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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337176/osteoporosis-therapy-bone-modeling-during-growth-and-aging
#1
Toshihiro Sugiyama, Hiromi Oda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337175/effects-of-chronic-acth-excess-on-human-adrenal-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Xavier Bertagna
Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic cortisol excess, without escape phenomenon, resulting in Cushing's syndrome. Excess adrenal androgens also occur: in females, they will overcompensate the gonadotrophic loss, inducing high testosterone; in males, they will not compensate it, inducing low testosterone. Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic adrenal mineralocorticoid excess and low aldosterone levels: after an acute rise, aldosterone plasma levels resume low values after a few days when ACTH is prolonged. Two other mineralocorticoids in man, cortisol and 11 deoxycorticosterone (DOC), at the zona fasciculata, will not escape the long-term effect of chronic ACTH excess and their secretion rates will remain elevated in parallel...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337174/regulation-of-mammalian-physiology-by-interconnected-circadian-and-feeding-rhythms
#3
REVIEW
Florian Atger, Daniel Mauvoisin, Benjamin Weger, Cédric Gobet, Frédéric Gachon
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping systems that adapt in an anticipatory fashion the physiology and behavior of most living organisms. In mammals, the master pacemaker resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and entrains peripheral clocks using a wide range of signals that differentially schedule physiology and gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. The peripheral clocks, such as those found in the liver, are particularly sensitive to rhythmic external cues like feeding behavior, which modulate the phase and amplitude of rhythmic gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321206/leptin-resistance-and-the-neuro-adipose-connection
#4
Andreia Barateiro, Ines Mahú, Ana I Domingos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321205/sexual-dimorphism-in-digit-ratios-derived-from-dorsal-digit-length-among-adults-and-children
#5
Sanjay Kumar, Martin Voracek, Maharaj Singh
Sexual dimorphism in ventrally measured digit ratios (2D:4D and other) has been related to prenatal sex-hormone levels. In the present series of three studies, we measured all digit lengths (excluding the thumb) on the dorsal, rather than the ventral, side of left and right hands and investigated the sexual dimorphism in digit ratios in three independent samples, two of them comprising adults (Study I, N = 104; Study II, N = 154), and one further, comprising kindergarten children (Study III, N = 64)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321204/a-comprehensive-view-of-the-%C3%AE-arrestinome
#6
Pascale Crépieux, Anne Poupon, Nathalie Langonné-Gallay, Eric Reiter, Javier Delgado, Martin H Schaefer, Thomas Bourquard, Luis Serrano, Christina Kiel
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane receptors critically involved in sensing the environment and orchestrating physiological processes. As such, they transduce extracellular signals such as hormone, neurotransmitters, ions, and light into an integrated cell response. The intracellular trafficking, internalization, and signaling ability of ligand-activated GPCRs are controlled by arrestins, adaptor proteins that they interact with upon ligand binding. β-arrestins 1 and 2 in particular are now considered as hub proteins assembling multiprotein complexes to regulate receptor fate and transduce diversified cell responses...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316591/predictors-of-quality-of-life-in-acromegaly-no-consensus-on-biochemical-parameters
#7
REVIEW
Victor J Geraedts, Cornelie D Andela, Günter K Stalla, Alberto M Pereira, Wouter R van Furth, Caroline Sievers, Nienke R Biermasz
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) in patients with acromegaly is reduced irrespective of disease state. The contributions of multifactorial determinants of QoL in several disease stages are presently not well known. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review predictors of QoL in acromegalic patients. METHODS: Main databases were systematically searched using predefined search terms for potentially relevant articles up to January 2017. Inclusion criteria included separate acromegaly cohort, non-hereditary acromegaly, QoL as study parameter with clearly described method of measurement and quantitative results, N ≥ 10 patients, article in English and adult patients only...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303118/potential-role-of-chemokines-in-fracture-repair
#8
REVIEW
Bouchra Edderkaoui
Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that share a typical key structure that is stabilized by disulfide bonds between the cysteine residues at the NH2-terminal of the protein, and they are secreted by a great variety of cells in several different conditions. Their function is directly dependent on their interactions with their receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell maturation and differentiation, infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and, in general, in any situation where immune components are involved...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303117/expression-patterns-and-correlations-with-metabolic-markers-of-zinc-transporters-zip14-and-znt1-in-obesity-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Trine Maxel, Pernille Fog Svendsen, Kamille Smidt, Jesper Krogh Lauridsen, Birgitte Brock, Steen Bønlykke Pedersen, Jørgen Rungby, Agnete Larsen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic disturbances in PCOS. In adipose tissue, expression of zinc influx transporter ZIP14 varies with body mass index (BMI), clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). In this study, we investigated expression levels of ZIP14 and PPARG in subcutaneous adipose tissue of 36 PCOS women (17 lean and 19 obese women) compared with 23 healthy controls (7 lean and 16 obese women)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303116/comparative-physiology-of-energy-metabolism-fishing-for-endocrine-signals-in-the-early-vertebrate-pool
