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AIDS Research and Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445545/hiv-stigma-in-nigeria-review-of-research-studies-policies-and-programmes
#1
REVIEW
Clifford O Odimegwu, Joshua O Akinyemi, Olatunji O Alabi
Nigeria has about 3.8 million people living with HIV, the second largest globally. Stigma and discrimination are major barriers to testing, treatment uptake, and adherence. In this review, we synthesized information on research studies, policies, and programmes related to HIV-stigma in Nigeria. This was with a view to identify critical areas that research and programmes must address in order to accelerate the progress towards zero (new infections, discrimination, and death) target by year 2030. Existing studies were mostly devoted to stigma assessment using varieties of measures...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410914/assessing-very-early-infant-diagnosis-turnaround-times-findings-from-a-birth-testing-pilot-in-lesotho
#2
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Majoalane Mokone, Vincent J Tukei, Matsepeli Nchephe, Mamakhetha Phalatse, Appolinaire Tiam, Laura Guay, Lynne Mofenson
Very early infant diagnosis (VEID) (testing within two weeks of life), combined with rapid treatment initiation, could reduce early infant mortality. Our study evaluated turnaround time (TAT) to receipt of infants' HIV test results and ART initiation if HIV-infected, with and without birth testing availability. Data from facility records and national databases were collected for 12 facilities offering VEID, as part of an observational prospective cohort study, and 10 noncohort facilities. HIV-exposed infants born in January-June 2016 and any cohort infant diagnosed as HIV-infected at birth or six weeks were included...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362673/challenges-in-assessing-outcomes-among-infants-of-pregnant-hiv-positive-women-receiving-art-in-uganda
#3
Barbara Castelnuovo, Frank Mubiru, Ivan Kalule, Shadia Nakalema, Agnes Kiragga
Since 2012, the WHO recommends lifelong ART with TDF+FTC/3TC+EFV for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B-plus). In this analysis we describe the proportion of early and late transmission in mothers with high retention in Kampala, Uganda. We included 700 pregnant women from January 2012 to August 2014 with a follow-up extended to August 2016; the median age was 31 years (IQR: 26-35), 36.3% in WHO stage 3/4; median CD4 count was 447 cells/μL (IQR: 301-651) and 73.3% were already on ART for a median time of 28 (IQR: 10-57) months; 52% infants were male and median weight was 3...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270318/hiv-among-female-sex-workers-in-five-cities-in-burkina-faso-a-cross-sectional-baseline-survey-to-inform-hiv-aids-programs
#4
Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Odette Ky-Zerbo, Adama Baguiya, Ashley Grosso, Sara Goodman, Benoît Cesaire Samadoulougou, Marcel Lougue, Nongoba Sawadogo, Yves Traore, Nicolas Barro, Stefan Baral, Seni Kouanda
Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a vulnerable population for HIV infection and a priority for HIV/AIDS response programs. This study aimed to determine HIV prevalence among FSWs in five cities in Burkina Faso. Methods: FSWs aged 18 and older were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS) in five cities (Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Koudougou, Ouahigouya, and Tenkodogo) in Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2014. HIV testing was performed using the HIV testing national algorithm...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250442/conceptualising-the-factors-affecting-retention-in-care-of-patients-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-kabwe-district-zambia-using-the-ecological-framework
#5
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Joyce Chali Mwale, Brian van Wyk
Background: HIV remains a major public health challenge in Zambia. The roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has engendered new challenges in retention in care. Objective: To conceptualise the factors affecting retention in care of ART patients at three primary healthcare facilities using the ecological framework. Method: Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 45 ART patients and three focus group discussions with 20 healthcare providers from three primary healthcare facilities in Kabwe district, Zambia, and subjected to thematic content analysis...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214077/mortality-and-its-predictors-among-hiv-infected-patients-taking-antiretroviral-treatment-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
Background: Even though the benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well established, there is a regional variation in the extent of its benefit. The aim of this review is to highlight mortality and its predictors in Ethiopian adult HIV patients who were on ART. Methods: Relevant articles were searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The search terms used in different combinations were predictor/determinant/factors, mortality/death/survival, HIV, ART/HAART, and Ethiopia...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209538/disclosure-of-parental-hiv-status-to-children-experiences-of-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-at-an-urban-clinic-in-kampala-uganda
