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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123503/hyperleptinemia-in-neonatally-overfed-female-rats-does-not-dysregulate-feeding-circuitry
#1
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Kit-Yi Yam, Simone De Luca, Aniko Korosi, Sarah J Spencer
Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123502/anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-in-sicily-the-role-of-environmental-characteristics
#2
Martina Tavarelli, Pasqualino Malandrino, Paolo Vigneri, Pierina Richiusa, Adele Maniglia, Maria A Violi, Giulia Sapuppo, Veronica Vella, Gabriella Dardanoni, Riccardo Vigneri, Gabriella Pellegriti
Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30-40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA. Methods: Using the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC) database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123501/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-receptor-structure-and-gnrh-binding
#3
REVIEW
Colleen A Flanagan, Ashmeetha Manilall
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates reproduction. The human GnRH receptor lacks a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail but has amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of rhodopsin-like, class A, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This review will consider how recent descriptions of X-ray crystallographic structures of GPCRs in inactive and active conformations may contribute to understanding GnRH receptor structure, mechanism of activation and ligand binding. The structures confirmed that ligands bind to variable extracellular surfaces, whereas the seven membrane-spanning α-helices convey the activation signal to the cytoplasmic receptor surface, which binds and activates heterotrimeric G proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118738/monitoring-of-dual-crispr-cas9-mediated-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-gene-deletion-and-cholesterol-accumulation-using-high-resolution-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-in-a-single-cell
#4
Jinwoo Lee, Colin Jefcoate
Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy, coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, provide opportunities for understanding gene regulation at the single-cell level. The application of direct imaging shown here provides an in situ side-by-side comparison of CRISPR/Cas9-edited cells and adjacent unedited cells. We apply this methodology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. StAR is a gatekeeper protein that controls the access of cholesterol from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109699/multiple-sclerosis-melatonin-and-neurobehavioral-diseases
#5
Richard Wurtman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109698/the-emerging-facets-of-non-cancerous-warburg-effect
#6
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem, Nathan E Lewis, Neema Jamshidi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Xin Gao, Takashi Gojobori
The Warburg effect (WE), or aerobic glycolysis, is commonly recognized as a hallmark of cancer and has been extensively studied for potential anti-cancer therapeutics development. Beyond cancer, the WE plays an important role in many other cell types involved in immunity, angiogenesis, pluripotency, and infection by pathogens (e.g., malaria). Here, we review the WE in non-cancerous context as a "hallmark of rapid proliferation." We observe that the WE operates in rapidly dividing cells in normal and pathological states that are triggered by internal and external cues...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109697/circulating-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-type-1-diabetic-patients-relation-with-patients-age-and-disease-duration
#7
Adolfo Arcangeli, Elena Lastraioli, Barbara Piccini, Massimo D'Amico, Lorenzo Lenzi, Serena Pillozzi, Maria Calabrese, Sonia Toni, Annarosa Arcangeli
Objectives: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) have been reported to be dysfunctional in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, accounting for the vascular damage and the ensuing high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) characteristic of this disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the number of circulating cEPCs in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients, without clinical vascular damage, of different ages and with different disease duration. Methods: An observational, clinical-based prospective study was performed on T1DM patients enrolled in two clinical centers...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109696/low-dose-alkylphenol-exposure-promotes-mammary-epithelium-alterations-and-transgenerational-developmental-defects-but-does-not-enhance-tumorigenic-behavior-of-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Clémence Chamard-Jovenin, Charlène Thiebaut, Amand Chesnel, Emmanuel Bresso, Chloé Morel, Malika Smail-Tabbone, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Taha Boukhobza, Hélène Dumond
Fetal and neonatal exposure to long-chain alkylphenols has been suspected to promote breast developmental disorders and consequently to increase breast cancer risk. However, disease predisposition from developmental exposures remains unclear. In this work, human MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to a low dose of a realistic (4-nonylphenol + 4-tert-octylphenol) mixture. Transcriptome and cell-phenotype analyses combined to functional and signaling network modeling indicated that long-chain alkylphenols triggered enhanced proliferation, migration ability, and apoptosis resistance and shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms which involved the human estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ERα36) variant...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097993/s-equol-exerts-estradiol-like-anorectic-action-with-minimal-stimulation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Yuri Nishimura, Kaori Mabuchi, Azusa Takano, Yayoi Hara, Hiroko Negishi, Keiko Morimoto, Tomomi Ueno, Shigeto Uchiyama, Akira Takamata
Chronic estrogen replacement in ovariectomized rats attenuates food intake and enhances c-Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), specifically during the light phase. S-equol, a metabolite of daidzein, has a strong affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-β and exerts estrogenic activity. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether S-equol exerts an estrogen-like anorectic effect by modifying the regulation of the circadian feeding rhythm in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats were divided into an estradiol (E2)-replaced group and cholesterol (vehicle; Veh)-treated group...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093700/isogenic-cellular-systems-model-the-impact-of-genetic-risk-variants-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-1-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Mark A Wallet, Katherine E Santostefano, Naohiro Terada, Todd M Brusko
At least 57 independent loci within the human genome confer varying degrees of risk for the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The majority of these variants are thought to contribute to overall genetic risk by modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses, ultimately resulting in a loss of immunological tolerance to β cell antigens. Early efforts to link specific risk variants with functional alterations in host immune responses have employed animal models or genotype-selected individuals from clinical bioresource banks...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089925/advances-in-understanding-of-structural-reorganization-in-the-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-system
