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Bacteriophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738559/comparative-genomics-of-9-novel-paenibacillus-larvae-bacteriophages
#1
Casey Stamereilers, Lucy LeBlanc, Diane Yost, Penny S Amy, Philippos K Tsourkas
American Foulbrood Disease, caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, is one of the most destructive diseases of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Our group recently published the sequences of 9 new phages with the ability to infect and lyse P. larvae. Here, we characterize the genomes of these P. larvae phages, compare them to each other and to other sequenced P. larvae phages, and putatively identify protein function. The phage genomes are 38-45 kb in size and contain 68-86 genes, most of which appear to be unique to P...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738558/phage-therapy-dosing-the-problem-s-with-multiplicity-of-infection-moi
#2
Stephen T Abedon
The concept of bacteriophage multiplicity of infection (MOI) - ratios of phages to bacteria - historically has been less easily applied than many phage workers would prefer or, perhaps, may be aware. Here, toward clarification of the concept, I discuss multiplicity of infection in terms of semantics, history, mathematics, pharmacology, and actual practice. For phage therapy and other biocontrol purposes it is desirable, especially, not to solely employ MOI to describe what phage quantities have been applied during dosing...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738557/bacteriophages-safely-reduce-salmonella-contamination-in-pet-food-and-raw-pet-food-ingredients
#3
Nitzan Soffer, Tamar Abuladze, Joelle Woolston, Manrong Li, Leigh Farris Hanna, Serena Heyse, Duane Charbonneau, Alexander Sulakvelidze
Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738556/testing-hypotheses-for-the-presence-of-trna-genes-in-mycobacteriophage-genomes
#4
Véronique A Delesalle, Natalie T Tanke, Albert C Vill, Greg P Krukonis
The presence of tRNA genes in bacteriophages has been explained on the basis of codon usage (tRNA genes are retained in the phage genome if they correspond to codons more common in the phage than in its host) or amino acid usage (independent of codon, the amino acid corresponding to the retained tRNA gene is more common in the phage genome than in the bacterial host). The existence of a large database of sequenced mycobacteriophages, isolated on the common host Mycobacterium smegmatis, allows us to test the above hypotheses as well as explore other hypotheses for the presence of tRNA genes...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738555/characterization-of-novel-staphylococcus-aureus-lytic-phage-and-defining-their-combinatorial-virulence-using-the-omnilog%C3%A2-system
#5
Luis A Estrella, Javier Quinones, Matthew Henry, Ryan M Hannah, Robert K Pope, Theron Hamilton, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Eric Hall, Biswas Biswajit
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are difficult to treat. Bacteriophage (phage) represent a potential alternate treatment for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. In this study, 7 novel phage with broad lytic activity for S. aureus were isolated and identified. Screening of a diverse collection of 170 clinical isolates by efficiency of plating (EOP) assays shows that the novel phage are virulent and effectively prevent growth of 70-91% of MRSA and methicillin sensitive S...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738554/transmission-of-phage-by-glassy-winged-sharpshooters-a-vector-of-xylella-fastidiosa
#6
Tushar Suvra Bhowmick, Mayukh Das, Kevin M Heinz, Peter C Krauter, Carlos F Gonzalez
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xff) is the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines and is vectored by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis). Previously we have reported the development of a bacteriophage (phage) based biocontrol system for PD, but no information on insect transmission of phages has been reported. Here we communicate that laboratory reared GWSSs fed on cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) harboring the virulent phage Paz were able to uptake of phage efficiently when the phage was present in high concentration, but were inefficient in transfer to plants...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738553/the-impact-of-orally-administered-phages-on-host-immune-response-and-surrounding-microbial-communities
#7
Yingying Hong, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Jiayi Zhang, Clayton K Collings, Ketaki Bhide, Kyle Schmidt, Paul D Ebner
Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of phage therapy in reducing foodborne pathogen carriage in food animals. Fewer studies have focused on host reactions, especially in terms of phage-mediated acute immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Here we administered E. coli O157:H7 phages in low (single dose of 10(5) PFU) or high (single dose of 10(7) PFU) quantities to mice. While there were time points at which cytokine levels in different treatment groups differed from one another, all cytokine levels remained within normal ranges for mice regardless of treatment...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607141/the-diverse-genetic-switch-of-enterobacterial-and-marine-telomere-phages
#8
Jens A Hammerl, Claudia Jäckel, Eugenia Funk, Sabrina Pinnau, Christin Mache, Stefan Hertwig
Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the enterobacterial telomere phages N15, PY54 and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator, similar to CI, Cro and Q of lambda, respectively. Moreover, N15 and ϕKO2 contain 3 related operator (OR) sites between cI and cro, while only one site (OR3) has been detected in PY54. Marine telomere phages possess a putative cI gene but not a cro-like gene...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607140/grete-kellenberger-gujer-molecular-biology-research-pioneer
#9
Sandra Citi, Douglas E Berg
Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607139/ctx%C3%AF-exploring-new-alternatives-in-host-factor-mediated-filamentous-phage-replications
#10
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez, François-Xavier Barre
For a long time Ff phages from Escherichia coli provided the majority of the knowledge about the rolling circle replication mechanism of filamentous phages. Host factors involved in coliphages replication have been fully identified. Based on these studies, the function of Rep protein as the accessory helicase directly implicated in filamentous phage replication was considered a paradigm. We recently reported that the replication of some filamentous phages from Vibrio cholerae, including the cholera toxin phage CTXϕ, depended on the accessory helicase UvrD instead of Rep...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090390/my-scientific-life
#11
Margarita Salas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090389/erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1080/21597081.2015.1086500.].
