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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096798/building-the-case-for-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-i-involvement-in-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#1
REVIEW
Terry J Smith, Joseph A M J L Janssen
The pathogenesis of orbital Graves' disease (GD), a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), remains incompletely understood. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) represents the central autoantigen involved in GD and has been proposed as the thyroid antigen shared with the orbit that could explain the infiltration of immune cells into tissues surrounding the eye. Another cell surface protein, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), has recently been proposed as a second antigen that participates in TAO by virtue of its interactions with anti-IGF-IR antibodies generated in GD, its apparent physical and functional complex formation with TSHR, and its necessary involvement in TSHR post-receptor signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082949/gnih-control-of-feeding-and-reproductive-behaviors
#2
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Takayoshi Ubuka
In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082948/thyrotropin-stimulates-differentiation-not-proliferation-of-normal-human-thyrocytes-in-culture
#3
Sarah J Morgan, Susanne Neumann, Bernice Marcus-Samuels, Marvin C Gershengorn
Although TSH has been suggested to be a proliferative agent for thyrocytes, the effect of TSH on human thyroid cells remains controversial. In particular, most of the reported studies relied primarily on changes in DNA synthesis but have not included measurement of the number of cells. We argue that only a direct count of cell number, demonstrating classical exponential expansion, serves as a valid measurement of proliferation. Thus, although some data support TSH as a proliferative agent, most do not provide conclusive evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066331/editorial-sexual-dimorphism-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#4
EDITORIAL
Janne Lebeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066330/muscle-contraction-induces-acute-hydroxymethylation-of-the-exercise-responsive-gene-nr4a3
#5
Pattarawan Pattamaprapanont, Christian Garde, Odile Fabre, Romain Barrès
Exercise training triggers numerous positive adaptations through the regulation of genes controlling muscle structure and function. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, participate in transcriptional activation by allowing the recruitment of the transcription machinery to gene promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066329/sodium-and-its-role-in-cardiovascular-disease-the-debate-continues
#6
REVIEW
Yee Wen Kong, Sara Baqar, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Guidelines have recommended significant reductions in dietary sodium intake to improve cardiovascular health. However, these dietary sodium intake recommendations have been questioned as emerging evidence has shown that there is a higher risk of cardiovascular disease with a low sodium diet, including in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This may be related to the other pleotropic effects of dietary sodium intake. Therefore, despite recent review of dietary sodium intake guidelines by multiple organizations, including the dietary guidelines for Americans, American Diabetes Association, and American Heart Association, concerns about the impact of the degree of sodium restriction on cardiovascular health continue to be raised...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066328/neuroendocrine-and-peptidergic-regulation-of-stress-induced-rem-sleep-rebound
#7
REVIEW
Ricardo Borges Machado, Deborah Suchecki
Sleep homeostasis depends on the length and quality (occurrence of stressful events, for instance) of the preceding waking time. Forced wakefulness (sleep deprivation or sleep restriction) is one of the main tools used for the understanding of mechanisms that play a role in homeostatic processes involved in sleep regulation and their interrelations. Interestingly, forced wakefulness for periods longer than 24 h activates stress response systems, whereas stressful events impact on sleep pattern. Hypothalamic peptides (corticotropin-releasing hormone, prolactin, and the CLIP/ACTH18-39) play an important role in the expression of stress-induced sleep effects, essentially by modulating rapid eye movement sleep, which has been claimed to affect the organism resilience to the deleterious effects of stress...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066327/the-circadian-nature-of-mitochondrial-biology
#8
REVIEW
Gal Manella, Gad Asher
Circadian clocks orchestrate the daily changes in physiology and behavior of light-sensitive organisms. These clocks measure about 24 h and tick in a self-sustained and cell-autonomous manner. Mounting evidence points toward a tight intertwining between circadian clocks and metabolism. Although various aspects of circadian control of metabolic functions have been extensively studied, our knowledge regarding circadian mitochondrial function is rudimentary. In this review, we will survey the current literature related to the circadian nature of mitochondrial biology: from mitochondrial omics studies (e...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066326/no-association-between-elevated-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-at-birth-and-parent-reported-problem-behavior-at-preschool-age
