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Pulmonary Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254761/sequencing-alpha-1-mz-individuals-shows-frequent-biallelic-mutations
#1
Kimberly E Foil, M Gwen Blanton, Chris Sanders, Joannah Kim, Haitham S Al Ashry, Suchit Kumbhare, Charlie Strange
Rationale: Individuals with a single Z mutation in the SERPINA1 gene that codes for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) are at increased risk for COPD if they have ever-smoked. Whether additional variants alter the risk for COPD in this population remains unknown. Objectives: To determine whether additional SERPINA1 variants impact COPD development in a previously identified MZ (carrier) cohort. Methods: Individuals with prior MZ results and AAT serum level <16uM were recruited from the Alpha-1 Coded Testing study and Alpha-1 Foundation Research Registry...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805807/outcomes-of-a-clinical-pathway-for-pleural-disease-management-pleural-pathway
#2
Srinivas R Mummadi, Peter Y Hahn
Background and Objectives: Clinical pathways are evidence based multidisciplinary team approaches to optimize patient care. Pleural diseases are common and accounted for 3.4 billion US $ in 2014 US inpatient aggregate charges (HCUPnet data). An institutional clinical pathway ("pleural pathway") was implemented in conjunction with a dedicated pleural service. Design, implementation, and outcomes of the pleural pathway (from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015) in comparison to a previous era (from August 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014) are described...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736283/chronic-pulmonary-silicone-embolism-from-breast-augmentation-is-not-a-common-finding-in-explanted-lungs
#3
Jarmanjeet Singh, Hanine Inaty, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay, Atul C Mehta
Objective: Acute pulmonary silicone embolism (APSE) related to subcutaneous silicone injections is a well-known entity. Recently, a few cases of pathologically confirmed chronic pulmonary silicone embolism (CPSE) from breast implants have been reported. The prevalence of CPSE in women with breast augmentation is unknown. This study was done to determine the prevalence of CPSE in female lung transplant recipients with a history of breast augmentation and to determine whether breast augmentation plays a role in chronic lung diseases requiring lung transplantation...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732223/comparison-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-salbutamol-with-jet-and-mesh-nebulizers-in-asthmatic-children
#4
Norihide Murayama, Kikuno Murayama
Background: Ultrasonic, jet, and mesh nebulizers have all been used in the treatment for asthma. Mesh nebulizers reportedly offer the best inhalation efficiency. Methods: This study aimed to clarify the utility of the mesh nebulizer, compared to jet nebulizers, in the treatment of pediatric asthma patients. Participants included 88 children <6 years old who were receiving treatment for asthma at Murayama Pediatric Clinic. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation in arterial blood, and Mitsui symptom scores were compared before and after treatment with a mesh nebulizer ( n = 43) or jet nebulizer ( n = 45) using a salbutamol inhalation solution (0...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686899/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-specific-therapy-in-patients-with-combined-post-and-precapillary-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
Hassan Alfraidi, Sultan Qanash, Zoheir Bshouty
Background: Specific therapy for patients with PAH is associated with good outcomes. Little is known about the effect of this treatment in patients with Cpc-PH (PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg, PAWP > 15 mmHg, DPG ≥ 7 mmHg, and/or PVR > 3 WU). This study evaluates the outcome of treating patients with Cpc-PH using PAH specific therapy. Methods: The primary outcome was survival. Secondary outcomes were WHO functional class and 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD). Results: Twenty-six patients with Cpc-PH (half with VHD and half with HF) received PAHST...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666703/sarcoid-like-mediastinal-lymphadenopathy-in-gynecologic-malignancy
#6
Bilal H Lashari, Megumi Asai, Gissele Randleman, Martha Sack, Rajeshkumar Patel
Noncaseating granulomas are seen surrounding tumors with varying frequency, possibly as part of an immune response to tumor cells. However, data about the association of sarcoid with gynecologic malignancy is sparse. We performed a search of our institutional database for all EBUS-TBNA biopsies conducted within the past five years that revealed granulomatous inflammation. All adult female patients with a history of gynecologic malignancy were included. Patients with a history of sarcoidosis or fungal or mycobacterial infection were excluded...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348936/guiding-inspiratory-flow-development-of-the-in-check-dial-g16-a-tool-for-improving-inhaler-technique
#7
REVIEW
Mark Jeremy Sanders
Portable inhalers are divisible into those that deliver medication by patient triggering (pMDIs: a gentle slow inhalation) and those that use the patient's inspiratory effort as the force for deaggregation and delivery (DPIs: a stronger deeper inspiratory effort). Patient confusion and poor technique are commonplace. The use of training tools has become standard practice, and unique amongst these is an inspiratory flow meter (In-Check) which is able to simulate the resistance characteristics of different inhalers and, thereby, guide the patient to the correct effort...
