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Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298215/nrf2-signaling-increases-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-c-mrna-transcripts-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation-stress
#1
Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell, Patrick T Ronaldson
BACKGROUND: Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps). Therefore, characterization of Mrp regulation at the BBB during H/R is required to advance these transporters as therapeutic targets. Our goal was to investigate, in vivo, regulation of Abcc1, Abcc2, and Abcc4 mRNA expression (i.e., genes encoding Mrp isoforms that transport GSH) by nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) using a well-established H/R model...
March 16, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209177/is-posture-related-craniospinal-compliance-shift-caused-by-jugular-vein-collapse-a-theoretical-analysis
#2
Manuel Gehlen, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Marianne Schmid Daners
BACKGROUND: Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance distribution. We hypothesized that jugular vein collapse in upright posture is a major contributor to these shifts in CSF volume and compliance. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical lumped-parameter model of the CSF system and the relevant parts of the cardiovascular system...
February 16, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166789/the-mrz-reaction-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly, Oliver Stich
BACKGROUND: The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, is absent in other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). So far, it has been uncertain whether its differential diagnostic promise extends to patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of MRZR in PPMS compared to RRMS and OIND patients...
February 7, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153044/brain-barriers-and-brain-fluid-research-in-2016-advances-challenges-and-controversies
#4
EDITORIAL
Richard F Keep, Hazel C Jones, Lester R Drewes
This editorial highlights some of the advances that occurred in relation to brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016. It also aims to raise some of the attendant controversies and challenges in such research.
February 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132644/a-change-in-brain-white-matter-after-shunt-surgery-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#5
Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi, Etsuro Mori
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive INPH patients whose symptoms were followed for 1 year after shunt placement and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. Twenty of the initial 28 INPH patients were shunt-responsive (SR) and the other 8 patients were non-responsive (SNR)...
January 30, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114946/permeability-across-a-novel-microfluidic-blood-tumor-barrier-model
#6
Tori B Terrell-Hall, Amanda G Ammer, Jessica I G Griffith, Paul R Lockman
BACKGROUND: The lack of translatable in vitro blood-tumor barrier (BTB) models creates challenges in the development of drugs to treat tumors of the CNS and our understanding of how the vascular changes at the BBB in the presence of a tumor. METHODS: In this study, we characterize a novel microfluidic model of the BTB (and BBB model as a reference) that incorporates flow and induces shear stress on endothelial cells. Cell lines utilized include human umbilical vein endothelial cells co-cultured with CTX-TNA2 rat astrocytes (BBB) or Met-1 metastatic murine breast cancer cells (BTB)...
January 23, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998280/misleading-early-blood-volume-changes-obtained-using-ferumoxytol-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-perfusion-in-high-grade-glial-neoplasms-treated-with-bevacizumab
#7
Joao Prola Netto, Daniel Schwartz, Csanad Varallyay, Rongwei Fu, Bronwyn Hamilton, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND: Neovascularization, a distinguishing trait of high-grade glioma, is a target for anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV). This study sought to use ferumoxytol-based dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clarify perfusion and relative blood volume (rCBV) changes in glioma treated with BEV and to determine potential impact on clinical management. METHODS: 16 high grade glioma patients who received BEV following post-chemoradiation radiographic or clinical progression were included...
December 20, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955673/immunohistochemical-and-in-situ-hybridization-study-of-urate-transporters-glut9-uratv1-abcg2-and-urat1-in-the-murine-brain
#8
Naoko H Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida, Makoto Hosoyamada
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate transporter URAT1 is localized to the cilia and apical surface of ventricular ependymal cells. To further strengthen the hypothesis that UA is transported transcellularly at the ependymal cells, we aimed to assess the distribution of other UA transporters in the murine brain...
December 12, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#9
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876063/early-and-delayed-assessments-of-quantitative-gait-measures-to-improve-the-tap-test-as-a-predictor-of-shunt-effectiveness-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#10
Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigeki Yamada, Kazuo Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: To improve the diagnostic performance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test (TT), early and delayed assessments of gait were performed after the removal of 30 ml of CSF in patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Assessments of gait included the 3-m timed up and go test (TUG), and the 10-m walk in time (10Ti) and in step (10St) tests. METHODS: Quantitative data for the TUG, the 10Ti, and the 10St were obtained before CSF removal and on days 1 and 4 after removal of 30 ml CSF...
November 22, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799072/fluid-and-ion-transfer-across-the-blood-brain-and-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers-a-comparative-account-of-mechanisms-and-roles
#11
REVIEW
Stephen B Hladky, Margery A Barrand
The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquaporin, AQP1, allows water transfer across the apical surface of the choroid epithelium; another protein, perhaps GLUT1, is important on the basolateral surface. Fluid secretion is driven by apical Na(+)-pumps. K(+) secretion occurs via net paracellular influx through relatively leaky tight junctions partially offset by transcellular efflux...
