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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429829/timing-of-exposure-and-bisphenol-a-implications-for-diabetes-development
#1
REVIEW
Eva Tudurí, Laura Marroqui, Reinaldo S Dos Santos, Iván Quesada, Esther Fuentes, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). It is used as the base compound in the production of polycarbonate and other plastics present in many consumer products. It is also used as a building block in epoxy can coating and the thermal paper of cash register receipts. Humans are consistently exposed to BPA and, in consequence, this compound has been detected in the majority of individuals examined. Over the last decade, an enlarging body of evidence has provided a strong support for the role of BPA in the etiology of diabetes and other metabolic disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429828/the-orexin-a-regulated-akt-mtor-pathway-promotes-cell-proliferation-through-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#2
Linna Suo, Xiaocen Chang, Yuyan Zhao
The orexin-A and its receptors are associated with many physiological processes in peripheral organs and the central nervous system and play important roles in a series of human diseases, including narcolepsy, obesity, and drug addiction. Increasing evidence has indicated high expression of orexin-A and OX1 receptor (OX1R) in malignant tumors, suggesting that the stimulation of OX1R might be essential for tumorigenesis. Here, we attempted to clarify the correlation between orexin-A expression and malignancy in pancreatic cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429827/verapamil-ameliorates-hepatic-metaflammation-by-inhibiting-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-nlrp3-pathways
#3
Feng Zhou, Ying Zhang, Jing Chen, Yimeng Hu, Yancheng Xu
Activation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)/nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a critical role in pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This study investigated the protective effects of verapamil on hepatic metaflammation in a rodent model of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). DIO was induced in a subset of mice provided with HF diet (45% kcal fat). After 10 weeks of HF diet, verapamil was administered by intraperitoneal injection. The experimental groups included the following: (1) normal diet group, (2) normal diet + treatment with verapamil (VER) group, (3) HF control group, (4) HF+VER (25 mg/kg/day) group...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429826/benchmarks-of-diabetes-care-in-men-living-with-treated-hiv-infection-a-tertiary-center-experience
#4
Monika Fazekas-Lavu, Katherine T T Tonks, Katherine Samaras
Treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome and central obesity/body fat partitioning disorders. To our knowledge, there are no available data comparing diabetes care in people with both HIV+DM vs. DM alone (DM-controls) within the same service and evaluating if benchmarked standards of care are being met in people with HIV+DM. This study evaluated the frequency that people with HIV+DM met the benchmarked American Diabetes Association (ADA) standards of care in diabetes (targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid levels, complication screening, and healthy weight), compared to age- and sex- matched controls with diabetes, in an urban teaching hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425683/possible-insulinotropic-action-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-through-the-abca1-cdc42-camp-pka-pathway-in-min6-cells
#5
Koki Matsumura, Naoki Tamasawa, Makoto Daimon
Aims/Introduction: We studied the mechanisms for the possible insulinotropic action of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I in mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells. Materials and Methods: The effects of ApoA-I on cAMP production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and the dose dependency (ApoA-I at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml) were determined using MIN6 cells. The effects of the small-interference ribonucleic acid (siRNA) of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1) and Cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) on the insulinotropic action of ApoA-I was studied, as well as mRNA and protein levels of ABCA1 and Cdc42...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425682/insulin-related-lipohypertrophy-lipogenic-action-or-tissue-trauma
#6
Anjana Barola, Pramil Tiwari, Anil Bhansali, Sandeep Grover, Devi Dayal
Lipohypertrophy has been suggested as an outcome of lipogenic action of insulin and/or injection-related tissue trauma. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the predictors of lipohypertrophy in 372 type 1 diabetes patients (mean age 17.1 years) receiving subcutaneous insulin with pen and/or syringes for ≥3 months. On examining injection sites with inspection and palpation technique, 62.1% patients demonstrated lipohypertrophy. Univariate analysis showed that gender, BMI, HbA1c, injection device, rotation, injection area, needle length, insulin regimen, and total daily dose of insulin were associated with lipohypertrophy ( p < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425681/pacap-neurons-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-are-glucose-inhibited-and-their-selective-activation-induces-hyperglycaemia
#7
Tansi Khodai, Nicolas Nunn, Amy A Worth, Claire H Feetham, Mino D C Belle, Hugh D Piggins, Simon M Luckman
