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Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899431/the-role-of-perfusion-and-diffusion-mri-in-the-assessment-of-patients-affected-by-probable-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-cohort-prospective-preliminary-study
#1
Francesco Tuniz, Maria Caterina Vescovi, Daniele Bagatto, Daniela Drigo, Maria Cristina De Colle, Marta Maieron, Miran Skrap
BACKGROUND: Invasive tests measuring resistance to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) outflow and the effect of temporary drainage of CSF are used to select candidates affected by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) for shunt surgery. Neither test, however, completely excludes patients from treatment. Perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive techniques that might be of value in selecting patients for surgical treatment and understanding brain changes in iNPH patients...
September 12, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#2
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774343/effect-of-shear-stress-on-ipsc-derived-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-dhbmecs
#3
Jackson G DeStefano, Zinnia S Xu, Ashley J Williams, Nahom Yimam, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: The endothelial cells that form the lumen of capillaries and microvessels are an important component of the blood-brain barrier. Cell phenotype is regulated by transducing a range of biomechanical and biochemical signals in the local microenvironment. Here we report on the role of shear stress in modulating the morphology, motility, proliferation, apoptosis, and protein and gene expression, of confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells...
August 4, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701191/blood-brain-barrier-and-foetal-onset-hydrocephalus-with-a-view-on-potential-novel-treatments-beyond-managing-csf-flow
#4
REVIEW
M Guerra, J L Blázquez, E M Rodríguez
Despite decades of research, no compelling non-surgical therapies have been developed for foetal hydrocephalus. So far, most efforts have pointed to repairing disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and to avoid further brain damage. There are no reports trying to prevent or diminish abnormalities in brain development which are inseparably associated with hydrocephalus. A key problem in the treatment of hydrocephalus is the blood-brain barrier that restricts the access to the brain for therapeutic compounds or systemically grafted cells...
July 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679427/comparison-of-the-sagittal-sinus-cross-sectional-area-between-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-hydrocephalus-intracranial-hypertension-and-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-a-surrogate-marker-of-venous-transmural-pressure
#5
Grant A Bateman, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Ross Copping, Christopher Moeskops, Swee Leong Yap
There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. To further explore these mechanisms, we measured the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cross-sectional area 3 cm above the torcular using T2 images in 20 MS, 10 spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), 21 hydrocephalus and 20 idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients and compared with 20 matched controls...
July 6, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623925/human-jugular-vein-collapse-in-the-upright-posture-implications-for-postural-intracranial-pressure-regulation
#6
Petter Holmlund, Elias Johansson, Sara Qvarlander, Anders Wåhlin, Khalid Ambarki, Lars-Owe D Koskinen, Jan Malm, Anders Eklund
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) is directly related to cranial dural venous pressure (P dural ). In the upright posture, P dural is affected by the collapse of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) but this regulation of the venous pressure has not been fully understood. A potential biomechanical description of this regulation involves a transmission of surrounding atmospheric pressure to the internal venous pressure of the collapsed IJVs. This can be accomplished if hydrostatic effects are cancelled by the viscous losses in these collapsed veins, resulting in specific IJV cross-sectional areas that can be predicted from flow velocity and vessel inclination...
June 17, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577579/patterns-of-relapse-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-inferences-regarding-the-role-of-the-neuro-vascular-unit-and-monoclonal-antibodies-in-treating-occult-cns-disease
#7
Prakash Ambady, Rongwei Fu, Joao Prola Netto, Cymon Kersch, Jenny Firkins, Nancy D Doolittle, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The radiologic features and patterns of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) at initial presentation are well described. High response rates can be achieved with first-line high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based regimens, yet many relapse within 2 years of diagnosis. We describe the pattern of relapse and review the potential mechanisms involved in relapse. METHODS: We identified 78 consecutive patients who attained complete radiographic response (CR) during or after first-line treatment for newly diagnosed PCNSL (CD20+, diffuse large B cell type)...
June 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521764/barrier-dysfunction-or-drainage-reduction-differentiating-causes-of-csf-protein-increase
#8
Mahdi Asgari, Diane A de Zélicourt, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein analysis is an important element in the diagnostic chain for various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Among multiple existing approaches to interpreting measured protein levels, the Reiber diagram is particularly robust with respect to physiologic inter-individual variability, as it uses multiple subject-specific anchoring values. Beyond reliable identification of abnormal protein levels, the Reiber diagram has the potential to elucidate their pathophysiologic origin...
May 18, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486988/cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-t-tau-and-p-tau-levels-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Zhongyun Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jie Zhang, Norman Relkin, Yan Xing, Yanfeng Li
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta amyloid 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) as potential diagnostic biomarkers for idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and to assess their utility indistinguishing patients with iNPH from those with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy normal controls. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Chinese Periodical Database, VIP Chinese database, and Chinese Bio-medicine Database (CBM) before August 2016...
May 10, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457227/nih-workshop-report-on-the-trans-agency-blood-brain-interface-workshop-2016-exploring-key-challenges-and-opportunities-associated-with-the-blood-brain-and-their-interface
#10
REVIEW
Margaret J Ochocinska, Berislav V Zlokovic, Peter C Searson, A Tamara Crowder, Richard P Kraig, Julia Y Ljubimova, Todd G Mainprize, William A Banks, Ronald Q Warren, Andrei Kindzelski, William Timmer, Christina H Liu
A trans-agency workshop on the blood-brain interface (BBI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute and the Combat Casualty Care Research Program at the Department of Defense, was conducted in Bethesda MD on June 7-8, 2016. The workshop was structured into four sessions: (1) blood sciences; (2) exosome therapeutics; (3) next generation in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models; and (4) BBB delivery and targeting. The first day of the workshop focused on the physiology of the blood and neuro-vascular unit, blood or biofluid-based molecular markers, extracellular vesicles associated with brain injury, and how these entities can be employed to better evaluate injury states and/or deliver therapeutics...