#9
Caroline Trumpff, Jean De Schepper, Johan Vanderfaeillie, Nathalie Vercruysse, Jean Tafforeau, Herman Van Oyen, Stefanie Vandevijvere
OBJECTIVES: Mild level of iodine deficiency during pregnancy may reduce maternal thyroid hormone production and supply to the fetus hence affecting brain neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between elevated neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (>5 mU/L), used as a marker of maternal mild iodine deficiency during late pregnancy, and behavioral development of preschool children. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 310 Belgian mothers and their children aged 4-5 years old with TSH levels in the range of 0...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066325/emerging-role-of-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-in-glucocorticoid-driven-metabolic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Marie-Pierre Moisan, Nathalie Castanon
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) are critical for survival since they ensure the energy supply necessary to the body in an ever challenging environment. GCs are known to act on appetite, glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and storage. However, to be beneficial to the body, GC levels should be maintained in an optimal window of concentrations. Not surprisingly, conditions of GC excess or deficiency, e.g., Cushing's syndrome or Addison's disease, are associated with severe alterations of energy metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066324/in-silico-study-of-alkaloids-as-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-hope-for-the-discovery-of-effective-lead-compounds
#11
Muhammad Zafar, Haroon Khan, Abdur Rauf, Ajmal Khan, Muhammad Arif Lodhi
α-Glucosidase (extinction coefficient 3.2.1.20) is a primary carbohydrate metabolizing enzyme that acts on the 1-4 associated α-glucose residues. The inhibition of α-glucosidase slows down the process of carbohydrate digestion and avoids postprandial hyperglycemia, which is a major cause of chronic diabetes-associated complication. This study was designed to evaluate the binding capacity of isolated alkaloids with targeted receptor. For this purpose, the three-dimensional tertiary structure of the α-glucosidase was generated by using the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018294/zebrafish-models-for-dyslipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-research
#12
REVIEW
Amnon Schlegel
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. Elevated circulating concentrations of lipids are a central pathogenetic driver of atherosclerosis. While numerous effective therapies for this condition have been developed, there is substantial unmet need for this pandemic illness. Here, I will review nutritional, physiological, genetic, and pathological discoveries in the emerging zebrafish model for studying dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The technical and physiological advantages and the pharmacological potential of this organism for discovery and validation of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis targets are stressed through summary of recent findings...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018293/dynamic-changes-in-dna-methylation-occur-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-preterm-infants
#13
Chinthika Piyasena, Jessy Cartier, Nadine Provençal, Tobias Wiechmann, Batbayar Khulan, Raju Sunderasan, Gopi Menon, Jonathan R Seckl, Rebecca M Reynolds, Elisabeth B Binder, Amanda J Drake
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth associates with a substantially increased risk of later cardiovascular disease and neurodevelopmental disorders. Understanding underlying mechanisms will facilitate the development of screening and intervention strategies to reduce disease risk. Changes in DNA methylation have been proposed as one mechanism linking the early environment with later disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that preterm birth associates with altered DNA methylation in genes encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which appear particularly vulnerable to early life adversity...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018292/obesity-an-immunometabolic-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Indrani Ray, Sushil K Mahata, Rajat K De
Obesity, characterized by chronic activation of inflammatory pathways, is a critical factor contributing to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are increased in obesity and are implicated as proximate causes of IR and induction of inflammatory signaling in adipose, liver, muscle, and pancreas. Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines, and other factors that affect insulin signaling and result in the development of IR. In the lean state, adipose tissue is populated by adipose tissue macrophage of the anti-inflammatory M2 type (ATM2) and natural killer (NK) cells; this maintains the insulin-sensitive phenotype because ATM2 cells secrete IL10...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018291/adrenal-gland-microenvironment-and-its-involvement-in-the-regulation-of-stress-induced-hormone-secretion-during-sepsis
