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Oshrat Appel, Shai Cohen, Ofer Beeri, Noah Shamir, Yaniv Gelbstein, Shimon Zalkind
TiNiSn-based half-Heusler semiconducting compounds have the highest potential as n -type thermoelectric materials for the use at elevated temperatures. In order to use these compounds in a thermoelectric module, it is crucial to examine their behaviour at a working temperature (approximately 1000 K) under oxygen and a humid atmosphere. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to study the surface composition and oxidation of the TiNiSn alloy at elevated temperatures...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Adam Kubiak, Katarzyna Siwińska-Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski
Titania has properties that enable it to be used in a variety of applications, including self-cleaning surfaces, air and water purification systems, hydrogen evolution, and photoelectrochemical conversion. In order to improve the properties of titanium dioxide, modifications are made to obtain oxide/hybrid systems that are intended to have the properties of both components. In particular, zinc oxide, zirconia and molybdenum disulfide have been proposed as the second component of binary systems due to their antibacterial, electrochemical and photocatalytic properties...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Gonçalo Pina Cipriano, Lucian A Blaga, Jorge F Dos Santos, Pedro Vilaça, Sergio T Amancio-Filho
This work presents a systematic study on the correlations between process parameters and rivet plastic deformation, produced by force-controlled friction riveting. The 5 mm diameter AA2024 rivets were joined to 13 mm, nominal thickness, polyetherimide plates. A wide range of joint formations was obtained, reflecting the variation in total energy input (24⁻208 J) and process temperature (319⁻501 °C). The influence of the process parameters on joint formation was determined, using a central composite design and response surface methodology...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Shuyue Zhang, Kun Zhou, Haohao Ding, Jun Guo, Qiyue Liu, Wenjian Wang
A three-dimensional finite element model of rail grinding was established to explore the effects of grinding passes and grinding direction on the material removal behaviour of grinding rails during the grinding process. The results indicate that as the number of grinding passes increases, a decrease in the grinding force reduces both the amount of removed rail material and the surface roughness. There is a decrease in the grinding ratio caused by the increase in the wear on the grinding wheel and the decreased removal of the rail material...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Masataka Ijiri, Norihiro Okada, Syouta Kanetou, Masato Yamamoto, Daisuke Nakagawa, Kumiko Tanaka, Toshihiko Yoshimura
This research investigated high-temperature corrosion (500 °C) of Cr-Mo steel processed using water jet peening or multifunction cavitation (MFC), and the suitability of such steel for high-temperature boilers and reaction vessels. High-temperature corrosion was induced using an embedment test and a coating test using sulfide-type K₂SO₄-Na₂SO₄ powder. To measure the relaxation of the residual stress due to the decrease in work hardening caused by an increase in specimen temperature and the difference in thermal shrinkage between the surface and interior of the specimen, a thermal cycling test was conducted...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Yoshinori Hashimoto, Shotaro Nishitsuji, Takashi Kurose, Hiroshi Ito
This work reports on an experimental study of the stretching of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) film in various uniaxial/biaxial stretching modes at various temperatures and stretching speeds. We examined the stress-birefringence relationship as a stress-optical rule (SOR) under uniaxial stretching and evaluated the stress-optical coefficient (SOC). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements were applied to evaluate the contribution to birefringence of the crystalline and amorphous phases and to characterize stretching modes...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Marco Roveri, Francesca Gherardi, Luigi Brambilla, Chiara Castiglioni, Lucia Toniolo
The use of hybrid nanocoatings for the protection of natural stones has received increasing attention over the last years. However, the interaction of these materials with stones and, in particular, its modification resulting from the blending of nanoparticles and matrices, are yet little explored. In this work, the interaction of two nanocomposite coatings (based on alkylalkoxysilane matrices and TiO₂ nanoparticles in water and 2-propanol) with two different porous stones is examined in detail by comparing their absorption behaviour and protection performance with those of the respective TiO₂-free matrices...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Marina Knyazeva, Julian Rozo Vasquez, Leonard Gondecki, Max Weibring, Fabian Pöhl, Monika Kipp, Peter Tenberge, Werner Theisen, Frank Walther, Dirk Biermann
The evaluation of wear progress of gear tooth flanks made of 16MnCr5 was performed using non-destructive micro-magnetic testing, specifically Barkhausen noise (BN) and incremental permeability (IP). Based on the physical interaction of the microstructure with the magnetic field, the micro-magnetic characterization allowed the analysis of changes of microstructure caused by wear, including phase transformation and development of residual stresses. Due to wide parameter variation and application of bandpass filter frequencies of micro-magnetic signals, it was possible to indicate and separate the main damage mechanisms considering the wear development...
