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Pulmonary Medicine

Kostas Archontogeorgis, Evangelia Nena, Christina Tsigalou, Athanasios Voulgaris, Maria Xanthoudaki, Marios Froudarakis, Paschalis Steiropoulos
Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) is a novel biomarker of both latent renal damage and cardiovascular disease. Aim of the study was to measure serum levels of Cyst C, as well as IL-8 and CRP, in otherwise healthy OSAS patients. Methods. 84 individuals examined with polysomnography for OSAS symptoms without known comorbidities were prospectively recruited. Results. According to apnea hypopnea index (AHI) subjects were divided in two groups: OSAS group (AHI > 5/hour, n = 64) and controls (AHI < 5/hour, n = 20), which were age- and BMI-matched...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh, Brahma Reddy Malapati, Ruchi Gokani, Bhavita Patel, Mitul Chatriwala
Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Gonzalo Labarca, Carlos Aravena, Francisco Ortega, Alex Arenas, Adnan Majid, Erik Folch, Hiren J Mehta, Michael A Jantz, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy
Introduction. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a procedure that provides access to the mediastinal staging; however, EBUS cannot be used to stage all of the nodes in the mediastinum. In these cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for complete staging. Objective. To provide a synthesis of the evidence on the diagnostic performance of EBUS + EUS in patients undergoing mediastinal staging. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EBUS + EUS compared with surgical staging...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Nicole Lüneburg, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Karem Arriaza, Eduardo Pena, Hans Klose, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, Rainer H Böger
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) are associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, may contribute to HAPH. This study assessed changes in the ADMA/NO pathway and the underlying mechanisms in rat lungs following exposure to CIH or CH simulated in a hypobaric chamber at 428 Torr. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: CIH2x2 (2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia), CH, and NX (permanent normoxia), for 30 days...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Susan Bibby, Sumeet Reddy, Terrianne Cripps, Steve McKinstry, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley, Janine Pilcher
OBJECTIVES: Delivery of warmed, humidified air via nasal high flow therapy could potentially reduce replication of temperature-sensitive viruses in the upper respiratory tract. This study investigates whether nasal high flow therapy is well tolerated by healthy adults at 37°C and 41°C. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover pilot trial, nasal high flow therapy was used to deliver humidified air at 35 L/min, at either 37°C or 41°C, for three one-hour sessions of use over one day...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Huang-Pin Wu, Chien-Ming Chu, Chun-Yao Lin, Chung-Chieh Yu, Chung-Ching Hua, Teng-Jen Yu, Yu-Chih Liu
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pneumonia are not fully identified. The aim of this work was to find out the clinical characteristics associated with S. aureus infection in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which may be applicable for more appropriate selection of empiric antibiotic therapy. METHODS: From July 2007 to June 2010, patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit with severe HCAP/HAP and severe sepsis were enrolled in this study...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Nergiz H Turgut, Haki Kara, Sahende Elagoz, Koksal Deveci, Huseyin Gungor, Emre Arslanbas
The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of naringin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (control, bleomycin alone, bleomycin + naringin 40, and bleomycin + naringin 80) were used. Rats were administered a single dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg; via the tracheal cannula) alone or followed by either naringin 40 mg/kg (orally) or naringin 80 mg/kg (orally) or water (1 mL, orally) for 14 days. Rats and lung tissue were weighed to determine the lung index...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Sy Duong-Quy, Thong Hua-Huy, Huyen-Tran Tran-Mai-Thi, Nhat-Nam Le-Dong, Timothy J Craig, Anh-Tuan Dinh-Xuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), reflecting the activity of inducible NO synthase in airway epithelium, has been found to increase in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to measure eNO concentration in patients with suspected OSA and to correlate different eNO parameters with clinical and sleep apnea characteristics. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all patients underwent in-lab overnight polysomnography (PSG) and eNO measurement using a method of multiple flow rates before and after PSG (pre- and post-PSG)...