May 1, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#11
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420385/frontotemporal-dementia-as-a-comorbidity-to-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-inph-a-short-review-of-literature-and-an-unusual-case
#12
REVIEW
V E Korhonen, E Solje, N M Suhonen, T Rauramaa, R Vanninen, A M Remes, V Leinonen
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are neurodegenerative diseases that can present with similar symptoms. These include decline in executive functions, psychomotor slowness, and behavioural and personality changes. Ventricular enlargement is a key radiological finding in iNPH that may also be present in bvFTD caused by the C9ORF72 expansion mutation. Due to this, bvFTD has been hypothesized as a potential comorbidity to iNPH but bvFTD patients have never been identified in studies focusing in clinical comorbidities with iNPH...
April 19, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407791/accelerated-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#13
Emma K Hollmann, Amanda K Bailey, Archit V Potharazu, M Diana Neely, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann
BACKGROUND: Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), for research purposes. Unfortunately, the time, expense, and expertise required to differentiate iPSCs to purified BMECs precludes their widespread use. Here, we report the use of a defined medium that accelerates the differentiation of iPSCs to BMECs while achieving comparable performance to BMECs produced by established methods...
April 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351417/the-choroid-plexus-as-a-site-of-damage-in-hemorrhagic-and-ischemic-stroke-and-its-role-in-responding-to-injury
#14
REVIEW
Jianming Xiang, Lisa J Routhe, D Andrew Wilkinson, Ya Hua, Torben Moos, Guohua Xi, Richard F Keep
While the impact of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes on the blood-brain barrier has been extensively studied, the impact of these types of stroke on the choroid plexus, site of the blood-CSF barrier, has received much less attention. The purpose of this review is to examine evidence of choroid plexus injury in clinical and preclinical studies of intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. It then discusses evidence that the choroid plexuses are important in the response to brain injury, with potential roles in limiting damage...
March 28, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351400/cerebrospinal-fluid-abnormalities-in-meningeosis-neoplastica-a-retrospective-12-year-analysis
#15
Marija Djukic, Ralf Trimmel, Ingelore Nagel, Annette Spreer, Peter Lange, Christine Stadelmann, Roland Nau
BACKGROUND: Meningeosis neoplastica is a diffuse metastatic spread of tumor cells in the subarachnoid space. Although first recognized in 1870, systematic investigations regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constituents in this condition are scarce. METHODS: Routine CSF samples analyzed from 2001 to 2012 at the Laboratory of Clinical Neurochemistry, University of Göttingen, were re-evaluated. Patients, whose CSF contained malignant cells were included in this study...
March 28, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298215/nrf2-signaling-increases-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-c-mrna-transcripts-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation-stress
#16
Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell, Patrick T Ronaldson
BACKGROUND: Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps). Therefore, characterization of Mrp regulation at the BBB during H/R is required to advance these transporters as therapeutic targets. Our goal was to investigate, in vivo, regulation of Abcc1, Abcc2, and Abcc4 mRNA expression (i.e., genes encoding Mrp isoforms that transport GSH) by nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) using a well-established H/R model...
March 16, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209177/is-posture-related-craniospinal-compliance-shift-caused-by-jugular-vein-collapse-a-theoretical-analysis
#17
Manuel Gehlen, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Marianne Schmid Daners
BACKGROUND: Postural changes are related to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. While sitting up leads to a decrease in cranial CSF pressure, it also causes shifts in the craniospinal CSF volume and compliance distribution. We hypothesized that jugular vein collapse in upright posture is a major contributor to these shifts in CSF volume and compliance. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we implemented a mathematical lumped-parameter model of the CSF system and the relevant parts of the cardiovascular system...
February 16, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166789/the-mrz-reaction-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Tilman Hottenrott, Rick Dersch, Benjamin Berger, Sebastian Rauer, Daniela Huzly, Oliver Stich
BACKGROUND: The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, is absent in other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). So far, it has been uncertain whether its differential diagnostic promise extends to patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of MRZR in PPMS compared to RRMS and OIND patients...
February 7, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153044/brain-barriers-and-brain-fluid-research-in-2016-advances-challenges-and-controversies
#19
EDITORIAL
Richard F Keep, Hazel C Jones, Lester R Drewes
This editorial highlights some of the advances that occurred in relation to brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2016. It also aims to raise some of the attendant controversies and challenges in such research.
February 2, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132644/a-change-in-brain-white-matter-after-shunt-surgery-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#20
Shigenori Kanno, Makoto Saito, Tomohito Kashinoura, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Hirokazu Kikuchi, Masahito Takagi, Masaki Iwasaki, Shoki Takahashi, Etsuro Mori
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in cerebral white matter after shunt surgery in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive INPH patients whose symptoms were followed for 1 year after shunt placement and 10 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. Twenty of the initial 28 INPH patients were shunt-responsive (SR) and the other 8 patients were non-responsive (SNR)...
January 30, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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