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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237786/real-talk-the-inter-play-between-the-mtor-ampk-and-hexosamine-biosynthetic-pathways-in-cell-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Gentry K Cork, Jeffrey Thompson, Chad Slawson
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, better known as O-GlcNAc, is a sugar post-translational modification participating in a diverse range of cell functions. Disruptions in the cycling of O-GlcNAc mediated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively, is a driving force for aberrant cell signaling in disease pathologies, such as diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Production of UDP-GlcNAc, the metabolic substrate for OGT, by the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) is controlled by the input of amino acids, fats, and nucleic acids, making O-GlcNAc a key nutrient-sensor for fluctuations in these macromolecules...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237785/advances-and-unmet-needs-in-the-therapeutics-of-bone-fragility
#2
REVIEW
Sabashini K Ramchand, Ego Seeman
The prevalence of fragility fractures increases as longevity increases the proportion of the elderly in the community. Until recently, the majority of studies have targeted women with osteoporosis defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) T score of < -2.5 SD, despite evidence that the population burden of fractures arises from women with osteopenia. Antiresorptive agents reduce vertebral and hip fracture risk by ~50 percent during 3 years but efficacy against non-vertebral fractures, 80% of all fractures in the community, is reported in few studies, and of those, the risk reduction is only 20-30%...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233500/improved-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-early-life-of-female-offspring-by-maternal-dietary-genistein-is-associated-with-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota
#3
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao, Qian Zhang, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Xiaojing Wang, Mingqun Deng, Xiao Zhai, Rongrong Li
Maternal over-nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders in offspring, whereas maternal dietary genistein may have beneficial effects on the metabolic health of offspring. Our objective was to determine whether maternal dietary genistein could attenuate the detrimental effects of a maternal high-fat diet on their offspring's metabolism and to explore the role of the gut microbiota on their offspring's glucose and lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 female mice were fed either a high-fat diet without genistein (HF), high-fat diet with low-dose genistein (0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233499/insulin-resistance-in-hiv-patients-causes-and-consequences
#4
REVIEW
Marcelo N Pedro, Guilherme Z Rocha, Dioze Guadagnini, Andrey Santos, Daniela O Magro, Heloisa B Assalin, Alexandre G Oliveira, Rogerio de Jesus Pedro, Mario J A Saad
Here we review how immune activation and insulin resistance contribute to the metabolic alterations observed in HIV-infected patients, and how these alterations increase the risk of developing CVD. The introduction and evolution of antiretroviral drugs over the past 25 years has completely changed the clinical prognosis of HIV-infected patients. The deaths of these individuals are now related to atherosclerotic CVDs, rather than from the viral infection itself. However, HIV infection, cART, and intestinal microbiota are associated with immune activation and insulin resistance, which can lead to the development of a variety of diseases and disorders, especially with regards to CVDs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233498/developmental-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Sarah G Howard
Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may have implications for the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), especially if exposure occurs during development. Exposure to EDCs during fetal or early life can disrupt the development of both the immune system and the pancreatic beta cells, potentially increasing susceptibility to T1DM later in life. Developmental exposure to some EDCs can cause immune system dysfunction, increasing the risk of autoimmunity. In addition, developmental exposure to some EDCs can affect beta cell development and function, influencing insulin secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233497/a-renewed-focus-on-the-association-between-thyroid-hormones-and-lipid-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Leonidas H Duntas, Gabriela Brenta
Thyroid dysfunction, manifesting as either overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, negatively affects lipid metabolism: this leads to hypercholesterolemia which progressively increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and, potentially, mortality. Hypercholesterolemia in hypothyroidism is mainly due to a reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity, this accompanied by concomitant diminishing control by triiodothyronine (T3) of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), which modulates cholesterol biosynthesis by regulating rate-limit degrading enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA) activity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233496/the-implications-of-vitamin-d-status-during-pregnancy-on-mother-and-her-developing-child
#7
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis
Pregnancy is a time of tremendous growth and physiological changes for mother and her developing fetus with lifelong implications for the child. The concert of actions that must occur so mother does not reject the foreign tissue of the fetus is substantial. There must be exquisite balance between maternal tolerance to these foreign proteins of paternal origin but also immune surveillance and function such that the mother is not immunocompromised. When this process goes awry, the mother may experience such pregnancy complications as preeclampsia and infections...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233495/links-between-obesity-induced-brain-insulin-resistance-brain-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