#10
REVIEW
Iris van de Pol, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Energy is the common currency of life. To guarantee a homeostatic supply of energy, multiple neuro-endocrine systems have evolved in vertebrates; systems that regulate food intake, metabolism, and distribution of energy. Even subtle (lasting) dysregulation of the delicate balance of energy intake and expenditure may result in severe pathologies. Feeding-related pathologies have fueled research on mammals, including of course the human species. The mechanisms regulating food intake and body mass are well-characterized in these vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#11
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289402/medical-therapy-with-pasireotide-in-recurrent-cushing-s-disease-experience-of-patients-treated-for-at-least-1%C3%A2-year-at-a-single-center
#12
Chris G Yedinak, Sarah Hopkins, Jessica Williams, Aly Ibrahim, Justin Schultz Cetas, Maria Fleseriu
Subcutaneous (SC) injection of pasireotide, a somatostatin analog, is approved for the treatment of adults with Cushing's disease (CD) for whom pituitary surgery was unsuccessful or is not an option. We highlight the symptomatic and biochemical improvement of six patients with recurrent CD treated with pasireotide SC at a single center for at least 1 year. Patients were treated either through commercial use (n = 5) or through the Phase 3 trial (n = 1; http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00434148; study number, B2305)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275368/editorial-linking-hypoxia-to-obesity
#13
EDITORIAL
Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275367/ppar-%C3%AE-agonists-as-antineoplastic-agents-in-cancers-with-dysregulated-igf-axis
#14
REVIEW
Veronica Vella, Maria Luisa Nicolosi, Stefania Giuliano, Maria Bellomo, Antonino Belfiore, Roberta Malaguarnera
It is now widely accepted that insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are associated to increased cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, cancer development and progression as well as cancer resistance to traditional anticancer therapies are often linked to a deregulation/overactivation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, which involves the autocrine/paracrine production of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and overexpression of their cognate receptors [IGF-I receptor, IGF-insulin receptor (IR), and IR]...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270795/the-leptin-receptor-complex-heavier-than-expected
#15
REVIEW
Joris Wauman, Lennart Zabeau, Jan Tavernier
Under normal physiological conditions, leptin and the leptin receptor (ObR) regulate the body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. However, this adipocyte-derived hormone also directs peripheral processes, including immunity, reproduction, and bone metabolism. Leptin, therefore, can act as a metabolic switch connecting the body's nutritional status to high energy consuming processes. We provide an extensive overview of current structural insights on the leptin-ObR interface and ObR activation, coupling to signaling pathways and their negative regulation, and leptin functioning under normal and pathophysiological conditions (obesity, autoimmunity, cancer, … )...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265261/key-points-from-the-updated-guidelines-on-exercise-and-diabetes
#16
Sheri R Colberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261159/systemic-regulators-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-in-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Indranil Sinha, Dharaniya Sakthivel, David E Varon
Skeletal muscle maintenance is a dynamic process and undergoes constant repair and regeneration. However, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines in obesity. In this review, we focus on obesity-associated changes in inflammation, metabolism, and impaired insulin signaling, which are pathologically dysregulated and ultimately result in a loss of muscle mass and function. In addition, we examine the relationships between skeletal muscle, liver, and visceral adipose tissue in an obese state.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261158/tsh-receptor-antibody-functionality-and-nomenclature
#18
COMMENT
George J Kahaly, Tanja Diana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261157/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-adrenal-evoked-by-gonadectomy-and-testosterone-or-estradiol-replacement
#19
Karol Jopek, Piotr Celichowski, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Paulina Milecka, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Rucinski
Sex differences in adrenal cortex structure and function are well known in different species. In the rat, they are manifested as larger adrenal cortex and higher corticosterone secretion by females compared with males. These sex differences depend, among others, on functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In this aspect, it is widely accepted that testosterone exerts an inhibitory and estradiol stimulatory effect on the said axis. The molecular bases of these sex-related differences are poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261156/a-decision-tree-analysis-of-diabetic-foot-amputation-risk-in-indian-patients
#20
Prasad Umesh Kasbekar, Pranay Goel, Shailaja Prakash Jadhav
AIM: The aim of this study is to create an evidence-based tool that guides the risk of amputation in diabetic foot patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital records of 301 diabetic foot patients were examined retrospectively for explanatory variables of foot amputation decisions. The study included all patients with a lower limb ulcer with a known history of diabetes mellitus or those diagnosed post-admission. The dataset was analyzed, and a risk scoring system was constructed using the decision tree algorithm, C5...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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