2017: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512583/role-of-transbronchial-lung-cryobiopsies-in-diffuse-parenchymal-lung-diseases-interest-of-a-sequential-approach
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Benjamin Bondue, Thierry Pieters, Patrick Alexander, Paul De Vuyst, Maria Ruiz Patino, Delphine Hoton, Myriam Remmelink, Dimitri Leduc
Background. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs) are a promising diagnostic tool in the setting of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs). However, no comparison with surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in the same patient is available. Methods. The diagnostic yield and safety data of TBLCs, as well as the result of SLB performed after TBLCs, were analysed in a multicentric Belgian study. A SLB was performed after TBLCs in absence of a definite pathological diagnosis or if a NSIP pattern was observed without related condition identified following multidisciplinary discussion...
2017: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321336/guideline-based-early-detection-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-eight-danish-municipalities-the-top-kom-study
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ulla Borup Hemmingsen, Margit Stycke, Jens Dollerup, Peter Bo Poulsen
Background . Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and prevention of disease progression are important. Only 40% of COPD cases are diagnosed in Denmark. Recommendations for early case finding have been established. This study investigates early detection of pulmonary obstruction in a Danish municipality setting. Methods . Eight municipalities participated. Citizens fulfilling national case finding recommendations, age ≥35 years, smokers/ex-smokers/relevant occupational exposure, and at least one respiratory symptom, were invited to spirometry...
2017: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261498/tomographic-aspects-of-advanced-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-evaluation-of-sequelae-following-treatment
#10
Rafael Barcelos Capone, Domenico Capone, Thiago Mafort, Roberto Mogami, Rosana de Souza Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Rogerio Rufino
Objectives. To evaluate tomographic changes in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), degree of agreement among three radiologists regarding tomographic diagnoses, and sequelae following treatment. Methods. Cross-sectional and descriptive study of 74 TB patients confirmed by sputum culture and chest computed tomography before (CT1) and 6 months after (CT2) drug therapy. Results were performed by three radiologists blinded to clinical and laboratory results. Results. Main findings in CT1 included nodules indicating the presence of a tree-in-bud pattern in 93% of cases, ill-defined nodules in 84% of cases, consolidation in 77% of cases, architectural distortion in 71% of cases, cavitary lesions in 62% of cases, and ground glass opacities in 37% of cases...
2017: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133546/glomerular-and-tubular-renal-function-after-repeated-once-daily-tobramycin-courses-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#11
Florian Stehling, Rainer Büscher, Jörg Grosse-Onnebrink, Peter F Hoyer, Uwe Mellies
Introduction . Antibiotic treatment regimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often include aminoglycoside antibiotics that may cause chronic renal failure after repeated courses. Aminoaciduria is an early marker of acute aminoglycoside-induced renal tubular dysfunction. We hypothesized that urinary amino acid reabsorption is decreased after repeated once-daily tobramycin therapies. Methods . In this prospective cross-sectional study creatinine clearance was estimated by the Schwartz and the Cockcroft-Gault formula...
