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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899914/how-useful-are-monogenic-rodent-models-for-the-study-of-human-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jake P Mann, Robert K Semple, Matthew J Armstrong
Improving understanding of the genetic basis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has the potential to facilitate risk stratification of affected patients, permit personalized treatment, and inform development of new therapeutic strategies. Animal models have been widely used to interrogate the pathophysiology of, and genetic predisposition to, NAFLD. Nevertheless, considerable interspecies differences in intermediary metabolism potentially limit the extent to which results can be extrapolated to humans...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895622/serum-zn-cu-ratio-is-associated-with-renal-function-glycemic-control-and-metabolic-parameters-in-japanese-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Hidetaka Hamasaki, Yu Kawashima, Hidekatsu Yanai
BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications by mediating oxidative stress. Both Zn deficiency and excess of Cu are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the relationships between serum Zn/Cu ratio and glycemic status, renal function, and metabolic parameters in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 355 subjects (149 type 2 diabetic and 206 non-diabetic) in whom serum Zn and Cu levels were measured at the same time...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895621/immune-modulatory-effects-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-on-dendritic-cells-supporting-fetal-survival-in-murine-pregnancy
#3
Dominique Dauven, Stefanie Ehrentraut, Stefanie Langwisch, Ana Claudia Zenclussen, Anne Schumacher
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in the determination of immunity vs. tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during pregnancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is involved in DC regulation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified or recombinant hCG (rhCG) preparations...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895620/excessive-cytosolic-dna-fragments-as-a-potential-trigger-of-graves-disease-an-encrypted-message-sent-by-animal-models
#4
REVIEW
Yuqian Luo, Aya Yoshihara, Kenzaburo Oda, Yuko Ishido, Koichi Suzuki
Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by autoantibodies directed against the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) that mimic the action of TSH. The establishment of Graves' hyperthyroidism in experimental animals has proven to be an important approach to dissect the mechanisms of self-tolerance breakdown that lead to the production of thyroid-stimulating TSHR autoantibodies (TSAbs). "Shimojo's model" was the first successful Graves' animal model, wherein immunization with fibroblasts cells expressing TSHR and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, but not either alone, induced TSAb production in AKR/N (H-2(k)) mice...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881971/familial-longevity-is-not-associated-with-major-differences-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-healthy-middle-aged-men
#5
Evie van der Spoel, Ferdinand Roelfsema, Steffy W Jansen, Abimbola A Akintola, Bart E Ballieux, Christa M Cobbaert, Gerard J Blauw, P Eline Slagboom, Rudi G J Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst
CONTEXT: A trade-off between fertility and longevity possibly exists. The association of the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with familial longevity has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To study 24-h hormone concentration profiles of the HPG axis in men enriched for familial longevity and controls. DESIGN: We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 10 healthy middle-aged male offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 10 male age-matched controls...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872610/relational-stability-in-the-expression-of-normality-variation-and-control-of-thyroid-function
#6
REVIEW
Rudolf Hoermann, John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich
Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines, and negative hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback control of TSH...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#7
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833587/a-candidate-gene-association-study-of-bone-mineral-density-in-an-iranian-population
#8
Seyed Alireza Dastgheib, Alison Gartland, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Tabei, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Marion Dawn Teare
The genetic epidemiology of variation in bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis is not well studied in Iranian populations and needs more research. We report a candidate gene association study of BMD variation in a healthy cross-sectional study of 501 males and females sampled from the Iranian Multi-Centre Osteoporosis Study, Shiraz, Iran. We selected to study the association with 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 7 candidate genes LRP5, RANK, RANKL, OPG, P2RX7, VDR, and ESR1. BMD was measured at the three sites L2-L4, neck of femur, and total hip...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833586/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-melanoma-from-molecular-insights-to-potential-clinical-utility
#9
REVIEW
Monica Marzagalli, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Lavinia Casati, Fabrizio Fontana, Roberta Manuela Moretti, Patrizia Limonta
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive tumor; its incidence has been reported to increase fast in the past decades. Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor, with most patients harboring mutations in the BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, leading to the overactivation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The current therapeutic approaches are based on therapies targeting mutated BRAF and the downstream pathway, and on monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoint blockade. However, treatment resistance and side effects are common events of these therapeutic strategies...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826285/qualitative-aspects-of-bone-marrow-adiposity-in-osteoporosis
#10
Ana María Pino, Melissa Miranda, Carolina Figueroa, Juan Pablo Rodríguez, Clifford J Rosen