#15
REVIEW
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress, adrenal gland rapidly responds with increased secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure, and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018290/effects-of-chronic-social-stress-and-maternal-intranasal-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-on-offspring-interferon-%C3%AE-and-behavior
#16
Christopher A Murgatroyd, Alexandria Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria Fink, Gillian Beamer, Kursat Gurel, Fawzy Elnady, Florent Pittet, Benjamin C Nephew
Recent studies support the hypothesis that the adverse effects of early-life adversity and transgenerational stress on neural plasticity and behavior are mediated by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immune and behavioral programing effects of intranasal (IN) vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) treatment of chronic social stress (CSS)-exposed F1 dams on F2 juvenile female offspring. It was hypothesized that maternal AVP and OXT treatment would have preventative effects on social stress-induced deficits in offspring anxiety and social behavior and that these effects would be associated with changes in interferon-γ (IFNγ)...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018289/choroidal-and-retinal-abnormalities-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome
#17
Maria Fernanda Abalem, Marcio Carlos Machado, Helen Nazareth Veloso Dos Santos, Rafael Garcia, John Helal, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Sérgio Luis Gianotti Pimentel, Mario Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro, Cynthia X Qian, Marcello Delano Bronstein, Maria Cândida Villares Barisson Fragoso
CONTEXT: Cortisol has been suggested as a risk factor for choroidal thickening, which may lead to retinal changes. OBJECTIVE: To compare choroidal thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with endogenous active Cushing's syndrome (CS) and to evaluate the occurrence of retinal abnormalities in the same group of patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: Eleven female patients with CS in hypercortisolism state as determined by the presence of at least two abnormal measurements from urinary cortisol 24 h, no suppression of cortisol with low dose dexamethasone suppression test, and nocturnal salivary cortisol levels and 12 healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018288/vitamin-d-on-early-stages-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
João Soares Felício, Rafael Mendonça Luz, Franciane Trindade Cunha de Melo, Fabricio de Souza Resende, Alana Ferreira de Oliveira, Amanda Soares Peixoto, João Felício Abrahão Neto, Carolina Tavares Carvalho, Denisson Dias da Silva, Marcia Costa Dos Santos, Natércia Neves Marques de Queiroz, Manuela Nascimento de Lemos, Elizabeth Sumi Yamada, Karem Miléo Felício
CONTEXT: Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and vitamin D (VD) deficiency appears as a candidate to risk factor for developing diabetic kidney disease (DKD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of study was to evaluate the existence of an association between low levels of VD and the presence and degree of DKD in T1DM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study, between November 2014 and December 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999564/distinct-hepatic-macrophage-populations-in-lean-and-obese-mice
#19
REVIEW
Rafael Mayoral Monibas, Andrew M F Johnson, Olivia Osborn, Paqui G Traves, Sushil K Mahata
Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder associated with the development of non-communicable diseases such as cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. In humans and rodents, obesity promotes hepatic steatosis and inflammation, which leads to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins. Liver macrophages (resident as well as recruited) play a significant role in hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, depletion of hepatic macrophages protects against the development of high-fat-induced steatosis, inflammation, and IR...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999563/role-of-lncrnas-in-cellular-aging
#20
REVIEW
Ufuk Degirmenci, Sun Lei
Aging is a universal, intrinsic, and time-dependent biological decay that is linked to intricate cellular processes including cellular senescence, telomere shortening, stem cell exhaustion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and deregulated metabolism. Cellular senescence is accepted as one of the core processes of aging at the organism level. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying senescence could facilitate the development of potential therapeutics for aging and age-related diseases. Recently, the discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) provided insights into a novel regulatory layer that can intervene with cellular senescence...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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