#7
Charles Peter Osingada, Monica Okuga, Rose Chalo Nabirye, Nelson Kaulukusi Sewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako
Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204296/quality-of-life-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-the-ho-municipality-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
James Osei-Yeboah, William K B A Owiredu, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Alote Allotey, John Gameli Deku, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah, Nana Yaw Barimah Manaphraim, Prince Senyo Kwasi Nyamadi, Edward Yiadom Boakye, Tibemponi Ntoni, Roseline Avorkliyah, Romeo Asumbasiya Aduko, Seyram Tetteh Quarshie, Maxwell Jenkins Gbemu
Quality of life (QoL) is an important component in the evaluation of the wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). This study was aimed at evaluating the QoL of PLHIV attending the antiretroviral clinics in the Ho municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 involving 158 purposively selected HIV-positive patients who were attending the antiretroviral clinics both in the Volta Regional Hospital and Ho Municipal Hospital. An Interviewer administered standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-HIV Bref) was used to collect information on sociodemography, medical history, and the quality of life (QoL) of the respondents...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201460/early-diagnosis-of-hiv-among-infants-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-on-option-b-plus-in-kampala-uganda
#9
Jonathan Izudi, Sylvia Auma, John Bosco Alege
Introduction: Globally, there is delay in accessing early HIV diagnosis (EID) among HIV exposed infants (HEIs). With paucity of data on EID use at Kisenyi Health Center, this study assessed factors associated with EID use among HEIs (HIV exposed infants). Method: This was a cross-sectional study of 246 HIV-positive mother-baby pairs. Data was collected by structured questionnaire, double-entered in EpiData, and analyzed with STATA using multinomial logistic regression at 5% significance level...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158917/lipodystrophy-among-hiv-infected-patients-attending-care-and-treatment-clinics-in-dar-es-salaam
#10
Marina Njelekela, Rose Mpembeni, Alfa Muhihi, Nzovu Ulenga, Eric Aris, Deodatus Kakoko
Background: HIV infection and long-term HAART use are associated with metabolic and morphological changes. We assessed prevalence, types, and risk factors associated with lipodystrophy among HIV-infected adults attending CTC in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Analysis included 466 HIV-infected patients. Study protocol involved administration of structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical information. Diagnosis of lipodystrophy was based on physician clinical assessment...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085677/hiv-case-management-support-service-is-associated-with-improved-cd4-counts-of-patients-receiving-care-at-the-antiretroviral-clinic-of-pantang-hospital-ghana
#11
Bismark Sarfo, Naa Ashiley Vanderpuye, Abigail Addison, Peter Nyasulu
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with individual patient-level management of HIV have received minimal attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the association between support services and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts among HIV patients attending ART clinic in Ghana. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study involving adults with HIV recruited between 1 August 2014 and 31 January 2015. Data on support services were obtained through a closed-ended personal interview while the CD4 counts data were collected from their medical records...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082041/ritonavir-boosted-darunavir-plus-two-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-versus-other-regimens-for-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-for-people-with-hiv-infection-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Tatevik Balayan, Hacsi Horvath, George W Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Darunavir is a second-generation protease-inhibitor used with ritonavir (DRV/r) and two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors as an option in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DRV/r versus other regimens in patients initiating ART. We searched five bibliographic databases and other key resources. We had no language limitations. We assessed bias risk with the Cochrane tool and used GRADE to assess evidence quality...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948049/hiv-epidemic-in-tanzania-the-possible-role-of-the-key-populations
#13
REVIEW
Bonaventura C T Mpondo, Daniel W Gunda, Semvua B Kilonzo
