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Journal of Lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#1
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682353/identification-and-quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-t-viridissima-c-biguttulus-and-c-brunneus-by-gc-ms
#2
Alexander M Wathne, Hanne Devle, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, Dag Ekeberg
Fatty acid (FA) profiles of the species Tettigonia viridissima , Chorthippus biguttulus , and Chorthippus brunneus were determined and quantitated. Extracted lipids were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs) prior to analysis by GC-MS. A total of 37 different FAs were identified in T. viridissima , yielding a total FA content of 10.4 g/100 g of dry matter. The contents of saturated FAs, monounsaturated FAs, and polyunsaturated FAs were 31.1, 35.9, and 33.0%, respectively. Lipids from T. viridissima were also fractioned into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids by offline solid phase extraction...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666707/realm-of-thermoalkaline-lipases-in-bioprocess-commodities
#3
REVIEW
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis
For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610686/comparison-of-oil-content-and-fatty-acids-profile-of-western-schley-wichita-and-native-pecan-nuts-cultured-in-chihuahua-mexico
#4
L R Rivera-Rangel, K I Aguilera-Campos, A García-Triana, J G Ayala-Soto, D Chavez-Flores, L Hernández-Ochoa
Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610685/ceramide-and-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
REVIEW
Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman
Ceramide, a bioactive membrane sphingolipid, functions as an important second messenger in apoptosis and cell signaling. In response to stresses, it may be generated by de novo synthesis, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, and/or recycling of complex sphingolipids. It is cleared from cells through the activity of ceramidases, phosphorylation to ceramide-1-phosphate, or resynthesis into more complex sphingolipids. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when oxygen/nutrition is rapidly reintroduced into ischemic tissue, resulting in cell death and tissue damage, and is a major concern in diverse clinical settings, including organ resection and transplantation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318047/correlation-between-cholesterol-triglycerides-calculated-and-measured-lipoproteins-whether-calculated-small-density-lipoprotein-fraction-predicts-cardiovascular-risks
#6
Sikandar Hayat Khan, Nadeem Fazal, Athar Abbas Gilani Shah, Syed Mohsin Manzoor, Naveed Asif, Aamir Ijaz, Najmusaqib Khan Niazi, Muhammad Yasir
Background: Recent literature in lipidology has identified LDL-fractions to be more atherogenic. In this regard, small density LDL-cholesterol (sdLDLc) has been considered to possess more atherogenicity than other LDL-fractions like large buoyant LDL-cholesterol (lbLDLc). Recently, Srisawasdi et al. have developed a method for calculating sdLDLc and lbLDLc based upon a regression equation. Using that in developing world may provide us with a valuable tool for ASCVD risk prediction. Objective: (1) To correlate directly measured and calculated lipid indices with insulin resistance, UACR, glycated hemoglobin, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318046/dietary-oxidized-linoleic-acid-modulates-plasma-lipids-beyond-triglycerides-metabolism
#7
Mahdi Garelnabi, Gregory Ainsworth, Halleh Mahini, Naseeha Jamil, Chinedu Ochin
Introduction: Triglyceride (TG) is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Previous work has shown that short-term supplementations of mouse chow with oxidized linoleic acid (OxLA) significantly reduce the level of plasma triglycerides. Study Objective: This study aims to determine the effects of longer-term supplementation of mouse chow with various concentrations of oxidized linoleic acid (OxLA) on plasma triglycerides. Study Design: The study consisted of forty C57BL/6 wildtype mice divided into four groups ( n = 10)...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259829/antibacterial-activity-of-free-fatty-acids-from-hydrolyzed-virgin-coconut-oil-using-lipase-from-candida-rugosa
#8
Van Thi Ai Nguyen, Truong Dang Le, Hoa Ngoc Phan, Lam Bich Tran
Free fatty acids (FFAs) were obtained from hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil (VCO) by Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). Four factors' influence on hydrolysis degree (HD) was examined. The best hydrolysis conditions in order to get the highest HD value were determined at VCO to buffer ratio 1 : 5 (w/w), CRL concentration 1.5% (w/w oil), pH 7, and temperature 40°C. After 16 hours' reaction, the HD value achieved 79.64%. FFAs and residual hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil (HVCO) were isolated from the hydrolysis products...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951788/industrial-trans-fatty-acid-and-serum-cholesterol-the-allowable-dietary-level
#9
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Takeuchi, Michihiro Sugano
Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951787/do-omega-3-6-fatty-acids-have-a-therapeutic-role-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd
#10
REVIEW
E Derbyshire
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. METHODS: A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713595/fatty-acid-profiles-of-stipe-and-blade-from-the-norwegian-brown-macroalgae-laminaria-hyperborea-with-special-reference-to-acyl-glycerides-polar-lipids-and-free-fatty-acids
#11
Lena Foseid, Hanne Devle, Yngve Stenstrøm, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, Dag Ekeberg
A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706738/influence-on-adiposity-and-atherogenic-lipaemia-of-fatty-meals-and-snacks-in-daily-life
