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Casey Stamereilers, Lucy LeBlanc, Diane Yost, Penny S Amy, Philippos K Tsourkas
American Foulbrood Disease, caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, is one of the most destructive diseases of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Our group recently published the sequences of 9 new phages with the ability to infect and lyse P. larvae. Here, we characterize the genomes of these P. larvae phages, compare them to each other and to other sequenced P. larvae phages, and putatively identify protein function. The phage genomes are 38-45 kb in size and contain 68-86 genes, most of which appear to be unique to P...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Stephen T Abedon
The concept of bacteriophage multiplicity of infection (MOI) - ratios of phages to bacteria - historically has been less easily applied than many phage workers would prefer or, perhaps, may be aware. Here, toward clarification of the concept, I discuss multiplicity of infection in terms of semantics, history, mathematics, pharmacology, and actual practice. For phage therapy and other biocontrol purposes it is desirable, especially, not to solely employ MOI to describe what phage quantities have been applied during dosing...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Nitzan Soffer, Tamar Abuladze, Joelle Woolston, Manrong Li, Leigh Farris Hanna, Serena Heyse, Duane Charbonneau, Alexander Sulakvelidze
Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Véronique A Delesalle, Natalie T Tanke, Albert C Vill, Greg P Krukonis
The presence of tRNA genes in bacteriophages has been explained on the basis of codon usage (tRNA genes are retained in the phage genome if they correspond to codons more common in the phage than in its host) or amino acid usage (independent of codon, the amino acid corresponding to the retained tRNA gene is more common in the phage genome than in the bacterial host). The existence of a large database of sequenced mycobacteriophages, isolated on the common host Mycobacterium smegmatis, allows us to test the above hypotheses as well as explore other hypotheses for the presence of tRNA genes...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Luis A Estrella, Javier Quinones, Matthew Henry, Ryan M Hannah, Robert K Pope, Theron Hamilton, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Eric Hall, Biswas Biswajit
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are difficult to treat. Bacteriophage (phage) represent a potential alternate treatment for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. In this study, 7 novel phage with broad lytic activity for S. aureus were isolated and identified. Screening of a diverse collection of 170 clinical isolates by efficiency of plating (EOP) assays shows that the novel phage are virulent and effectively prevent growth of 70-91% of MRSA and methicillin sensitive S...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Tushar Suvra Bhowmick, Mayukh Das, Kevin M Heinz, Peter C Krauter, Carlos F Gonzalez
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xff) is the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines and is vectored by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis). Previously we have reported the development of a bacteriophage (phage) based biocontrol system for PD, but no information on insect transmission of phages has been reported. Here we communicate that laboratory reared GWSSs fed on cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) harboring the virulent phage Paz were able to uptake of phage efficiently when the phage was present in high concentration, but were inefficient in transfer to plants...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Yingying Hong, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Jiayi Zhang, Clayton K Collings, Ketaki Bhide, Kyle Schmidt, Paul D Ebner
Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of phage therapy in reducing foodborne pathogen carriage in food animals. Fewer studies have focused on host reactions, especially in terms of phage-mediated acute immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Here we administered E. coli O157:H7 phages in low (single dose of 10(5) PFU) or high (single dose of 10(7) PFU) quantities to mice. While there were time points at which cytokine levels in different treatment groups differed from one another, all cytokine levels remained within normal ranges for mice regardless of treatment...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Jens A Hammerl, Claudia Jäckel, Eugenia Funk, Sabrina Pinnau, Christin Mache, Stefan Hertwig
Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the enterobacterial telomere phages N15, PY54 and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator, similar to CI, Cro and Q of lambda, respectively. Moreover, N15 and ϕKO2 contain 3 related operator (OR) sites between cI and cro, while only one site (OR3) has been detected in PY54. Marine telomere phages possess a putative cI gene but not a cro-like gene...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
Sandra Citi, Douglas E Berg
Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez, François-Xavier Barre
For a long time Ff phages from Escherichia coli provided the majority of the knowledge about the rolling circle replication mechanism of filamentous phages. Host factors involved in coliphages replication have been fully identified. Based on these studies, the function of Rep protein as the accessory helicase directly implicated in filamentous phage replication was considered a paradigm. We recently reported that the replication of some filamentous phages from Vibrio cholerae, including the cholera toxin phage CTXϕ, depended on the accessory helicase UvrD instead of Rep...
April 2016: Bacteriophage
Peter G Stockley, Simon J White, Eric Dykeman, Iain Manfield, Ottar Rolfsson, Nikesh Patel, Richard Bingham, Amy Barker, Emma Wroblewski, Rebecca Chandler-Bostock, Eva U Weiß, Neil A Ranson, Roman Tuma, Reidun Twarock
Using RNA-coat protein crosslinking we have shown that the principal RNA recognition surface on the interior of infectious MS2 virions overlaps with the known peptides that bind the high affinity translational operator, TR, within the phage genome. The data also reveal the sequences of genomic fragments in contact with the coat protein shell. These show remarkable overlap with previous predictions based on the hypothesis that virion assembly is mediated by multiple sequences-specific contacts at RNA sites termed Packaging Signals (PSs)...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Gail E Christie, Richard Calendar
P2 is the original member of a highly successful family of temperate phages that are frequently found in the genomes of gram-negative bacteria. This article focuses on the organization of the P2 genome and reviews current knowledge about the function of each open reading frame.
