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Frontiers in Endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326659/intrauterine-reprogramming-of-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-evidence-from-a-pilot-study-of-cord-blood-global-methylation-analysis
#1
Luca Lambertini, Shira Rebecca Saul, Alan B Copperman, Sara Salehi Hammerstad, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Yaron Tomer, Nathan Kase
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-15% of women. PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder displaying endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk manifestations. Evidence of heritability exists, but only a portion of the genetic transmission has been identified by genome-wide association studies and linkage studies, suggesting epigenetic phenomena may play a role. Evidence implicates intrauterine influences in the genesis of PCOS. This was a pilot study that aimed at identifying an epigenetic PCOS reprogramming signature by profiling the methylation of the DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood (UCB) from 12 subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326658/ghrelin-micrornas-and-critical-limb-ischemia-hungering-for-a-novel-treatment-option
#2
REVIEW
Joshua P H Neale, James T Pearson, Rajesh Katare, Daryl O Schwenke
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe manifestation of peripheral artery disease. It is characterized by chronic pain at rest, skin ulcerations, and gangrene tissue loss. CLI is a highly morbid condition, resulting in a severely diminished quality of life and a significant risk of mortality. The primary goal of therapy for CLI is to restore blood flow to the affected limb, which is only possible by surgery, but is inadvisable in up to 50% of patients. This subset of patients who are not candidates for revascularisation are referred to as "no-option" patients and are the focus of investigation for novel therapeutic strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326657/early-microbes-modify-immune-system-development-and-metabolic-homeostasis-the-restaurant-hypothesis-revisited
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Nash, Daniel N Frank, Jacob E Friedman
The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the "Restaurant" hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326656/variation-in-the-sweet-taste-receptor-gene-and-dietary-intake-in-a-swedish-middle-aged-population
#4
Caroline Habberstad, Isabel Drake, Emily Sonestedt
Background: The preference for sweet taste is partially genetically determined. The major allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs12033832 in the sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2) has previously been associated with lower sugar sensitivity and higher sugar intake among overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dietary intake and the TAS1R2 genotype in lean and overweight individuals in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort using dietary intake data with a high validity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326655/alterations-in-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-and-mitophagy-in-subjects-with-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Shipra Bhansali, Anil Bhansali, Rama Walia, Uma Nahar Saikia, Veena Dhawan
Background and aim: Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy) in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy. Design and methods: A case-control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM) and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM) (n = 20 each)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321761/from-bench-to-bedside-translating-the-prolactin-vasoinhibin-axis
#6
REVIEW
Jakob Triebel, Maria Ludivina Robles-Osorio, Renata Garcia-Franco, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp, Thomas Bertsch
The prolactin/vasoinhibin axis defines an endocrine system, in which prolactin (PRL) and vasoinhibins regulate blood vessel growth and function, the secretion of other hormones, inflammatory and immune processes, coagulation, and behavior. The core element of the PRL/vasoinhibin axis is the generation of vasoinhibins, which consists in the proteolytic cleavage of their precursor molecule PRL. Vasoinhibins can interact with multiple different partners to mediate their effects in various tissues and anatomical compartments, indicating their pleiotropic nature...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312152/aerobic-training-improves-angiogenic-potential-independently-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-modifications-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Pascal Izzicupo, Maria A D'Amico, Andrea Di Blasio, Giorgio Napolitano, Fabio Y Nakamura, Angela Di Baldassarre, Barbara Ghinassi
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of walking-training on the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic signals and on the angiogenic potential in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: Thirty-four postmenopausal women (56.18 ± 4.24 years) participated in a 13 weeks program of walking-training. Anthropometric measures, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, insulin, IGF-1, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), leptin, visfatin, resistin, and adiponectin were evaluated before and after training...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312151/editorial-metabolic-adaptation-to-cell-growth-and-proliferation-in-normal-and-pathological-conditions
#8
EDITORIAL
Albert Giralt, Lluis Fajas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312150/elevated-serum-cyclophilin-b-levels-are-associated-with-the-prevalence-and-severity-of-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Hang Zhang, Qin Fan, Hongyang Xie, Lin Lu, Rong Tao, Fang Wang, Rui Xi, Jian Hu, Qiujing Chen, Weifeng Shen, Ruiyan Zhang, Xiaoxiang Yan
Objective: Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cyclophilin B (CypB) can be constitutively secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress, participating in tissue or systemic inflammation. We investigated the relationship between CypB and MetS in both humans and mice. Methods: Serum CypB levels were determined in 211 subjects with MetS and 292 subjects without MetS (non-MetS) (133 healthy controls and 159 high-risk subjects with one to two MetS components)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312149/effect-of-osteocyte-ablation-on-inorganic-phosphate-metabolism-analysis-of-bone-kidney-gut-axis
#10
Osamu Fujii, Sawako Tatsumi, Mao Ogata, Tomohiro Arakaki, Haruna Sakaguchi, Kengo Nomura, Atsumi Miyagawa, Kayo Ikuta, Ai Hanazaki, Ichiro Kaneko, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
In response to kidney damage, osteocytes increase the production of several hormones critically involved in mineral metabolism. Recent studies suggest that osteocyte function is altered very early in the course of chronic kidney disease. In the present study, to clarify the role of osteocytes and the canalicular network in mineral homeostasis, we performed four experiments. In Experiment 1, we investigated renal and intestinal Pi handling in osteocyte-less (OCL) model mice [transgenic mice with the dentin matrix protein-1 promoter-driven diphtheria toxin (DT)-receptor that were injected with DT]...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312148/osteolytic-breast-cancer-causes-skeletal-muscle-weakness-in-an-immunocompetent-syngeneic-mouse-model