It is widely recognized that obesity and associated metabolic changes are considered a risk factor to age-associated cognitive decline. Inflammation and increased oxidative stress in peripheral areas, following obesity, are patently the major contributory factors to the degree of the severity of brain insulin resistance as well as the progression of cognitive impairment in the obese condition. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the alterations in brain mitochondria, including both functional and morphological changes, occurred following obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233494/efficacy-of-metformin-for-benign-thyroid-nodules-in-subjects-with-insulin-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Miao Sui, Yuan Yu, Huifeng Zhang, Hongjie Di, Chao Liu, Yaofu Fan
Background: To evaluate the effect of metformin therapy on decreasing benign thyroid nodule volume in subjects with insulin resistance (IR). Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and self-controlled trials for the meta-analysis published, before January 31, 2018 were selected from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG and VIP Database. Pooled standard mean difference with 95% confidence interval was estimated by fixed- or random-effects model depending on heterogeneity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233493/aberrant-splicing-is-the-pathogenicity-mechanism-of-the-p-glu314lys-variant-in-cyp11a1-gene
#10
Claire Goursaud, Delphine Mallet, Alexandre Janin, Rita Menassa, Véronique Tardy-Guidollet, Gianni Russo, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Claudine Lecointre, Ingrid Plotton, Yves Morel, Florence Roucher-Boulez
Context: The cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. CYP11A1 mutations are associated with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) as well as disorders of sex development (DSD) in 46,XY patients. Objective: To define the pathogenicity mechanism for the p.Glu314Lys variant, previously reported, and found in four additional patients with CYP11A1 deficiency. Subjects and Methods: DNA of four patients presenting with delayed PAI and/or 46,XY DSD were studied by Sanger or Massively Parallel sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233492/the-retinol-circulating-complex-releases-hormonal-ligands-during-acute-stress-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Yves Ingenbleek
Intensive care workers actively participate in very hot debates aiming at defining the true metabolic, hormonal and nutritional requirements of critically ill patients, the contributory roles played by thyroid and retinoid ligands being largely underestimated. The present article makes up for redressing the balance on behalf of these last hormonal compounds. The retinol circulating complex is transported in the bloodstream in the form of a trimolecular edifice made up of transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and its retinol ligand...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233491/global-disruption-of-%C3%AE-2a-adrenoceptor-barely-affects-bone-tissue-but-minimizes-the-detrimental-effects-of-thyrotoxicosis-on-cortical-bone
#12
Gisele M Martins, Marília B C G Teixeira, Marcos V Silva, Bianca Neofiti-Papi, Manuela Miranda-Rodrigues, Patricia C Brum, Cecilia H A Gouveia
Evidence shows that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation inhibits bone formation and activates bone resorption leading to bone loss. Because thyroid hormone (TH) interacts with the SNS to control several physiological processes, we raised the hypothesis that this interaction also controls bone remodeling. We have previously shown that mice with double-gene inactivation of α2A- and -adrenoceptors (α2A/2C-AR-/- ) present high bone mass (HBM) phenotype and resistance to thyrotoxicosis-induced osteopenia, which supports a TH-SNS interaction to control bone mass and suggests that it involves α2-AR signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233490/the-a-to-z-of-managing-type-2-diabetes-in-culturally-diverse-populations
#13
REVIEW
A Enrique Caballero
Type 2 diabetes affects racial/ethnic minorities at an alarming rate in the US and in many countries around the world. The quality of health care provided to these groups is often suboptimal, resulting in worse patient-related outcomes when compared to those in mainstream populations. Understanding the complex biological elements that influence the development and course of the disease in high-risk populations is extremely important but often insufficient to implement effective prevention and treatment plans...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233489/regenerative-medicine-and-diabetes-targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-beyond-the-stem-cell-approach-and-encapsulation-technology
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Peloso, Antonio Citro, Tamara Zoro, Lorenzo Cobianchi, Arianna Kahler-Quesada, Carlo M Bianchi, Axel Andres, Ekaterine Berishvili, Lorenzo Piemonti, Thierry Berney, Christian Toso, Graziano Oldani
According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF), almost 1. 25 million people in the United States (US) have type 1 diabetes, which makes them dependent on insulin injections. Nationwide, type 2 diabetes rates have nearly doubled in the past 20 years resulting in more than 29 million American adults with diabetes and another 86 million in a pre-diabetic state. The International Diabetes Ferderation (IDF) has estimated that there will be almost 650 million adult diabetic patients worldwide at the end of the next 20 years (excluding patients over the age of 80)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214430/corrigendum-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-action-in-bone-tissue-a-key-role-for-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a
#15
James Beattie, Hasanain Al-Khafaji, Pernille R Noer, Hanaa Esa Alkharobi, Aishah Alhodhodi, Josephine Meade, Reem El-Gendy, Claus Oxvig
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00031.].