Background: Glucose-sensing neurons are located in several parts of the brain, but are concentrated in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The importance of these VMH neurons in glucose homeostasis is well-established, however, little is known about their individual identity. In the present study, we identified a distinct glucose-sensing population in the VMH and explored its place in the glucose-regulatory network. Methods: Using patch-clamp electrophysiology on Pacap -cre::EYFP cells, we explored the glucose-sensing ability of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) neurons both inside and outside the VMH...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420837/vitamin-a-promotes-leydig-cell-differentiation-via-alcohol-dehydrogenase-1
#8
Yan Yang, Jiao Luo, Dan Yu, Tiantian Zhang, Qilian Lin, Quan Li, Xupeng Wu, Zhijian Su, Qihao Zhang, Qi Xiang, Yadong Huang
Vitamin A (retinol) is important for multiple functions in mammals. In testis, the role of vitamin A in the regulation of testicular functions is clearly involved in rodents. It is essential for sperm production. Vitamin A deficiency adversely affects testosterone secretion. Adult Leydig cells are responsible for testosterone production in male. The role of vitamin A in regulating the differentiation of Leydig cells is still unknown. In this study, we explored the roles and underlying mechanisms of vitamin A in Leydig cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420836/chronic-o-glcnacylation-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-the-bitterness-of-glucose
#9
REVIEW
Simon Ducheix, Jocelyne Magré, Bertrand Cariou, Xavier Prieur
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor for heart failure. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy. Epidemiological data suggest that hyperglycaemia contributes to the development of DC. Several cellular pathways have been implicated in the deleterious effects of high glucose concentrations in the heart: oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), and chronic hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) activation. In the present review, we focus on the effect of chronic activation of the HBP on diabetic heart function...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420835/comparison-of-the-effect-of-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-outpatients-treated-with-premixed-and-basal-insulin-monotherapy-in-china
#10
Guangxu Liu, Jingtao Dou, Yuesong Pan, Yuxiang Yan, Huiping Zhu, Juming Lu, Herbert Gaisano, Linong Ji, Yan He
Background: Basal and premixed insulin have been widely used for insulin therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China. The aim of this study is to compare the sustained efficacy of basal and premixed insulin therapies in T2DM outpatients with insulin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in 602 hospitals across China from April to June in 2013. The participants included outpatients who were receiving basal or premixed insulin monotherapy for more than 3 months, and the outcome was attaining a glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) of <7...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416487/aglycemic-hepg2-cells-switch-from-aminotransferase-glutaminolytic-pathway-of-pyruvate-utilization-to-complete-krebs-cycle-at-hypoxia
#11
Jan Ježek, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Petr Ježek
Human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells are forced to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), when cultured in aglycemic conditions at galactose and glutamine. These Oxphos cells represent a prototype of cancer cell bioenergetics with mixed aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS. We aimed to determine fractions of (i) glutaminolytic pathway involving aminotransferase reaction supplying 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) to the Krebs cycle vs. (ii) active segment of the Krebs cycle with aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-3 (ACO-IDH3), which is typically inactive in cancer cells due to the citrate export from mitochondria...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416486/the-divergent-function-of-androgen-receptor-in-breast-cancer-analysis-of-steroid-mediators-and-tumor-intracrinology
#12
REVIEW
Rachel Bleach, Marie McIlroy
Androgen receptor (AR) is the most widely expressed steroid receptor protein in normal breast tissue and is detectable in approximately 90% of primary breast cancers and 75% of metastatic lesions. However, the role of AR in breast cancer development and progression is mired in controversy with evidence suggesting it can either inhibit or promote breast tumorigenesis. Studies have shown it to antagonize estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) DNA binding, thereby preventing pro-proliferative gene transcription; whilst others have demonstrated AR to take on the mantle of a pseudo ERα particularly in the setting of triple negative breast cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410470/the-chance-of-permanent-cure-for-micro-and-macroprolactinomas-medication-or-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Qianquan Ma, Jun Su, Ying Li, Jiaxing Wang, Wenyong Long, Mei Luo, Qing Liu
Background: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of medication treatment vs. surgery treatment in patients with prolactinomas. Methods: An electronic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for studies dated before July in 2018. Patients with prolactinomas received primary dopamine agonists (DAs) treatment or primary surgical interventions were included in this study. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in pertinent studies meeting eligible criteria...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410469/sodium-butyrate-ameliorates-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetes-in-mice-by-inhibiting-the-hmgb1-expression
#14
Yu Guo, Zheng Xiao, Yanan Wang, Weihua Yao, Shun Liao, Bo Yu, Jianqiang Zhang, Yanxiang Zhang, Bing Zheng, Boxu Ren, Quan Gong