The function of marrow adipocytes and their origin has not been defined although considerable research has centered on their presence in certain conditions, such as osteoporosis. Less work has focused on the qualitative aspects of marrow fat. Bone marrow serum is composed of multiple nutrients that almost certainly relate to functional aspects of the niche. Previous studies using non-invasive techniques have shown that osteoporotic individuals have more marrow fat and that the ratio of saturated: unsaturated fatty acid is high...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818644/an-update-on-crf-mechanisms-underlying-alcohol-use-disorders-and-dependence
#11
REVIEW
Isabel Marian Hartmann Quadros, Giovana Camila Macedo, Liz Paola Domingues, Cristiane Aparecida Favoretto
Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812350/possible-integrative-actions-of-leptin-and-insulin-signaling-in-the-hypothalamus-targeting-energy-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Mina Thon, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa
Obesity has emerged as one of the most burdensome conditions in modern society. In this context, understanding the mechanisms controlling food intake is critical. At present, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the pancreatic β-cell-derived hormone insulin are considered the principal anorexigenic hormones. Although leptin and insulin signal transduction pathways are distinct, their regulation of body weight maintenance is concerted. Resistance to the central actions of leptin or insulin is linked to the emergence of obesity and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803689/naltrexone-prevents-in-males-and-attenuates-in-females-the-expression-of-behavioral-sensitization-to-ethanol-regardless-of-maternal-separation
#13
Suzi E Kawakami, Isabel M H Quadros, Deborah Suchecki
Maternal separation alters the activity of the opioid system, which modulates ethanol-induced stimulation and behavioral sensitization. This study examined the effects of an opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), on the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in adult male and female mice submitted to maternal separation from postnatal days (PNDs) 2 to 14. Whole litters of Swiss mice were either not separated [animal facility rearing (AFR)] or separated from their mothers for 3 h [long maternal separation (LMS)]...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777568/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-in-diabetes
#14
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746764/androgens-regulate-t47d-cells-motility-and-invasion-through-actin-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#15
Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara, Jorge Eduardo Shortrede, Maria Silvia Giretti, Andrea Giannini, Paolo Mannella, Eleonora Russo, Alessandro David Genazzani, Tommaso Simoncini
The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in approximately 70 to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple-negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodeling...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733843/insulin-receptor-isoform-variations-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Claire M Perks, H A Zielinska, Jing Wang, Caroline Jarrett, A Frankow, Michael R Ladomery, Amit Bahl, Anthony Rhodes, Jon Oxley, Jeff M P Holly
Men who develop prostate cancer (PCa) increasingly have one of the co-morbidities associated with a Western lifestyle that are characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and increased expression of insulin-like growth factors-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II. Each have been associated with poor prognosis and more aggressive cancers that exhibit increased metabolism and increased glucose uptake. The insulin receptor (IR) has two splice isoforms IR-A and IR-B: IR-A has a higher affinity for IGF-II comparable to that for insulin, whereas the IR-B isoform predominantly just binds to insulin...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729899/tsh-receptor-signaling-abrogation-by-a-novel-small-molecule
#17
Rauf Latif, Ronald B Realubit, Charles Karan, Mihaly Mezei, Terry F Davies
Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves' disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708618/the-underexploited-role-of-non-coding-rnas-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#18
Matheus Trovão Queiroz, Vanessa Gonçalves Pereira, Cinthia Castro do Nascimento, Vânia D'Almeida
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a functional class of RNA involved in the regulation of several cellular processes which may modulate disease onset, progression, and prognosis. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a group of rare disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding specific hydrolases or non-enzymatic proteins, characterized by a wide spectrum of manifestations. The alteration of ncRNA levels is well established in several human diseases such as cancer and auto-immune disorders; however, there is a lack of information focused on the role of ncRNA in rare diseases...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708617/increased-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-thiazolidinediones-investigating-the-role-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#19
Richard J Sulston, Brian S Learman, Bofeng Zhang, Erica L Scheller, Sebastian D Parlee, Becky R Simon, Hiroyuki Mori, Adam J Bree, Robert J Wallace, Venkatesh Krishnan, Ormond A MacDougald, William P Cawthorn
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) contributes to increased circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone, during caloric restriction (CR), but whether this occurs in other contexts remains unknown. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) also promote MAT expansion and hyperadiponectinemia, even without increasing adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that MAT expansion contributes to TZD-associated hyperadiponectinemia, we investigated the effects of rosiglitazone, a prototypical TZD, in wild-type (WT) or Ocn-Wnt10b mice...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708616/the-bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells-commitment-and-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#20
Michaela Tencerova, Moustapha Kassem
Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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