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Sebastian Leptihn, Julia Gottschalk, Andreas Kuhn
T7 phage DNA is transported from the capsid into the host cytoplasm across the cell wall by an ejectosome comprised of the viral proteins gp14, gp15 and gp16. Prior to infection, these proteins form the so-called internal core in the mature virion. Gp16 was shown to associate with pure phospholipid bilayers while gp15 bound to DNA. A complex of both proteins appears as spiral-like rods in electron micrographs. It was also shown that the proteins gp15 and gp16 have the propensity to regain their full structure after thermal unfolding...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Jennifer Mahony, Stephen R Stockdale, Barry Collins, Silvia Spinelli, Francois P Douillard, Christian Cambillau, Douwe van Sinderen
Phages infecting Lactococcus lactis pose a serious threat to the dairy fermentation sector. Consequently, they are among the most thoroughly characterized Gram positive-infecting phages. The majority of lactococcal phages belong to the tailed family of phages named the Siphoviridae. The coliphage lambda and the Bacillus subtilis phage SPP1 have been the predominant comparators for emerging siphophages both genomically and structurally and both phages recognize a membrane protein receptor. In contrast, the lactococcal P335 group phage TP901-1 attaches to cell wall surface polysaccharides...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Diane G Yost, Philippos Tsourkas, Penny S Amy
American Foulbrood Disease (AFB) is an infection of honeybees caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. One potential remedy involves using biocontrol, such as bacteriophages (phages) to lyse P. larvae. Therefore, bacteriophages specific for P. larvae were isolated to determine their efficacy in lysing P. larvae cells. Samples from soil, beehive materials, cosmetics, and lysogenized P. larvae strains were screened; of 157 total samples, 28 were positive for at least one P. larvae bacteriophage, with a total of 30...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Ido Yosef, Miriam Manor, Udi Qimron
The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is on the rise because antibiotics exert selection pressure that kills only the antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Sanitation and cleansing of hospital surfaces and the skin of medical personnel do not counteract this selective pressure, but rather indiscriminately reduce total pathogens on treated surfaces. Here, we discuss two recently introduced genetic strategies, based on temperate bacteriophages as DNA-delivery vehicles, that aim to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill the antibiotic-resistant ones...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Abigail C Mapes, Barbara W Trautner, Kershena S Liao, Robert F Ramig
Phage therapy is a promising treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections but is limited by the narrow host range of phage. To overcome this limitation, we developed a host range expansion (HRE) protocol that expands the host range of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-specific phage by cycles of co-incubation of phage with multiple P. aeruginosa strains. Application of the HRE protocol to a mixture of 4 phages, using 16 P. aeruginosa strains for development, resulted in undefined phage mixtures with greatly expanded host range...
January 2016: Bacteriophage
Volker Mai, Maria Ukhanova, Mary K Reinhard, Manrong Li, Alexander Sulakvelidze
We used a mouse model to establish safety and efficacy of a bacteriophage cocktail, ShigActive™, in reducing fecal Shigella counts after oral challenge with a susceptible strain. Groups of inbred C57BL/6J mice challenged with Shigella sonnei strain S43-NalAcR were treated with a phage cocktail (ShigActive™) composed of 5 lytic Shigella bacteriophages and ampicillin. The treatments were administered (i) 1 h after, (ii) 3 h after, (iii) 1 h before and after, and (iv) 1 h before bacterial challenge. The treatment regimens elicited a 10- to 100-fold reduction in the CFU's of the challenge strain in fecal and cecum specimens compared to untreated control mice, (P < 0...
October 2015: Bacteriophage
John Davison
Coliphage T5 injects its DNA in 2 steps: the first step transfer (FST) region 7.9% is injected and its genes are expressed and only then does the remainder (second step transfer, SST) of its DNA enter the cell. In the FST region, only 2 essential genes (A1 and A2) have been identified and a third (dmp) non-essential gene codes for a deoxyribonucleotide 5' monophosphatase. Thirteen additional putative ORFs are present in the FST region. Numerous properties have been attributed to FST region, including SST, host DNA degradation, inhibition of host RNA and protein synthesis, restriction insensitivity and protection of T5 DNA...
October 2015: Bacteriophage
Welkin H Pope, Graham F Hatfull
Bacteriophages are the dark matter of the biological universe: the population is vast and replete with novel genes whose function is unknown. The genomic insights such as the mosaic architecture gleaned from perhaps 2,000 currently sequenced bacteriophage genomes is far from representative of the total number phage particles in the biosphere - about 10ˆ31. The recent comparative analysis of 627 mycobacteriophages isolated on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 is the most extensive examination yet in pursuit of this question...
October 2015: Bacteriophage
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