#11
REVIEW
Seiji Miyata
The hypothalamic neurosecretory system synthesizes neuropeptides in hypothalamic nuclei and releases them from axonal terminals into the circulation in the neurohypophysis (NH) and median eminence (ME). This system plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis and social behaviors as well as reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress responses, and activity-dependent structural reorganization has been reported. Current knowledge on dynamic structural reorganization in the NH and ME, in which the axonal terminals of neurosecretory neurons directly contact the basement membrane (BM) of a fenestrated vasculature, is discussed herein...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085338/frequency-and-significance-of-ras-tert-promoter-and-braf-mutations-in-cytologically-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-a-monocentric-case-series-at-a-tertiary-level-endocrinology-unit
#12
Simona Censi, Elisabetta Cavedon, Loris Bertazza, Francesca Galuppini, Sara Watutantrige-Fernando, Paola De Lazzari, Davide Nacamulli, Gianmaria Pennelli, Ambrogio Fassina, Maurizio Iacobone, Eric Casal Ide, Federica Vianello, Susi Barollo, Caterina Mian
PURPOSE: The management of thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology is controversial. Our study aimed to establish the frequency and significance of H-,K-,N-RAS, TERT promoter, and BRAF gene mutations in thyroid nodes of indeterminate cytology and to assess their potential usefulness in clinical practice. METHODS: H-,K-,N-RAS, TERT promoter and BRAF gene mutations were examined in a series of 199 consecutive nodes of indeterminate cytology referred for surgical excision...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085337/the-roles-of-anandamide-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-and-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-on-the-endometrium-during-the-implantation-window
#13
Na Cui, Changyan Wang, Zhiming Zhao, Jie Zhang, Yueming Xu, Yang Yang, Guimin Hao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the endometrium of unexplained infertility (UI) patients, and effect of anandamide (AEA) on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). METHODS: Patients were divided into UI and control groups. Endometrium samples were collected at the midluteal phase. Levels of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and LIF were examined. LIF productions were measured after AEA, CB1 antagonist AM251, and CB2 antagonist AM630 stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085336/macropinocytosis-a-metabolic-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Maria Victoria Recouvreux, Cosimo Commisso
Oncogenic mutations, such as Ras mutations, drive not only enhanced proliferation but also the metabolic adaptations that confer to cancer cells the ability to sustain cell growth in a harsh tumor microenvironment. These adaptations might represent metabolic vulnerabilities that can be exploited to develop novel and more efficient cancer therapies. Macropinocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved endocytic pathway that permits the internalization of extracellular fluid via large endocytic vesicles known as macropinosomes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085335/redifferentiation-of-radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-for-reapplication-of-i-131-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Chae Moon Hong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Although most differentiated thyroid cancers show excellent prognosis, treating radioiodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC) is challenging. Various therapies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, have been applied for RR-DTC but show limited effectiveness. Redifferentiation followed by radioiodine therapy is a promising alternative therapy for RR-DTC. Retinoic acids, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists are classically used as redifferentiation agents, and recent targeted molecules are also used for this purpose...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085334/predictive-value-of-gene-polymorphisms-on-recurrence-after-the-withdrawal-of-antithyroid-drugs-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Jing Fu, Yan Duan, Guang Wang
Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most common endocrine diseases. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) treatment is frequently used as the first-choice therapy for GD patients in most countries due to the superiority in safety and tolerance. However, GD patients treated with ATD have a relatively high recurrence rate after drug withdrawal, which is a main limitation for ATD treatment. It is of great importance to identify some predictors of the higher recurrence risk for GD patients, which may facilitate an appropriate therapeutic approach for a given patient at the time of GD diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085333/emerging-evidence-of-epigenetic-modifications-in-vascular-complication-of-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Madhu Khullar, Balneek Singh Cheema, Satish K Raut
Genes, dietary, and lifestyle factors have been shown to be important in the pathophysiology of diabetes and associated microvascular complications. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and post-transcriptional RNA regulation, are being increasingly recognized as important mediators of the complex interplay between genes and the environment. Recent studies suggest that diabetes-induced dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms resulting in altered gene expression in target cells can lead to diabetes-associated complications, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and so on, which are the major contributors to diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081765/breast-cancer-vaccines-new-insights
#18
REVIEW
Rosaria Benedetti, Carmela Dell'Aversana, Cristina Giorgio, Roberta Astorri, Lucia Altucci
Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and recurrence with different modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075234/vasopressinergic-neurocircuitry-regulating-social-attachment-in-a-monogamous-species
#19
REVIEW
Maria C Tickerhoof, Adam S Smith
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms a lasting connection between mates, known as a pair bond. The pair bond is primarily characterized by three distinct behaviors: partner preference, selective aggression, and biparental care of the young. The presence of these behaviors in the prairie vole and their absence in closely related non-monogamous species makes the prairie vole an important model of social relationships and facilitates the study of the neurobiological mechanisms of social affiliation and attachment...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075233/genes-gender-hormones-and-doping-in-sport-a-convoluted-tale
#20
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
We are writing this piece in the aftermath of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each of the words in the title plays a role(s) in deciding who may compete, especially who may compete as a woman. We shall be careful to disentangle the issues of genes and gender from hormonal levels of the potent androgen testosterone, and very clearly demarcate these natural occurrences from those of doping, for which the World Anti-Doping Agency has established strict guidelines. These elements became conflated in the aftermath of the Court of Arbitration of Sport's decision, now more than 2 years ago, concerning the teenage Indian sprinter, Dutee Chand...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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