November 15, 2018: Materials
John A Wu, Chih-Yang Huang, Wen-Wei Wu, Chih Chen
We reported that highly (111)-oriented nanotwinned gold can be fabricated by periodical-reverse electroplating. The as-deposited films are shown to have a strong (111) preferred orientation, increasing with the reverse current time. The ratios of I(111) /I(220) and I(111) /I(200) in X-ray diffraction signals indicates a strong (111) preferred orientation. Using the advantage of the fast surface diffusion of (111) plane compared to the other planes of gold, we performed direct bonding with different thicknesses...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Min Zhang, Yulan Zhou, Chao Huang, Qiaoling Chu, Wenhui Zhang, Jihong Li
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was established by ABAQUS software to simulate the welding temperature field of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy under different welding currents based on a Gaussian heat source model. The model uses thermo-mechanical coupling analysis and takes into account the effects of convection and radiation on all weld surfaces. The microstructure evolution of the molten pool was calculated using the macro-micro coupling cellular automaton-finite different (CA-FD) method...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Riaid Alsaeedi, Z Ozdemir
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been introduced in previous studies as a synergistic technique to modify the surface chemistry and topography of titanium-based implants to control their biocompatibility. In this study, the effectiveness of CMP implementation on titanium-based implant surface modification was compared to machined implants, such as baseline and etching and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particle-based sand blasting treatments, in terms of the surface chemical and mechanical performance...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Jun Lu, Hao Yu, Xiaoni Duan, Chenghao Song
In the present work, the tensile deformation characteristics of the high performance multiphase steel with complex microstructures are investigated. A mixture of ferrite, bainite, and 14.4 vol% retained austenite (RA) with an average grain size of less than 3 μm of the matrix is obtained after specific heat treatment. Tensile tests are performed with increasing strain, i.e., 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Then X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction are utilized to analyze the deformation-transformation behaviors of the complex microstructures...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Haoyu Zhang, Chuan Wang, Siqian Zhang, Ge Zhou, Lijia Chen
Evolution of secondary α phase during aging treatment of a novel near β titanium alloy Ti-6Mo-5V-3Al-2Fe(wt.%) was studied by OM, SEM, and TEM. Results indicated that size and distribution of secondary α phase were strongly affected by aging temperature and time. Athermal ω phase formed after super-transus solution treatment followed by water quenching, and promoted nucleation of needle-like intragranular α in subsequent aging process. When aged at 480 °C, fine scaled intragranular α with small inter-particle spacing precipitated within β grains and high ultimate tensile strength above 1500 MPa was achieved...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Daria Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka, Michał A Glinicki, Karolina Gibas, Tomasz Baran
Long-term exposure of concrete to nuclear reactor environments may enhance the ageing phenomena. An investigation concerning a possible deleterious alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete containing high-density aggregates is presented in this paper. The scope of this investigation was limited to heavy aggregates that could be used for the construction of the first Polish nuclear power plant (NPP). Five different high-density aggregates were selected and tested: three barites, magnetite, and hematite. Mineralogical analysis was conducted using thin section microscopic observation in transmitted light...
November 15, 2018: Materials
Zhimin Zhang, Zhaoming Yan, Yue Du, Guanshi Zhang, Jiaxuan Zhu, Luying Ren, Yiding Wang
Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Mg alloys show excellent performance in high-end manufacturing due to its strength, hardness and corrosion resistance. However, the hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr were not studied. For this article, hot compression behavior of homogenized high rare-earth (RE) content Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by using the Gleeble-3500D thermo-simulation test machine under the temperature of 350⁻500 °C and the strain rate of 0...
November 14, 2018: Materials
Yujuan Zhang, Ningning Zhang, Changchun Ge
Water and air pollution is a critical issue across the whole world. Two-dimensional transition metal carbide/nitride (MXene) materials, due to the characteristics of large specific surface area, hydrophilic nature and abundant highly active surficial sites, are able to adsorb a variety of environmental pollutants, and thus can be used for environmental remediation. First-principles method is a powerful tool to investigate and predict the properties of low-dimensional materials, which can save a large amount of experimental costs and accelerate the research progress...
November 14, 2018: Materials
Jie Li, Qianqian Jiang, Nannan Yuan, Jianguo Tang
Due to the broad application prospect, flexible and transparent electronic device has been widely used in portable wearable devices, energy storage smart window and other fields, which owns many advantages such as portable, foldable, small-quality, low-cost, good transparency, high performance and so on. All these electronic devices are inseparable from the support of energy storage device. Energy storage device, like lithium-ion battery and super capacitor, also require strict flexibility and transparency as the energy supply equipment of electronic devices...
November 14, 2018: Materials
Yefeng Feng, Cheng Peng, Qihuang Deng, Yandong Li, Jianbing Hu, Qin Wu
High discharged energy density and charge⁻discharge efficiency, in combination with high electric breakdown strength, maximum electric displacement and low residual displacement, are very difficult to simultaneously achieve in single-component polymer dielectrics. Plenty of researches have reported polymer based composite dielectrics filled with inorganic fillers, through complex surface modification of inorganic fillers to improve interface compatibility. In this work, a novel strategy of introducing environmentally-friendly biological polyester into fluoropolymer matrix has been presented to prepare all-organic polymer composites with desirable high energy storage properties by solution cast process (followed by annealing or stretching post-treatment), in order to simplify the preparation steps and lower the cost...
November 14, 2018: Materials
Mikel Osinalde, Pablo Infante, Lurdes Domínguez, Juan Mari Blanco, Alexander Chizhik, Valentina Zhukova, Arcady Zhukov, Julian González
We report on the structural and magnetic characterization of two nanocrystalline Finemet-type magnetic cores. The nanocrystalline structure developed after annealing the amorphous precursor alloy at 550 °C for 30 and 60 min of annealing time. Structural analysis carried out by means of X-ray diffraction providing useful information on the grain size mean and partial volume of the nanocrystalline phase. The magnetic characterization was focused mainly in the Rayleigh region which, influenced by the intergranular coupling, was found to be more efficient in the sample treated for a longer time with a finer nanocrystalline structure...
November 14, 2018: Materials
Chao Liu, Xuequn Cheng, Zeyu Dai, Ryan Liu, Ziyu Li, Liying Cui, Mindong Chen, Le Ke
The initiation and evolution of the localized corrosion in carbon steel were investigated in a simulated marine environment of Xisha Island in the South China Sea. In the initial stage, localized corrosion occurred in the form of corrosion spot. The localized corrosion morphology and electrochemical information during corrosion process were tracked by field emission scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (FE-SEM-EDS), scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM)...
November 14, 2018: Materials
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