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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Angela Nickerson, Marylene Cloitre, Richard A Bryant, Ulrich Schnyder, Naser Morina, Matthis Schick
BACKGROUND: The construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has attracted much research attention in previous years, however it has not been systematically evaluated in individuals exposed to persecution and displacement. Given that CPTSD has been proposed as a diagnostic category in the ICD-11, it is important that it be examined in refugee groups. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we proposed to test, for the first time, the factor structure of CPTSD proposed for the ICD-11 in a sample of resettled treatment-seeking refugees...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Carmen Soberón, María Crespo, María Del Mar Gómez-Gutiérrez, Violeta Fernández-Lansac, Cherie Armour
BACKGROUND: Confirmatory factor analytic studies have shown that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders (DSM-5) may be better explained by two 6-factor models (the Externalizing Behaviours model and the Anhedonia model) and a 7-factor Hybrid model. The latter model comprises the symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviours, and anxious and dysphoric arousal...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Francisco Leal-Soto, Marcos Carmona-Halty, Rodrigo Ferrer-Urbina
BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences, such as natural disasters, produce multiple and serious impacts on people. Despite the traditional focus on negative consequences, in many cases there are also positive consequences, such as posttraumatic growth. Tedeschi and Calhoun proposed a model of posttraumatic growth that emphasizes the role of rumination after the basic beliefs breakdown due to the occurrence of a traumatic experience. METHOD: A total of 238 volunteers affected by two major earthquakes and tsunami alerts in northern Chile on April 1 and 2, 2014, responded to an online survey measuring subjective severity, basic beliefs change, social share of emotion, rumination, posttraumatic stress, and posttraumatic growth...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Daniela Rabellino, Sherain Harricharan, Paul A Frewen, Dalila Burin, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Early traumatic experiences are thought to be causal factors in the development of trauma-related dissociative experiences, including depersonalization and derealization. The rubber hand illusion (RHI), a well-known paradigm that measures multi-sensorial integration of a rubber hand into one's own body representation, has been used to investigate alterations in the experience of body ownership and of body representation. Critically, however, it has never been studied in individuals with trauma-related disorders...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Gideon James Rubin, Sarah Harper, Paolo Diaz Williams, Sanna Öström, Samantha Bredbere, Richard Amlôt, Neil Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Responding to health crises overseas can be both rewarding and distressing for staff involved. OBJECTIVE: We interviewed UK staff involved in the 2014/15 Ebola response to identify experiences that positively or negatively affected them. METHOD: We conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 30 Public Health England (PHE) staff and 21 non-governmental organisation (NGO) staff who had deployed to West Africa. RESULTS: The main motivations for deploying were for moral reasons and personal development...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Rachel Yehuda, David Spiegel, Steven Southwick, Lori L Davis, Thomas C Neylan, John H Krystal
This paper is based upon a panel discussion "What I Have Changed My Mind About and Why" held on 5 November in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA), as part of the ISTSS 2015 annual meeting "Back to Basics: Integrating Clinical and Scientific Knowledge to Advance the Field of Trauma." The panel was chaired by Professor Dr. Rachel Yehuda of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs, and included five clinician-scholars who exchanged thoughts about what they have changed their minds about over the years: Dr...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Bernet Elzinga, Christian Schmahl, Miranda Olff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Benjamin Kelmendi, Thomas G Adams, Stephanie Yarnell, Steven Southwick, Chadi G Abdallah, John H Krystal
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal that can arise immediately or many years after exposure to a traumatic event and injury. Although extensive research has been done over the past 30 years, the etiology of PTSD remains largely unknown. Several neurobiological systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology and vulnerability for developing PTSD; however, first-line pharmacotherapies are limited...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Laura M Fiori, Gustavo Turecki
Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology. Optimization of epigenetic research activity necessitates a discussion surrounding the methodologies used for DNA methylation analysis, selection of tissue sources, and timing of psychological and biological assessments...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Maya Opendak, Regina M Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Trauma has neurobehavioral effects when experienced at any stage of development, but trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences. Trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver child maltreatment, is particularly detrimental...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Anthony Nazarov, Victoria Walaszczyk, Paul Frewen, Carolina Oremus, Ruth Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Jennifer Wild, Emma Warnock-Parkes, Nick Grey, Richard Stott, Milan Wiedemann, Lauren Canvin, Harriet Rankin, Emma Shepherd, Ava Forkert, David M Clark, Anke Ehlers
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials have established that face-to-face cognitive therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CT-PTSD) based on Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model of PTSD is highly effective and feasible with low rates of dropout. Access to evidence-based psychological treatments for PTSD is insufficient. Several studies have shown that therapist-assisted treatment delivery over the Internet is a promising way of improving access to cognitive behavioural therapy interventions...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Katrin Schock, Maria Böttche, Rita Rosner, Mechthild Wenk-Ansohn, Christine Knaevelsrud
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms. METHOD: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25]) before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Anna Schierholz, Antje Krüger, Jens Barenbrügge, Thomas Ehring
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been shown to be related to a severe and/or chronic course of depression. This study investigated which psychological processes mediate this relationship. METHOD: A large sample of acute or recovered depressed individuals (N=340) participated in an online survey assessing characteristics of depression, trauma exposure, and potential mediators (emotion regulation difficulties, attributional style, and attachment). RESULTS: The experience of CM was related to more severe depression and more depressive episodes...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Andreas L Küffer, Myriam V Thoma, Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that childhood adversity exerts a lasting impact not only on the affected individuals but also on their offspring. Little is known about the role of parental rearing behavior in the transgenerational conveyance of parental childhood adversity and filial psychological health. OBJECTIVE: Hence, it was the aim of the current study to investigate the relationship between parental rearing behavior of former Swiss indentured child laborers ("Verdingkinder") and psychological health of their adult offspring...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Julia König, Sabine Schmid, Eva Löser, Olaf Neumann, Stefan Buchholz, Ralph Kästner
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Alison Gracie, Chris R Brewin, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to psychosis and associated experiences (psychosis-related PTSD, or PR-PTSD) is the subject of a growing field of research. However, a wide range of PR-PTSD prevalence rates has been reported. This may be due to definitional and methodological inconsistencies in the assessment of PR-PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The focus of the review is two-fold. (1) To identify factors that enhance, or detract from, the robustness of PR-PTSD assessment and (2) to critically evaluate the evidence in relation to these identified criteria, including the impact on PR-PTSD prevalence rates...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Paul A Boelen
In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) (also termed prolonged grief disorder), posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Maria W Mauritz, Betsie G I Van Gaal, Ruud A Jongedijk, Lisette Schoonhoven, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Peter J J Goossens
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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