2016: Pulmonary Medicine
Marc H Lavietes
Physicians have noted dyspnea in severely ill asthmatic patients to be associated with fright or panic; in more stable patients dyspnea may reflect characteristics including lung function, personality and behavioral traits. This study evaluates the symptom of dyspnea in 32 asthmatic patients twice: first when acutely ill and again after an initial response to therapy. Spirometry was performed, dyspnea quantified (Borg scale), and panic assessed with a specialized measure of acute panic (the acute panic inventory (API)) in the 32 patients before and again after treatment...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Kentaro Wakamatsu, Nobuhiko Nagata, Sanae Maki, Hisamitsu Omori, Hiroyuki Kumazoe, Kayoko Ueno, Yuko Matsunaga, Makiko Hara, Koji Takakura, Nagisa Fukumoto, Nobuhisa Ando, Mami Morishige, Takashi Akasaki, Ichiro Inoshima, Shinji Ise, Miiru Izumi, Masayuki Kawasaki
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. RESULTS: Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, 72...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Nobukazu Fujimoto, Kenichi Gemba, Keisuke Aoe, Katsuya Kato, Takako Yokoyama, Ikuji Usami, Kazuo Onishi, Keiichi Mizuhashi, Toshikazu Yusa, Takumi Kishimoto
There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Bharti Chogtu, Rahul Magazine
Asthma's sustenance as a global pandemic, across centuries, can be attributed to the lack of an understanding of its workings and the inability of the existing treatment modalities to provide a long lasting cure without major adverse effects. The discovery of statins boosted by a better comprehension of the pathophysiology of asthma in the past few decades has opened up a potentially alternative line of treatment that promises to be a big boon for the asthmatics globally. However, the initial excellent results from the preclinical and animal studies have not borne the results in clinical trials that the scientific world was hoping for...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Thomas Janssens, Andrew Harver
BACKGROUND: Management of individual triggers is suboptimal in practice. In this project, we investigated the impact of symptom perception interventions on asthma trigger identification and self-reported asthma quality of life. METHODS: Children with asthma (n=227) participated in three asthma education sessions and then were randomized first to one of three home monitoring conditions (symptom monitoring and peak flow training with feedback, peak flow training without feedback, or no peak flow training) and then subsequently to one of three resistive load discrimination training conditions (signal detection training with feedback, signal detection training without feedback, or no training)...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes, Meire Cardoso da Mota Bastos, Renata Magliano Marins, Aline Alves Barbosa, Luiz Clóvis Parente Soares, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken de Abreu, João Tadeu Damian Souto Filho
OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. RESULTS: A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Tuğba Göktalay, Ayşe Nur Tuncal, Seçil Sarı, Galip Köroğlu, Yavuz Havlucu, Arzu Yorgancıoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Awareness of the healthcare providers on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in our country and all over the world, and on pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) which plays an important role in its nonpharmacological treatment will provide effectiveness in diagnosis and treatment of COPD. The present study aimed at determining knowledge level of the healthcare providers about COPD and PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, family practitioners and staff of home-care in central county of Manisa City were applied a questionnaire in order to determine their knowledge level on COPD and pulmonary rehabilitation during the in-service training on "pulmonary rehabilitation, home-care services for the pulmonary diseases, and respiratory exercises...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Umesh Goneppanavar, Rahul Magazine, Bhavya Periyadka Janardhana, Shreepathi Krishna Achar
Dexmedetomidine, an α2 agonist, has demonstrated its effectiveness as a sedative during awake intubation, but its utility in fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is not clear. We evaluated the effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on patient's response to FOB. The patients received either midazolam, 0.02 mg/kg (group M, n=27), or dexmedetomidine, 1 µg/kg (group D, n=27). A composite score of five different parameters and a numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain intensity and distress were used to assess patient response during FOB...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Mark Sanders, Ronald Bruin
The introduction of pressurised metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in the mid-1950s completely transformed respiratory treatment. Despite decades of availability and healthcare support and development of teaching aids and devices to promote better use, poor pMDI user technique remains a persistent issue. The main pMDI user aid is the spacer/valved holding chamber (VHC) device. Spacer/chamber features (size, shape, configuration, construction material, and hygiene considerations) can vie with clinical effectiveness (to deliver the same dose as a correctly used pMDI), user convenience, cost, and accessibility...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Yaşar Yildirim, Süreyya Yilmaz, Mehmet Güven, Faruk Kılınç, Ali Veysel Kara, Zülfükar Yilmaz, Gökhan Kırbaş, Alpaslan Kemal Tuzcu, Fatma Yılmaz Aydın
AIMS: Sleep disorders have recently become a significant public health problem worldwide and have deleterious health consequences. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-related breathing disorders. We aimed to evaluate anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and cortisol levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients with a body mass index ≥30 and major OSA symptoms were included in this study...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Misa Valo, Annette Wons, Albert Moeller, Claudius Teupe
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal myocardial ischemia is detectable by ST segment depression and elevation of high sensitive troponin T (hsTrop T) and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with OSA and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-one patients with OSA and CAD and 20 patients with OSA alone underwent in-hospital polysomnography. Blood samples for hsTrop T and NT-proBNP measurements were drawn before and after sleep...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
Aneesha Thobani, Jessica A Alvarez, Shaina Blair, Kaila Jackson, Eric R Gottlieb, Seth Walker, Vin Tangpricha
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer...
2015: Pulmonary Medicine
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