HIV remains a public health concern in Tanzania and other Eastern and Southern African countries. Estimates show that there were about 1.4 million people living with HIV in Tanzania in the year 2013. HIV is a generalized epidemic in Tanzania with heterosexual transmission being the main route of transmission. Recently, however, there has been growing concern on the potential role of the key populations in HIV epidemic in the country. Studies done have shown significantly higher HIV prevalence in these populations compared to the general population...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831309/effect-of-efavirenz-on-endogenous-progesterone-concentrations-and-contraceptive-outcomes-among-ugandan-hiv-infected-women-coadministering-ethinylestradiol-levonorgestrel
#14
Grant Munkwase, Kuteesa R Bisaso, Othman Kakaire, Sarah Nanzigu
This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman's menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656105/incidence-and-predictors-of-pregnancy-among-women-on-art-in-debre-markos-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-five-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Maru Meseret, Alemayehu Shimeka, Alemayehu Bekele
Globally, death of women due to HIV/AIDS related causes during pregnancy or within 42 days after pregnancy was estimated to be 37,000. In Ethiopia, 42,900 pregnant women living with HIV gave birth in the year 2011. This study was aimed to assess incidence and predictors of pregnancy among women on ART in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data recorded from September 2011 to August 2015. Data was extracted from February to March, 2016, from 1,239 records and analyzed using SPSS version 16...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638661/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-based-regimen-as-compared-to-zidovudine-based-regimens-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Tegene Legese Dadi, Adane Teshome Kefale, Teshale Ayele Mega, Muktar Sano Kedir, Habtamu Acho Addo, Tessema Tsehay Biru
BACKGROUND: Although tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) and zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/efavirenz (EFV) are used as preferred first line regimen, their head-to-head comparison in terms of their efficacy and tolerability was limited. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on the comparative efficacy and tolerability of the two regimens. METHODS: Seven sites and databases in addition to Google search until August 20, 2016, were searched...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512582/factors-affecting-utilization-of-voluntary-hiv-counseling-and-testing-services-among-teachers-in-awi-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#17
Woudneh Gereme Desta, Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw, Kelemu Dessie Bizuneh
HIV/AIDS affects the basic educational sector which is the most productive segment of the population and vital to the creation of human capital. The loss of skilled and experienced teachers due to the problem is increasingly compromising the provision of quality education in most African countries. The study was proposed to determine the magnitude of VCT utilization and assess contributing factors that affect VCT service utilization among secondary school teachers in Awi Zone. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 588 participants in 2014...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469942/describing-point-of-entry-into-care-and-being-lost-to-program-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-a-large-urban-centre-in-uganda
#18
Rachel Musomba, Frank Mubiru, Shadia Nakalema, Hope Mackline, Ivan Kalule, Agnes N Kiragga, Rosalind Parkes Ratanshi, Barbara Castelnuovo
Introduction. We aim to describe the time of entry into care and factors associated with being lost to program (LTP) in pregnant women on Option B Plus in an integrated HIV and antenatal care (ANC) clinic in Uganda. Methods. We included all pregnant women enrolled into the integrated HIV-ANC clinic from January 2012 to 31st July 2014, while the follow up period extended up to October 30th 2015. LTP was defined as being out of care for ≥3 months. Results. Overall 856 women were included. Only 36.4% (86/236) of the women were enrolled in the first trimester...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465838/a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-concerning-the-hiv-latency-reversing-effect-of-disulfiram-the-possible-explanations-for-its-inability-to-reduce-the-size-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-vivo-and-the-caveats-associated-with-its-use-in-practice
#19
REVIEW
Harry D J Knights
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging side-effects and efficacy in vivo make disulfiram particularly promising...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409027/male-partners-involvement-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-services-in-southern-central-ethiopia-in-case-of-lemo-district-hadiya-zone
#20
Degefa Tadele Belato, Abera Beyamo Mekiso, Bayu Begashaw
Male partners' involvement is a vital issue to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child; because it is much expectable that women were more vulnerable and high risk group of population portion. Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too.
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
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