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214429/variant-alleles-of-the-esr1-pparg-hmga2-and-mthfr-genes-are-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-risk-in-a-chinese-population-a-case-control-study
#16
Xianting Jiao, Weiwei Chen, Jun Zhang, Weiye Wang, Junjiao Song, Dan Chen, Wenting Zhu, Yuhua Shi, Xiaodan Yu
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of 6-8%. Although the etiology of PCOS has been investigated extensively, the association between genetic predisposition and PCOS risk is largely unknown. In this study, we genotyped 63 SNPs in 10 genes among 361 PCOS patients and 331 healthy controls in a Chinese Han population. The following variant alleles were significantly associated with decreased PCOS risk: ESR1 rs9340799 ( P = 0.000), PPARG rs709154 ( P = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214428/the-role-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-hgf-in-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno de Melo Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Andrey Santos, Mario J A Saad
In obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes, there are proteins and hormones that may lead to the discovery of promising biomarkers and treatments for these metabolic disorders. For example, these molecules may impair the insulin signaling pathway or provide protection against IR. Thus, identifying proteins that are upregulated in IR states is relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of the associated disorders. It is becoming clear that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important component of the pathophysiology of IR, with increased levels in most common IR conditions, including obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214427/genome-wide-analysis-on-the-landscape-of-transcriptomes-and-their-relationship-with-dna-methylomes-in-the-hypothalamus-reveals-genes-related-to-sexual-precocity-in-jining-gray-goats
#18
Feng Su, Xiaoli Guo, Yanchao Wang, Yuding Wang, Guiling Cao, Yunliang Jiang
The Jining Gray goat is famous for its sexual precocity; however, the exact regulatory mechanism is still unknown. The hypothalamus is the key centrum in the process of animal reproduction, especially in signal transduction, and the initiation of puberty. The identification of potential genes and pathways in the hypothalamus of Jining Gray goat is critical to understanding the regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in these goats. In this study, mRNA transcriptome analysis of the hypothalamus of juvenile and pubertal goats revealed eight genes ( NTS, ADORA1, CRH, UCN3, E2F2, PDGFRB, GNRH1 , and CACNA1C ) and three pathways [neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction; gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signal; melanoma] that are involved in this regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214426/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Huihua Ding, Tianfu Wu
Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are a family of proteins binding to Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), generally including IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3, IGFBP4, IGFBP5, and IGFBP6. The biological functions of IGFBPs can be classified as IGFs-dependent actions and IGFs-independent effects. In this review, we will discuss the structure and function of various IGFBPs, particularly IGFBPs as potential emerging biomarkers and therapeutic targets in various autoimmune diseases, and the possible mechanisms by which IGFBPs act on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210455/gut-brain-neuroendocrine-signaling-under-conditions-of-stress-focus-on-food-intake-regulatory-mediators
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
The gut-brain axis represents a bidirectional communication route between the gut and the central nervous system comprised of neuronal as well as humoral signaling. This system plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal as well as homeostatic functions such as hunger and satiety. Recent years also witnessed an increased knowledge on the modulation of this axis under conditions of exogenous or endogenous stressors. The present review will discuss the alterations of neuroendocrine gut-brain signaling under conditions of stress and the respective implications for the regulation of food intake...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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