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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Alison Gracie, Chris R Brewin, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to psychosis and associated experiences (psychosis-related PTSD, or PR-PTSD) is the subject of a growing field of research. However, a wide range of PR-PTSD prevalence rates has been reported. This may be due to definitional and methodological inconsistencies in the assessment of PR-PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The focus of the review is two-fold. (1) To identify factors that enhance, or detract from, the robustness of PR-PTSD assessment and (2) to critically evaluate the evidence in relation to these identified criteria, including the impact on PR-PTSD prevalence rates...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Paul A Boelen
In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) (also termed prolonged grief disorder), posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Maria W Mauritz, Betsie G I Van Gaal, Ruud A Jongedijk, Lisette Schoonhoven, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Peter J J Goossens
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Meghan L Marsac, Nancy Kassam-Adams
BACKGROUND: Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Thanos Karatzias, Sally Jowett, Amelie Begley, Suzanne Deas
BACKGROUND: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit, Sarah Dokkedahl, Mark Shevlin
BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is currently under development with proposed changes recommended for the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and the inclusion of a separate complex PTSD (CPTSD) disorder. Empirical studies support the distinction between PTSD and CPTSD; however, less research has focused on non-western populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct PTSD and CPTSD symptom classes emerged and to identify potential risk factors and the severity of impairment associated with resultant classes...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
David P G van den Berg, Berber M van der Vleugel, Paul A J M de Bont, Gwen Thijssen, Carlijn de Roos, Rianne de Kleine, Tamar Kraan, Helga Ising, Ad de Jongh, Agnes van Minnen, Mark van der Gaag
BACKGROUND: Despite robust empirical support for the efficacy of trauma-focused treatments, the dissemination proves difficult, especially in relation to patients with comorbid psychosis. Many therapists endorse negative beliefs about the credibility, burden, and harm of such treatment. OBJECTIVE: This feasibility study explores the impact of specialized training on therapists' beliefs about trauma-focused treatment within a randomized controlled trial. METHOD: Therapist-rated (n=16) credibility, expected burden, and harm expectancies of trauma-focused treatment were assessed at baseline, post-theoretical training, post-technical training, post-supervised practical training, and at 2-year follow-up...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Edda Bjork Thordardottir, Unnur Anna Valdimarsdottir, Ingunn Hansdottir, Arna Hauksdóttir, Atle Dyregrov, Jillian C Shipherd, Ask Elklit, Heidi Resnick, Berglind Gudmundsdottir
BACKGROUND: Every year a substantial number of children are affected by natural disasters worldwide. However, data are scarce on long-term psychological impact of natural disasters on children's health. Identifying risk factors and outcomes associated with the long-term sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can provide a gateway to recovery as well as enhancement of preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: Among childhood avalanche survivors, we aimed to investigate risk factors for PTSD symptoms and the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and PTSD symptoms in adulthood...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Iro Fragkaki, Kathleen Thomaes, Marit Sijbrandij
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
André Sevenius Nilsen, Eva Hilland, Norunn Kogstad, Trond Heir, Edvard Hauff, Lars Lien, Tor Endestad
BACKGROUND: In studies employing physiological measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it is often hard to distinguish what constitutes risk-resilience factors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma exposure and what the effects of trauma exposure and PTSD are. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether there were observable morphological differences in cortical and sub-cortical regions of the brain, 7-8 years after a single potentially traumatic event...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ulrich Schnyder, Richard A Bryant, Anke Ehlers, Edna B Foa, Aram Hasan, Gladys Mwiti, Christian H Kristensen, Frank Neuner, Misari Oe, William Yule
BACKGROUND: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Laila F Farhood, Souha Fares, Rachel Sabbagh, Carmen Hamady
BACKGROUND: Armed conflict, occupation, and political and economic instability that are particularly experienced by the civilian Lebanese population of South Lebanon would almost inevitably affect these individuals psychologically. Therefore, identifying predictors of co-occurring mental disorders is paramount to sound assessment and intervention planning. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictors of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a post-war population from South Lebanon...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Nikolaus Kleindienst, Kathlen Priebe, Nora Görg, Anne Dyer, Regina Steil, Lisa Lyssenko, Dorina Winter, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (DBT-PTSD). We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Mirjam J Nijdam, Miranda Olff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Elmedina Dautovic, Carlijn de Roos, Yanda van Rood, Agnes Dommerholt, Roos Rodenburg
PURPOSE: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. METHODS: Five children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Suzanne C van Veen, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that 1) recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2) recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana Matthijssen, Marcel van den Hout
BACKGROUND: According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. OBJECTIVE: The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kevin van Schie, Suzanne C van Veen, Iris M Engelhard, Irene Klugkist, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND: In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), patients make eye movements (EM) while recalling traumatic memories. Making EM taxes working memory (WM), which leaves less resources available for imagery of the memory. This reduces memory vividness and emotionality during future recalls. WM theory predicts that individuals with small working memory capacities (WMCs) benefit more from low levels of taxing (i.e., slow EM) whereas individuals with large WMC benefit more from high levels of taxing (i...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Karoline Sanderud, Siobhan Murphy, Ask Elklit
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. METHOD: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Belinda J Liddell, Laura Jobson
A significant body of literature documents the neural mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is very little empirical work considering the influence of culture on these underlying mechanisms. Accumulating cultural neuroscience research clearly indicates that cultural differences in self-representation modulate many of the same neural processes proposed to be aberrant in PTSD. The objective of this review paper is to consider how culture may impact on the neural mechanisms underlying PTSD...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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