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Journal of Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951788/industrial-trans-fatty-acid-and-serum-cholesterol-the-allowable-dietary-level
#1
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Takeuchi, Michihiro Sugano
Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951787/do-omega-3-6-fatty-acids-have-a-therapeutic-role-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd
#2
REVIEW
E Derbyshire
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. METHODS: A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713595/fatty-acid-profiles-of-stipe-and-blade-from-the-norwegian-brown-macroalgae-laminaria-hyperborea-with-special-reference-to-acyl-glycerides-polar-lipids-and-free-fatty-acids
#3
Lena Foseid, Hanne Devle, Yngve Stenstrøm, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, Dag Ekeberg
A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706738/influence-on-adiposity-and-atherogenic-lipaemia-of-fatty-meals-and-snacks-in-daily-life
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Laguna-Camacho
The present work reviewed the connections of changes in consumption of high-fat food with changes in adiposity and lipaemia in adults with overweight or obesity. Hyperlipaemia from higher fat meals and excessive adiposity contributes to atherogenic process. Low-fat diet interventions decrease body fat, lipaemia, and atherosclerosis markers. Inaccuracy of physical estimates of dietary fat intake remains, however, a limit to establishing causal connections. To fill this gap, tracking fat-rich eating episodes at short intervals quantifies the behavioural frequency suggested to measure (by regression of changes in real time) direct effects of this eating pattern on adiposity and atherogenic lipaemia...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656110/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acid-content-in-elite-athletes-in-response-to-omega-3-supplementation-a-dose-response-pilot-study
#5
Franchek Drobnic, Félix Rueda, Victoria Pons, Montserrat Banquells, Begoña Cordobilla, Joan Carles Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. METHOD: Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642826/elucidation-of-the-role-of-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-1-in-the-metabolic-responses-of-macrophages-to-human-oxldl
#6
Danielle W Kimmel, William P Dole, David E Cliffel
Atherogenesis is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque build-up that results in cardiovascular disease that can lead to death. The macrophage lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), also called the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), is currently thought to aid in atherosclerotic disease progression; therefore metabolic studies have potential to both provide mechanistic validation for the role of LOX-1 in disease progression and provide valuable information regarding biomarker strategies and clinical imaging...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473926/apolipoproteins-a-i-b-and-c-iii-and-obesity-in-young-adult-cherokee
#7
Wenyu Wang, Piers Blackett, Sohail Khan, Elisa Lee
Since young adult Cherokee are at increased risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we assessed association of apolipoproteins (A-I, B, and C-III in non-HDL and HDL) with obesity and related risk factors. Obese participants (BMI ≥ 30) aged 20-40 years (n = 476) were studied. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals were defined as not having any of four components of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome after exclusion of waist circumference, and obese participants not being MHO were defined as metabolically abnormal obese (MAO)...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078142/normal-non-hdl-cholesterol-low-total-cholesterol-and-hdl-cholesterol-levels-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients-in-the-steady-state-a-case-control-study-of-tema-metropolis
#8
Richard K D Ephraim, Patrick Adu, Edem Ake, Hope Agbodzakey, Prince Adoba, Obed Cudjoe, Clement Agoni
Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957343/cholesterol-efflux-capacity-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-varies-with-the-extent-of-differentiation-and-foam-cell-formation-of-thp-1-cells
#9
Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Naoya Ichimura, Takahiro Kameda, Tetsuo Kubota, Minoru Tozuka
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has many protective functions against atherosclerosis, one of them being cholesterol efflux capacity. Although cholesterol efflux capacity measurement is suggested to be a key biomarker for evaluating the risk of development of atherosclerosis, the assay has not been optimized till date. This study aims at investigating the effect of different states of cells on the cholesterol efflux capacity. We also studied the effect of apoA-I modification by homocysteine, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, on cholesterol efflux capacity in different states of cells...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516907/high-density-lipoprotein-binds-to-mycobacterium-avium-and-affects-the-infection-of-thp-1-macrophages
#10
Naoya Ichimura, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Takeshi Kasama, Minoru Tozuka
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239345/8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic-acid-decreases-plasma-and-hepatic-triglycerides-via-activation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Hidetoshi Yamada, Sayaka Kikuchi, Mayuka Hakozaki, Kaori Motodate, Nozomi Nagahora, Masamichi Hirose
PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARs serve as molecular sensors of fatty acids, and their activation can act against obesity and metabolic syndromes. 8-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8-HEPE) acts as a PPAR ligand and has higher activity than EPA. However, to date, the PPAR ligand activity of 8-HEPE has only been demonstrated in vitro. Here, we investigated its ligand activity in vivo by examining the effect of 8-HEPE treatment on high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. After the 4-week treatment period, the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in the 8-HEPE-fed mice were significantly lower than those in the HFD-fed mice...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042355/changes-in-sediment-fatty-acid-composition-during-passage-through-the-gut-of-deposit-feeding-holothurians-holothuria-atra-jaeger-1883-and-holothuria-leucospilota-brandt-1835
#12
Prosper L Mfilinge, Makoto Tsuchiya
Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989512/serum-fatty-acids-traditional-risk-factors-and-comorbidity-as-related-to-myocardial-injury-in-an-elderly-population-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#13
Kristian Laake, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Erik B Schmidt, Peder Myhre, Arnljot Tveit, Harald Arnesen, Svein Solheim
Background. Epidemiological and randomized clinical trials indicate that marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may have cardioprotective effects. Aim. Evaluate the associations between serum fatty acid profile, traditional risk factors, the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and peak Troponin T (TnT) levels in elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. Patients (n = 299) consecutively included in the ongoing Omega-3 fatty acids in elderly patients with myocardial infarction (OMEMI) trial were investigated...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955488/synthesis-of-polyformate-esters-of-vegetable-oils-milkweed-pennycress-and-soy
#14
Rogers E Harry-O'kuru, Girma Biresaw, Brent Tisserat, Roque Evangelista
In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942012/comparison-of-oil-content-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-ten-new-camellia-oleifera-cultivars
#15
Chunying Yang, Xueming Liu, Zhiyi Chen, Yaosheng Lin, Siyuan Wang
The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1)...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605088/influence-of-abdominal-obesity-on-the-lipid-lipoprotein-profile-in-apoprotein-e2-4-carriers-the-effect-of-an-apparent-duality
#16
Sylvia Villeneuve, Diane Brisson, Daniel Gaudet
Background. Apolipoprotein (Apo) E plays a key role in the handling of lipoprotein particles with ApoE2 and ApoE4 frequently having opposite effects compared to ApoE3. Some individuals simultaneously carry both E2 and E4 alleles. The impact of the ApoE2/4 genotype on lipid concentrations and its consequences on health remain poorly documented. Objective. This study compared the lipid profile between ApoE2/4 carriers and other ApoE genotypes in relation to the waist circumference. Methods. Cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and ApoB concentrations were measured among 2,680 Caucasians...
2015: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347820/elevated-phospholipid-transfer-protein-in-subjects-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Roy A Garvin
An anomaly in the plasma proteins of patients with multiple sclerosis detectable on SDS-PAGE has been reported. The molecular weight of the anomaly was the same as the phospholipid transfer protein. A metabolic protein was involved in lipid homeostasis and remodeling of the high density lipoproteins. We have identified the anomaly as the phospholipid transfer protein by western blot using antiphospholipid transfer antibodies. Activity assays showed that the phospholipid transfer activity was elevated in fasted plasma samples from subjects with MS compared to controls...
2015: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346287/role-of-inositol-phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase-c1-the-yeast-homolog-of-neutral-sphingomyelinases-in-dna-damage-response-and-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Kaushlendra Tripathi
Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence...
2015: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257958/effects-of-myeloperoxidase-induced-oxidation-on-antiatherogenic-functions-of-high-density-lipoprotein
#19
Takahiro Kameda, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Kouji Yano, Yoko Usami, Akari Miyazaki, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Kenji Kawasaki, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Tetsuo Kubota, Minoru Tozuka
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis; these effects include reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant ability, and anti-inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions generates tyrosyl radicals in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules, inducing the formation of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers through the tyrosine-tyrosine bond in HDL. Functional characterization of HDL oxidized by MPO could provide useful information about the significance of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers measurement...
2015: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25949827/emerging-risk-biomarkers-in-cardiovascular-diseases-and-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level...
2015: Journal of Lipids
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