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090388/f%C3%A3-lix-hubert-d-herelle-1873-1949-history-of-a-scientific-mind
#13
William C Summers
The discovery of bacteriophage one century ago by the French-Canadian Félix d'Herelle set off controversies as to the nature of bacteriophage as well as over the priority and credit for this discovery. The background and life of d'Herelle reveals a complex, self-taught outsider in science who was strongly influenced by his admiration of Louis Pasteur, but also his attachment to the philosophical positions of early 17th century philosophers, especially Francis Bacon. D'Herelle left substantial unpublished writings on his philosophical musings toward the end of his life...
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090387/testing-a-proposed-paradigm-shift-in-analysis-of-phage-dna-packaging
#14
Philip Serwer, Elena T Wright
We argue that a paradigm shift is needed in the analysis of phage DNA packaging. We then test a prediction of the following paradigm shift-engendering hypothesis. The motor of phage DNA packaging has two cycles: (1) the well-known packaging ATPase-driven (type 1) cycle and (2) a proposed back-up, shell expansion/contraction-driven (type 2) cycle that reverses type 1 cycle stalls by expelling accidentally packaged non-DNA molecules. We test the prediction that increasing the cellular concentration of all macromolecules will cause packaging-active capsids to divert to states of hyper-expansion and contraction...
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090386/structural-proteins-of-enterococcus-faecalis-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-ef11
#15
Roy H Stevens, Hongming Zhang, Chaiwing Hsiao, Scott Kachlany, Eduardo M B Tinoco, Jessica DePew, Derrick E Fouts
ϕEf11, a temperate Siphoviridae bacteriophage, was isolated by induction from a root canal isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. Sequence analysis suggested that the ϕEf11 genome included a contiguous 8 gene module whose function was related to head structure assembly and another module of 10 contiguous genes whose products were responsible for tail structure assembly. SDS-PAGE analysis of virions of a ϕEf11 derivative revealed 11 well-resolved protein bands. To unify the deduced functional gene assignments emanating from the DNA sequence data, with the structural protein analysis of the purified virus, 6 of the SDS-PAGE bands were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis...
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090385/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-fight-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-intestinal-diseases
#16
Karin Moelling, Felix Broecker
We have analyzed fecal bacterial and viral communities of a patient with recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI) who was cured by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The "Zürich Patient" experienced immediate cure and has remained free of symptoms for now over 5 y. Donor-similar bacterial compositions after 4.5 y post-FMT demonstrated sustainable engraftment of donor microbiota predominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes bacteria. Appearance of beneficial species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia municiphila was detected while disease-related Proteobacteria decreased...
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090384/phagebiotics-in-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#17
A V Aleshkin, O N Ershova, N V Volozhantsev, E A Svetoch, A V Popova, E O Rubalskii, A I Borzilov, V A Aleshkin, S S Afanas'ev, A V Karaulov, K M Galimzyanov, O V Rubalsky, S S Bochkareva
We have developed a phagebiotic composition using 8 virulent bacteriophages (2 strains of each species) which are able to lyse Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The unique character of the developed composition is ensured by particular properties of each bacteriophage comprising the preparation, including their range of lytic activity toward specific bacterial pathogens, morphology of their plaques, cycle of their development, restriction profile of their DNAs, specificity of their genomes (based on complete genome sequencing), and other properties...
2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994946/how-wwii-and-the-old-turkish-mass-standard-led-a-greek-to-a-scientific-career
#18
Costa Georgopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144089/bacteriophage-ms2-genomic-rna-encodes-an-assembly-instruction-manual-for-its-capsid
#19
Peter G Stockley, Simon J White, Eric Dykeman, Iain Manfield, Ottar Rolfsson, Nikesh Patel, Richard Bingham, Amy Barker, Emma Wroblewski, Rebecca Chandler-Bostock, Eva U Weiß, Neil A Ranson, Roman Tuma, Reidun Twarock
Using RNA-coat protein crosslinking we have shown that the principal RNA recognition surface on the interior of infectious MS2 virions overlaps with the known peptides that bind the high affinity translational operator, TR, within the phage genome. The data also reveal the sequences of genomic fragments in contact with the coat protein shell. These show remarkable overlap with previous predictions based on the hypothesis that virion assembly is mediated by multiple sequences-specific contacts at RNA sites termed Packaging Signals (PSs)...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144088/bacteriophage-p2
#20
Gail E Christie, Richard Calendar
P2 is the original member of a highly successful family of temperate phages that are frequently found in the genomes of gram-negative bacteria. This article focuses on the organization of the P2 genome and reviews current knowledge about the function of each open reading frame.
January 2016: Bacteriophage
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