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the immune cell-mediated progressive destruction of pancreatic β-cells. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has been recognized as a potential immune mediator to enhance the development of T1D. So we speculated that HMGB1 inhibitors could have anti-diabetic effect. Sodium butyrate is a short fatty acid derivative possessing anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting HMGB1. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of sodium butyrate in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D mice model...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410468/neuropeptidergic-systems-in-pluteus-larvae-of-the-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus-neurochemical-complexity-in-a-simple-nervous-system
#15
Natalie J Wood, Teresa Mattiello, Matthew L Rowe, Lizzy Ward, Margherita Perillo, Maria Ina Arnone, Maurice R Elphick, Paola Oliveri
The nervous system of the free-living planktonic larvae of sea urchins is relatively "simple," but sufficiently complex to enable sensing of the environment and control of swimming and feeding behaviors. At the pluteus stage of development, the nervous system comprises a central ganglion of serotonergic neurons located in the apical organ and sensory and motor neurons associated with the ciliary band and the gut. Neuropeptides are key mediators of neuronal signaling in nervous systems but currently little is known about neuropeptidergic systems in sea urchin larvae...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410467/thyroid-screening-in-early-pregnancy-pros-and-cons
#16
REVIEW
Peter N Taylor, Stamatios Zouras, Thinzar Min, Kalyani Nagarahaj, John H Lazarus, Onyebuchi Okosieme
Universal thyroid screening in pregnancy is a key debate in thyroidology and obstetrics. It is well-established that thyroid hormones are essential for maintaining pregnancy and optimal fetal development. Thyroid dysfunction is common in women of child-bearing age and also results in substantial adverse obstetric and child neurodevelopmental outcomes. Furthermore, thyroid dysfunction is readily diagnosed with reliable blood tests and easily corrected with inexpensive and available treatments. Screening only high-risk patients appears to miss the majority of cases and economic models show that compared to high-risk screening, universal screening is cost effective even if only overt hypothyroidism was assumed to have adverse obstetric effects...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405537/quantification-of-a-glucocorticoid-profile-in-non-pooled-samples-is-pivotal-in-stress-research-across-vertebrates
#17
REVIEW
Johan Aerts
Vertebrates are faced continuously with a variety of potential stressful stimuli and react by a highly conserved endocrine stress response. An immediate catecholamine mediated response increases plasma glucose levels in order to prepare the organism for the "fight or flight" reaction. In addition, in a matter of minutes after this (nor)adrenaline release, glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol or corticosterone depending on the species, are released through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis in fish or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in other vertebrates...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405536/ghrelin-receptor-is-required-for-the-effect-of-nesfatin-1-on-glucose-metabolism
#18
Xin-Tong Fan, Zhao Tian, Shi-Zhen Li, Ting Zhai, Jun-Li Liu, Rui Wang, Cai-Shun Zhang, Liu-Xin Wang, Jun-Hua Yuan, Yu Zhou, Jing Dong
Studies of nesfatin-1 in glucose metabolism have become a topic of interest recently, however, the specific receptor for nesfatin-1 has not yet been identified. Some studies hinted at a connection between nesfatin-1 and the ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of GHSR in the glycemic effects of nesfatin-1 as well as its downstream pathways. We employed C57/BL6 mice (wild type and GHSR knockout mice) eating a normal chow diet and a high fat diet in this study, and the experimental technique included western blot, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405535/stress-effects-on-the-mechanisms-regulating-appetite-in-teleost-fish
#19
REVIEW
Marta Conde-Sieira, Mauro Chivite, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
The homeostatic regulation of food intake relies on a complex network involving peripheral and central signals that are integrated in the hypothalamus which in turn responds with the release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides that eventually promote or inhibit appetite. Under stress conditions, the mechanisms that control food intake in fish are deregulated and the appetite signals in the brain do not operate as in control conditions resulting in changes in the expression of the appetite-related neuropeptides and usually a decreased food intake...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405534/il-34-expression-is-reduced-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-and-associated-with-thyrocyte-apoptosis
#20
Shuo Wang, Yongping Liu, Na Zhao, Xuejiao Cui, Mingshi Huang, Yushu Li, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common autoimmune disease accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration and thyroid tissue destruction. IL-34 was first described in 2008, and its involvement in the development of many autoimmune diseases has been recently identified. However, whether IL-34 is a regulatory factor in HT is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that IL-34 is expressed on thyroid follicular epithelial cells and that IL-34 expression is significantly reduced in thyroid tissue in patients with HT and spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) models...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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