2017: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116156/electronic-cigarettes-for-curbing-the-tobacco-induced-burden-of-noncommunicable-diseases-evidence-revisited-with-emphasis-on-challenges-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
REVIEW
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
Introduction . This review examines whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) implementation or vulgarization in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) could be helpful in curtailing the toll of tobacco smoking in the region. Discussion . There are about 1.3 billion smokers worldwide, with nearly 80% of them living in developing countries where the burden of tobacco-related illnesses and deaths is the heaviest. Studies report that e-cigs may facilitate smoking cessation, reduction, or abstinence and may pose only a small fraction of the risks of traditional tobacco cigarettes; e-cigs may also considerably reduce second-hand smoking...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070421/nasal-dilators-breathe-right-strips-and-nozovent-for-snoring-and-osa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Macario Camacho, Omojo O Malu, Yoseph A Kram, Gaurav Nigam, Muhammad Riaz, Sungjin A Song, Anthony M Tolisano, Clete A Kushida
Objective . To systematically review the international literature for studies evaluating internal (NoZovent) and external (Breathe Right Strips) nasal dilators as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study Design . Systematic review with meta-analysis. Methods . Four databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, were searched through September 29, 2016. Results . One-hundred twelve studies were screened, fifty-eight studies were reviewed, and fourteen studies met criteria. In 147 patients, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was reported, and there was an improvement from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD) of 28...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044105/protease-inhibitors-extracted-from-caesalpinia-echinata-lam-affect-kinin-release-during-lung-inflammation
#14
Ilana Cruz-Silva, Viviane Abreu Nunes, Andrezza Justino Gozzo, Priscila Praxedes-Garcia, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Mariana Silva Araujo
Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor), a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor), which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control) or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018674/early-phase-recovery-of-cardiorespiratory-measurements-after-maximal-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Marie Bellefleur, David Debeaumont, Alain Boutry, Marie Netchitailo, Antoine Cuvelier, Jean-François Muir, Catherine Tardif, Jérémy Coquart
Background . This study investigated respiratory gas exchanges and heart rate (HR) kinetics during early-phase recovery after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grouped according to airflow limitation. Methods . Thirty control individuals (control group: CG) and 81 COPD patients (45 with "mild" or "moderate" airflow limitation, COPDI-II , versus 36 with "severe" or "very severe" COPD, COPDIII-IV ) performed a maximal CPET...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999682/when-women-with-cystic-fibrosis-become-mothers-psychosocial-impact-and-adjustments
#16
Sophie L Cammidge, Alistair J A Duff, Gary J Latchford, Christine Etherington
Advances in the treatment and life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients mean that motherhood is now a realistic option for many women with CF. This qualitative study explored the psychosocial impact and adjustments made when women with CF become mothers. Women with CF (n = 11) were recruited via an online forum and participated in semistructured telephone interviews about their experiences of becoming a mother. Transcriptions were analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis revealed three core categories: (i) "Living with CF": how becoming a mother impacted on health and treatment adherence, requiring a change in support from the CF team, (ii) "Becoming a Mother": balancing issues common to new mothers with their CF, and (iii) "Pooling Personal Resources": coping strategies in managing the dual demands of child and CF care...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957340/diagnosis-of-peripheral-lung-lesions-via-conventional-flexible-bronchoscopy-with-multiplanar-ct-planning
#17
Marianne Anastasia De Roza, Kien Hong Quah, Cheong Kiat Tay, Weiquan Toh, HuiHua Li, Ganesh Kalyanasundaram, Devanand Anantham
Background. Conventional flexible bronchoscopy has limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions and is dependent on lesion size. However, advancement of CT imaging offers multiplanar reconstruction facilitating enhanced preprocedure planning. This study aims to report efficacy and safety while considering the impact of patient selection and multiplanar CT planning. Method. Prospective case series of patients with peripheral lung lesions suspected of having lung cancer who underwent flexible bronchoscopy (forceps biopsy and lavage)...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843647/cystatin-c-levels-in-middle-aged-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#18
Kostas Archontogeorgis, Evangelia Nena, Christina Tsigalou, Athanasios Voulgaris, Maria Xanthoudaki, Marios Froudarakis, Paschalis Steiropoulos
Background . Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods . 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results ...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818797/serum-magnesium-and-vitamin-d-levels-as-indicators-of-asthma-severity
#19
Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh, Brahma Reddy Malapati, Ruchi Gokani, Bhavita Patel, Mitul Chatriwala
Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818796/minimally-invasive-methods-for-staging-in-lung-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Gonzalo Labarca, Carlos Aravena, Francisco Ortega, Alex Arenas, Adnan Majid, Erik Folch, Hiren J Mehta, Michael A Jantz, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy
Introduction . Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a procedure that provides access to the mediastinal staging; however, EBUS cannot be used to stage all of the nodes in the mediastinum. In these cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for complete staging. Objective . To provide a synthesis of the evidence on the diagnostic performance of EBUS + EUS in patients undergoing mediastinal staging. Methods . Systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EBUS + EUS compared with surgical staging...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
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