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Laguna-Camacho
The present work reviewed the connections of changes in consumption of high-fat food with changes in adiposity and lipaemia in adults with overweight or obesity. Hyperlipaemia from higher fat meals and excessive adiposity contributes to atherogenic process. Low-fat diet interventions decrease body fat, lipaemia, and atherosclerosis markers. Inaccuracy of physical estimates of dietary fat intake remains, however, a limit to establishing causal connections. To fill this gap, tracking fat-rich eating episodes at short intervals quantifies the behavioural frequency suggested to measure (by regression of changes in real time) direct effects of this eating pattern on adiposity and atherogenic lipaemia...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656110/erythrocyte-omega-3-fatty-acid-content-in-elite-athletes-in-response-to-omega-3-supplementation-a-dose-response-pilot-study
#13
Franchek Drobnic, Félix Rueda, Victoria Pons, Montserrat Banquells, Begoña Cordobilla, Joan Carles Domingo
INTRODUCTION: Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. METHOD: Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642826/elucidation-of-the-role-of-lectin-like-oxldl-receptor-1-in-the-metabolic-responses-of-macrophages-to-human-oxldl
#14
Danielle W Kimmel, William P Dole, David E Cliffel
Atherogenesis is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque build-up that results in cardiovascular disease that can lead to death. The macrophage lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), also called the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), is currently thought to aid in atherosclerotic disease progression; therefore metabolic studies have potential to both provide mechanistic validation for the role of LOX-1 in disease progression and provide valuable information regarding biomarker strategies and clinical imaging...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473926/apolipoproteins-a-i-b-and-c-iii-and-obesity-in-young-adult-cherokee
#15
Wenyu Wang, Piers Blackett, Sohail Khan, Elisa Lee
Since young adult Cherokee are at increased risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we assessed association of apolipoproteins (A-I, B, and C-III in non-HDL and HDL) with obesity and related risk factors. Obese participants (BMI ≥ 30) aged 20-40 years (n = 476) were studied. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals were defined as not having any of four components of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome after exclusion of waist circumference, and obese participants not being MHO were defined as metabolically abnormal obese (MAO)...
2017: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078142/normal-non-hdl-cholesterol-low-total-cholesterol-and-hdl-cholesterol-levels-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients-in-the-steady-state-a-case-control-study-of-tema-metropolis
#16
Richard K D Ephraim, Patrick Adu, Edem Ake, Hope Agbodzakey, Prince Adoba, Obed Cudjoe, Clement Agoni
Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8-28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8-38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957343/cholesterol-efflux-capacity-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-varies-with-the-extent-of-differentiation-and-foam-cell-formation-of-thp-1-cells
#17
Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Naoya Ichimura, Takahiro Kameda, Tetsuo Kubota, Minoru Tozuka
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has many protective functions against atherosclerosis, one of them being cholesterol efflux capacity. Although cholesterol efflux capacity measurement is suggested to be a key biomarker for evaluating the risk of development of atherosclerosis, the assay has not been optimized till date. This study aims at investigating the effect of different states of cells on the cholesterol efflux capacity. We also studied the effect of apoA-I modification by homocysteine, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, on cholesterol efflux capacity in different states of cells...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516907/high-density-lipoprotein-binds-to-mycobacterium-avium-and-affects-the-infection-of-thp-1-macrophages
#18
Naoya Ichimura, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Takeshi Kasama, Minoru Tozuka
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239345/8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic-acid-decreases-plasma-and-hepatic-triglycerides-via-activation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Hidetoshi Yamada, Sayaka Kikuchi, Mayuka Hakozaki, Kaori Motodate, Nozomi Nagahora, Masamichi Hirose
PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARs serve as molecular sensors of fatty acids, and their activation can act against obesity and metabolic syndromes. 8-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8-HEPE) acts as a PPAR ligand and has higher activity than EPA. However, to date, the PPAR ligand activity of 8-HEPE has only been demonstrated in vitro. Here, we investigated its ligand activity in vivo by examining the effect of 8-HEPE treatment on high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. After the 4-week treatment period, the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in the 8-HEPE-fed mice were significantly lower than those in the HFD-fed mice...
2016: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042355/changes-in-sediment-fatty-acid-composition-during-passage-through-the-gut-of-deposit-feeding-holothurians-holothuria-atra-jaeger-1883-and-holothuria-leucospilota-brandt-1835
#20
Prosper L Mfilinge, Makoto Tsuchiya
Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H...
2016: Journal of Lipids
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