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AIDS Research and Treatment

Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz, Roberto Güerri-Fernández, Judit Villar García, Alicia González Mena, Ana Guelar Grinberg, María Milagro Montero, Luisa Sorli, Sonia Calzado, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Hernando Knobel Freud
Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL), insufficiency (defined as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL), or hyperparathyroidism (PTH > 65 pg/mL) were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Sphiwe Madiba, Mathildah Mokgatle
Background. There is limited research on the disclosure experiences of adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH). The study explores how adolescents with PAH experience living with HIV and examined their perceptions and experiences regarding disclosure and onward self-disclosure to friends and sexual partners. Methods. Thematic analysis was used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with 37 adolescents. Findings. Adolescents received disclosure about their status at mean age of 12 years. They perceived disclosure as necessary and appreciated the truthful communication they received...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Courtney Massaro, Kristen M Jogerst, Zhongze Li, Marie-Marcelle Deschamps, Cleonas Junior Destine, Redouin Senecharles, Moleine Moles Aristhene, Joseph Yves Domercant, Vanessa Rouzier, Peter F Wright
Background. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV relies on engagement in care during the prenatal, peripartum, and postpartum periods. Under PMTCT Option B, pregnant women with elevated CD4 counts are provided with antiretroviral prophylaxis until cessation of breastfeeding. Methods. Retrospective analysis of retention in care among HIV-infected pregnant women in Haiti was performed. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with loss to follow-up (LFU) defined as no medical visit for at least 6 months and Kaplan-Meier curves were created to show LFU timing...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Sarahmona M Przybyla, Rebecca K Eliseo-Arras, Gabriela Krawiec, Emily Gower, Kurt Dermen
While substance use is one of the most consistent predictors of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), few studies among people living with HIV (PLH) have utilized mobile phone-based assessment of these health behaviors. PLH were recruited from primary care clinics to report ART and substance use using a smartphone application (app) for 14 consecutive days. The app's feasibility as a data collection tool was evaluated quantitatively via surveys and qualitatively via in-depth interviews to assess daily report completion, compliance, and study satisfaction...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Ketema Tafess Tulu, Amtatachew Moges Zegeye, Amarech Asratie Wubante
Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CD4 count, and viral hepatitis...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Adrienne F Schlatter, Andrew R Deathe, Rachel C Vreeman
Over 3.2 million children worldwide are infected with HIV, but only 24% of these children receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence among children is a crucial part of managing human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and extending the life and health of infected children. Important causes of poor adherence are formulation- and regimen-specific properties, including poor palatability, large pill burden, short dosing intervals, and the complex storage and transportation of drugs. This review aims to summarize the various regimen- and formulation-based barriers to ART adherence among children to support the need for new and innovative pediatric formulations for antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe, Sheila Shaibu, Ellah Matshediso, Motshedisi Sabone, Esther Ntsayagae, Patrice K Nicholas, Carmen J Portillo, Inge B Corless, Carol Dawson Rose, Mallory O Johnson, Allison Webel, Yvette Cuca, Marta Rivero-Méndez, Solymar S Solís Báez, Kathleen Nokes, Darcel Reyes, Jeanne Kemppainen, Paula Reid, Lucille Sanzero Eller, Teri Lindgren, William L Holzemer, Dean Wantland
Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Suchismita Paul, Rachel Evans, Toby Maurer, Lulu M Muhe, Esther E Freeman
Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Monica H Swahn, Rachel Culbreth, Laura F Salazar, Rogers Kasirye, Janet Seeley
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Maisara Mhode, Tumaini Nyamhanga
Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Charles Kibaara, Cinthia Blat, Jayne Lewis-Kulzer, Starley Shade, Patrick Mbullo, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi
Background. Kenyan antiretroviral (ART) guidelines encourage treatment buddies (TBy) to maximize treatment adherence. This study examined the effect of TBys on clinic attendance in men and women on ART. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients initiating ART from August 2007 to December 2011 at four health facilities in Kenya. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records and analyzed using Poisson regression. Results. Of 2,430 patients, 2,199 (91%) had a TBy. Relationship between TBy and clinic attendance differed in females and males (interaction p = 0...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Christian Obirikorang, Razak Gyesi Issahaku, Derick Nii Mensah Osakunor, James Osei-Yeboah
Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART) and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P < 0...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Brian Leslie Mishara, Eugene Kinyanda
Although the impact of HIV/AIDS has changed globally, it still causes considerable morbidity and mortality, including suicidality, in countries like Uganda. This paper describes the burden and risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempt among 543 HIV-positive attending two HIV specialized clinics in Mbarara municipality, Uganda. The rate of suicidal ideation was 8.8% (n = 48; 95% CI: 6.70-11.50) and suicidal attempt was 3.1% (17, 95% CI 2.00-5.00). The factors associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts were state anger (OR = 1...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Koosha Paydary, Somayeh Mahin Torabi, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mehri Noori, Alireza Noroozi, Sara Ameri, Hamed Ekhtiari
Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS)...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Ayotunde James Fasunla, Adekunle Daniel, Ukamaka Nwankwo, Kehinde Mobolanle Kuti, Onyekwere George Nwaorgu, Olusina Olusegun Akinyinka
Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT), olfactory discrimination (OD), olfactory identification (OI), and TDI using "Sniffin' sticks" kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS) score) measurement was by taste strips...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
R Solorio, N C Ayala, E Paez, A M Skalicky, L S Morales
Purpose. To use cognitive interviewing techniques to assess comprehension of existing Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) items among Latinos living with HIV and then refine items based on participant feedback. Methods. Latino monolingual Spanish speakers living with HIV (n = 56) participated in cognitive interviews. Items from four PROMIS domains, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and alcohol use, were assessed for comprehension. Audiotaped interviews and handwritten notes were subjected to content analysis to identify problems specific to each instrument for each domain...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
R Chandran, L Feller, J Lemmer, R A G Khammissa
Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH) in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized), intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light), and smoking and snuff use...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Fisseha Wudineh, Bereket Damtew
Since the scale-up for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, rates of HIV infection among exposed infants have significantly declined. However, current achievements fell short of achieving the target sets. We investigated mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection and its determinants among HIV-exposed infants on care at Dilchora Referral Hospital in Dire Dawa City Administration. A retrospective institutional cohort study was conducted by reviewing follow-up records of HIV-exposed infants who were enrolled into care...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Patrice Ngangue, Emmanuelle Bedard, Gerard Ngueta, Dieudonné Adiogo, Marie-Pierre Gagnon
This study examined the magnitude and time trends in failure to return (FTR) rates and the relation between FTR and individual characteristics, tests procedures, waiting period for the results, and HIV test results among people who were screened for HIV in the prevention and voluntary testing and counseling centers (PVTCCs) of six district hospitals of the city of Douala in Cameroon, between January 2009 and December 2013. It was a retrospective analysis of medical records. Among the 32,020 analyzed records, the failure to return (FTR) rate was 14...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
M L Armstrong, A M LaPlante, F L Altice, M Copenhaver, P E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA...
2015: AIDS Research and Treatment
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