October 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724968/cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia-selectively-disrupts-tight-junctions-complexes-in-stem-cell-derived-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Shyanne Page, Alli Munsell, Abraham J Al-Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB responds to such injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of the human BBB to chemical and environmental H/I in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we used immortalized hCMEC/D3 and IMR90 stem-cell derived human brain microvascular endothelial cell lines (IMR90-derived BMECs)...
October 11, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581842/small-cisterno-lumbar-gradient-of-phosphorylated-tau-protein-in-geriatric-patients-with-suspected-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#13
Marija Djukic, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Stephanie Bunkowski, Jens Wiltfang, Roland Nau
BACKGROUND: The composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not homogeneous, and concentrations of proteins from different origins diverge among ventricular, cisternal and lumbar CSF fractions. Concentrations of blood-derived proteins increase and of brain-derived proteins decrease from ventricular to lumbar fractions. We studied whether the origin of the CSF portion analysed may affect results in CSF analysis for dementia. METHODS: In 16 geriatric patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus [age 82...
August 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503326/inhibition-of-adam10-promotes-the-clearance-of-a%C3%AE-across-the-bbb-by-reducing-lrp1-ectodomain-shedding
#14
B Shackleton, F Crawford, C Bachmeier
BACKGROUND: Transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important mediator of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the receptors responsible for the transport of Aβ in the BBB is the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). LRP1 is susceptible to proteolytic shedding at the cell surface, which prevents endocytic transport of ligands. Previously, we reported a strong inverse correlation between LRP1 shedding in the brain and Aβ transit across the BBB...
August 8, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472944/amyloid-mis-metabolism-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#15
A Jeppsson, Mikko Höltta, H Zetterberg, K Blennow, C Wikkelsø, Mats Tullberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) have reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α- and β-cleaved soluble forms of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα and sAPPβ). The aims of this study were to examine if changes could also be seen in the CSF for secreted metabolites of APP-like protein 1 (APLP1) and to explore the prognostic value of amyloid-related CSF biomarkers, as well as markers of neuronal injury and astroglial activation, as regards to clinical outcome after shunt surgery...
July 29, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396356/in-vitro-characterization-of-pralidoxime-transport-and-acetylcholinesterase-reactivation-across-mdck-cells-and-stem-cell-derived-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-bc1-hbmecs
#16
Erin Gallagher, Il Minn, Janice E Chambers, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: Current therapies for organophosphate poisoning involve administration of oximes, such as pralidoxime (2-PAM), that reactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Studies in animal models have shown a low concentration in the brain following systemic injection. METHODS: To assess 2-PAM transport, we studied transwell permeability in three Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cell lines and stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BC1-hBMECs)...
July 11, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357498/increased-csf-aquaporin-4-and-interleukin-6-levels-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-communicating-internal-hydrocephalus-and-a-decrease-after-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunting
#17
Martin J Schmidt, Christoph Rummel, Jessica Hauer, Malgorzata Kolecka, Nele Ondreka, Vanessa McClure, Joachim Roth
BACKGROUND: Studies in animal models, in which internal hydrocephalus has been induced by obstructing the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, have documented an up-regulation of the concentrations of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the brain. In this study, the concentrations of aquaporin-1 (AQP1), AQP1, AQP4 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined in the CSF of dogs with idiopathic communicating hydrocephalus before and after the reduction of intraventricular volume following ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP-shunt) treatment...
June 29, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329482/directional-cerebrospinal-fluid-movement-between-brain-ventricles-in-larval-zebrafish
#18
Ryann M Fame, Jessica T Chang, Alex Hong, Nicole A Aponte-Santiago, Hazel Sive
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to specific regions of the developing brain. However, there is no study of in vivo CSF dynamics between ventricles in the embryonic brain. We address CSF movement using the zebrafish larva, during the major period of developmental neurogenesis. METHODS: CSF movement was monitored at two stages of zebrafish development: early larva [pharyngula stage; 27-30 h post-fertilization (hpf)] and late larva (hatching period; 51-54 hpf) using photoactivatable Kaede protein to calculate average maximum CSF velocity between ventricles...
June 21, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246837/diffusion-tensor-imaging-with-direct-cytopathological-validation-characterisation-of-decorin-treatment-in-experimental-juvenile-communicating-hydrocephalus
#19
Anuriti Aojula, Hannah Botfield, James Patterson McAllister, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Osama Abdullah, Ann Logan, Alexandra Sinclair
BACKGROUND: In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated...
May 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246706/microrna-155-contributes-to-shear-resistant-leukocyte-adhesion-to-human-brain-endothelium-in-vitro
#20
Camilla Cerutti, Patricia Soblechero-Martin, Dongsheng Wu, Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Helga de Vries, Basil Sharrack, David Kingsley Male, Ignacio Andres Romero
BACKGROUND: Increased leukocyte adhesion to brain endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precedes extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Previously, we reported that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is up-regulated in MS and by inflammatory cytokines in human brain endothelium, with consequent modulation of endothelial paracellular permeability. Here, we investigated the role of endothelial miR-155 in leukocyte adhesion to the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, under shear forces mimicking blood flow in vivo...
May 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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