall, Anna McKinnon, Patrick Smith, Isobel Wright, Sarah L Halligan
Background : Following a child's experience of trauma, parental response is thought to play an important role in either facilitating or hindering their psychological adjustment. However, the ability to investigate the role of parenting responses in the post-trauma period has been hampered by a lack of valid and reliable measures. Objectives : The aim of this study was to design, and provide a preliminary validation of, the Parent Trauma Response Questionnaire (PTRQ), a self-report measure of parental appraisals and support for children's coping, in the aftermath of child trauma...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Wei Qi, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Martin Gevonden, Richard Bryant, Douglas Delahanty, Yutaka Matsuoka, Miranda Olff, Terri deRoon-Cassini, Ulrich Schnyder, Soraya Seedat, Eugene Laska, Ronald C Kessler, Karestan Koenen, Arieh Shalev
Background : Understanding the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a precondition for efficient risk assessment and prevention planning. Studies to date have been site and sample specific. Towards developing generalizable models of PTSD development and prediction, the International Consortium to Predict PTSD (ICPP) compiled data from 13 longitudinal, acute-care based PTSD studies performed in six different countries. Objective : The objectives of this study were to describe the ICPP's approach to data pooling and harmonization, and present cross-study descriptive results informing the longitudinal course of PTSD after acute trauma...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Chia-Ying Chou, Roberto La Marca, Andrew Steptoe, Chris R Brewin
Voluntary recall of trauma is a key element in exposure-based psychotherapies and can trigger spontaneous dissociative responses such as flashbacks, depersonalisation, and derealisation. In order to examine the associations between cardiovascular and psychological responses to voluntary recollection of trauma, individuals with PTSD recalled a traumatic memory. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded continuously and the episodes when different forms of dissociation were experienced during the recall were identified...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Martin Cernvall, Josefin Sveen, Kerstin Bergh Johannesson, Filip Arnberg
Background : There is a need for accessible interventions in the aftermath of traumatic events with documented efficacy for preventing or reducing negative mental health consequences. The PTSD Coach is a mobile app that has shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS). Objective : The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness and potential reductions of PTSS and symptoms of depression among participants using the Swedish version of the PTSD Coach...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Jin Cheng, YiMing Liang, Lin Fu, ZhengKui Liu
Background: Many studies have reported the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in children. However, the underlying relationship between PTSD and depression remains unclear. Objective: This study examines the relationship between PTSD and depressive symptoms in children who survived the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Methods: In total, 301 children were assessed at four months and then followed up at 29, 40 and 52 months after the disaster. The ages of the children ranged from 9...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Yuanyuan An, Guangzhe Yuan, Zhen Liu, Yuyang Zhou, Wei Xu
Background : Previous studies have shown that parental attachment is associated with low severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and low academic burnout in individuals who have experienced traumatic events. Objective : The present study investigated the ways in which parental attachment is related to PTSD symptoms and academic burnout in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of dispositional mindfulness. Method : A total of 443 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado one year prior to this study completed measures of parental attachment, dispositional mindfulness, PTSD and academic burnout...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Lindi Martin, Sian Megan Joanna Hemmings, Martin Kidd, Soraya Seedat
Background : Anxiety disorders in youth are attributable to multiple causal mechanisms, comprising biological vulnerabilities, such as genetics and temperament, and unfavourable environmental influences, such as childhood maltreatment (CM). Objective : A gene-environment (G x E) interaction study was conducted to determine the interactive effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and CM to increase susceptibility to anxiety sensitivity (AS) in a sample of mixed race adolescents. Method : Participants ( n =  308, mean age = 15...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Harmen A Zoet, Anouk Wagenmans, Agnes van Minnen, Ad de Jongh
Background : There is a widely-held belief in the trauma field that the presence of dissociative symptoms is associated with poor treatment response. However, previous research on the effect of dissociation in treatment outcomes pertained to specific patients and trauma populations. Objective : To test the hypothesis that the presence of the dissociative subtype of PTSD (DS) would have a detrimental effect on the outcome of an intensive trauma-focused treatment programme. Methods : PTSD symptom scores (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] and PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report [PSS-SR]) were analysed using the data of 168 consecutive patients (70...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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