#11
Jenna N Regan, Carter Mikesell, Steven Reiken, Haifang Xu, Andrew R Marks, Khalid S Mohammad, Theresa A Guise, David L Waning
Muscle weakness and cachexia are significant paraneoplastic syndromes of many advanced cancers. Osteolytic bone metastases are common in advanced breast cancer and are a major contributor to decreased survival, performance, and quality of life for patients. Pathologic fracture caused by osteolytic cancer in bone (OCIB) leads to a significant (32%) increased risk of death compared to patients without fracture. Since muscle weakness is linked to risk of falls which are a major cause of fracture, we have investigated skeletal muscle response to OCIB...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312147/photoperiod-induced-increases-in-bone-mineral-apposition-rate-in-siberian-hamsters-and-the-involvement-of-seasonal-leptin-changes
#12
Marie Kokolski, Francis J Ebling, James R Henstock, Susan I Anderson
The adipokine leptin regulates energy balance, appetite, and reproductive maturation. Leptin also acts on bone growth and remodeling, but both osteogenic and anti-osteogenic effects have been reported depending on experimental conditions. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have natural variation in circulating leptin concentrations, where serum leptin is significantly decreased during the short day (SD)-induced winter state. In summer long day (LD) photoperiods, appetite and body adiposity increase with associated central leptin insensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312146/the-oxytocin-vasopressin-pathway-in-the-context-of-love-and-fear
#13
REVIEW
C Sue Carter
Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are distinct molecules; these peptides and their receptors [OT receptor (OTR) and V1a receptor (V1aR)] also are evolved components of an integrated and adaptive system, here described as the OT-VP pathway. The more ancient peptide, VP, and the V1aRs support individual survival and play a role in defensive behaviors, including mobilization and aggression. OT and OTRs have been associated with positive social behaviors and may function as a biological metaphor for social attachment or "love...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312145/microrna-exocytosis-by-vesicle-fusion-in-neuroendocrine-cells
#14
REVIEW
Yongsoo Park
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression inside the cell. Extracellular circulating miRNAs are also observed outside the cell, but their origin is poorly understood. Recently, miRNA has been shown to be exocytosed by vesicle fusion; this observation demonstrates that vesicle-free miRNAs are secreted from neuroendocrine cells, in a manner similar to hormone secretion. miRNAs are stored in large dense-core vesicles together with catecholamines, then released by vesicle fusion in response to stimulation; in this way, vesicle-free miRNA may regulate cell-to-cell communication including the regulation of gene expression and cellular signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312144/editorial-bone-endocrine-target-and-organ
#15
EDITORIAL
Giacomina Brunetti, Patrizia D'Amelio, Malgorzata Wasniewska, Giorgio Mori, Maria Felicia Faienza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312143/understanding-autoimmune-diabetes-through-the-prism-of-the-tri-molecular-complex
#16
REVIEW
Matthew L Bettini, Maria Bettini
The strongest susceptibility allele for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which supports a central role for T cells as the drivers of autoimmunity. However, the precise mechanisms that allow thymic escape and peripheral activation of beta cell antigen-specific T cells are still largely unknown. Studies performed with the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse have challenged several immunological dogmas, and have made the NOD mouse a key experimental system to study the steps of immunodysregulation that lead to autoimmune diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312142/managing-transition-in-patients-treated-with-growth-hormone
#17
Berthold P Hauffa, Philippe Touraine, Tanya Urquhart-Kelly, Ekaterina Koledova
Growth hormone (GH) promotes growth in children, but is also essential for bone strength, body composition, metabolic factors, such as lipid profile, and maintenance of quality of life. The Merck KGaA (Germany) funded "360° GH in Europe" meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016, comprised three sessions entitled "Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral," "Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence," and "Managing Transition." The scientific program covered all stages of pediatric GH treatment, and reported here are the outcomes of the third session of the meeting, which considered transition from pediatric GH treatment to teenage and young adult GH therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312141/circulating-microrna-mirna-expression-profiling-in-plasma-of-patients-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-reveals-upregulation-of-mirna-mir-330-3p
#18
Guido Sebastiani, Elisa Guarino, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Caterina Formichi, Chiara Delli Poggi, Elena Ceccarelli, Francesco Dotta
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by insulin resistance accompanied by low/absent beta-cell compensatory adaptation to the increased insulin demand. Although the molecular mechanisms and factors acting on beta-cell compensatory response during pregnancy have been partially elucidated and reported, those inducing an impaired beta-cell compensation and function, thus evolving in GDM, have yet to be fully addressed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous non-coding RNAs, which negatively modulate gene expression through their sequence-specific binding to 3'UTR of mRNA target...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312140/expression-and-role-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-2-and-its-receptor-in-mammals
#19
REVIEW
Amy T Desaulniers, Rebecca A Cederberg, Clay A Lents, Brett R White
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) and its receptor (GnRHR1) drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2) also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat) or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep) in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259578/t-cell-mediated-beta-cell-destruction-autoimmunity-and-alloimmunity-in-the-context-of-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Adam L Burrack, Tijana Martinov, Brian T Fife
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from destruction of pancreatic beta cells by T cells of the immune system. Despite improvements in insulin analogs and continuous blood glucose level monitoring, there is no cure for T1D, and some individuals develop life-threatening complications. Pancreas and islet transplantation have been attractive therapeutic approaches; however, transplants containing insulin-producing cells are vulnerable to both recurrent autoimmunity and conventional allograft rejection. Current immune suppression treatments subdue the immune system, but not without complications...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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