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Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)

Heidi Fettke, Edmond M Kwan, Arun A Azad
BACKGROUND: The field of liquid biopsies in oncology is rapidly expanding, with the application of cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) showing promise in this era of precision medicine. Compared with traditional clinical and radiographic tumour monitoring methods, the analysis of ctDNA provides a minimally-invasive and technically feasible approach to assess temporal and spatial molecular evolutions of the tumour landscape. The constantly advancing technological platforms available for ctDNA extraction and analysis allow greater analytical sensitivities than ever before...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Ekjot Kaur, Jayant S Goda, Atanu Ghorai, Sameer Salunkhe, Prakash Shetty, Aliasgar V Moiyadi, Epari Sridhar, Abhishek Mahajan, Rakesh Jalali, Shilpee Dutt
PURPOSE: Previously we have shown, using a primary glioblastoma (GBM) cell model, that a subpopulation of innately radiation resistant (RR) GBM cells survive radiotherapy and form multinucleated and giant cells (MNGCs) by homotypic fusions. We also showed that MNGCs may cause relapse. Here, we set out to explore whether molecular characteristics of RR cells captured from patient-derived primary GBM cultures bear clinical relevance. METHODS: Primary cultures were derived from 19 naive GBM tumor samples...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Mª Luisa Pecero, Javier Salvador-Bofill, Sonia Molina-Pinelo
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic strategies that are used to combat breast cancer vary widely and largely depend on its clinicopathological features, including tumor subtype, size, stage, lymph node involvement, the presence of hormone receptors and/or HER2, as well as the degree of proliferative activity. Recent work has focused on improving our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this complex disease. Most of the human genome is transcribed into RNAs that do not encode proteins...
October 25, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Zhenyu Zhou, Yaorong Peng, Xiaoying Wu, Shiyu Meng, Wei Yu, Jinghua Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Jie Wang, Wenbin Li
PURPOSE: The presence of M2 macrophages within primary tumors has been correlated with a poor prognosis for many types of cancer. However, little is known about the role of M2 macrophages in gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS: The number of M2 macrophages in 78 GBC and 16 normal gallbladder tissue samples was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The THP-1 monocyte cell line was differentiated into M2 macrophages and co-cultured with GBC-derived cell lines. The effect of M2 macrophages on promoting GBC cell migration and invasion was analyzed using migration, invasion and scratch wound healing assays...
October 1, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Pouria Samadi, Sahar Saki, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Mona Pourjafar, Massoud Saidijam
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and it is responsible for more than 40,000 deaths in the United States and more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In previous decades, the development of improved screening, diagnosis and treatment methods has led to decreases in BC mortality rates. More recently, novel targeted therapeutic options, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that target specific cancer cell-related components, have been developed...
September 27, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Kyoko Kikuchi, Keely May McNamara, Yasuhiro Miki, Erina Iwabuchi, Ayako Kanai, Minoru Miyashita, Takanori Ishida, Hironobu Sasano
PURPOSE: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients generally have an adverse clinical outcome because their tumors often recur and metastasize to distant sites in the first 3 years after surgery. Therefore, it has become pivotal to identify potential factors associated with metastasis. Here, we focused on the effects of S100P and Ezrin on the trans-endothelial migration (TEM) of TNBC cells, as they have both been suggested to play a role in this process in other malignancies. METHODS: The expression of S100P and Ezrin was examined by immunohistochemistry in 58 primary TNBC samples...
September 22, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Kashif Rafiq Zahid, Shiming Han, Fuling Zhou, Umar Raza
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated deaths worldwide. Although recent studies have proposed different biomarkers for HCC progression and therapy resistance, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC progression and recurrence, as well as the identification of molecular markers with a higher diagnostic accuracy, are necessary for the development of more effective clinical management strategies. Here, we aimed to identify novel players in HCC progression...
September 20, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Rosario Castro-Oropeza, Jorge Melendez-Zajgla, Vilma Maldonado, Karla Vazquez-Santillan
BACKGROUND: Tumors contain a functional subpopulation of cells that exhibit stem cell properties. These cells, named cancer stem cells (CSCs), play significant roles in the initiation and progression of cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can act at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and translational level. As such, they may be involved in various biological processes such as DNA damage repair, inflammation, metabolism, cell survival, cell signaling, cell growth and differentiation...
September 14, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Rajesh C Rao, May P Chan, Chris A Andrews, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Advanced basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) suffer from a scarcity of effective treatment options. Previously, we found that the targetable histone methyltransferase EZH2 was upregulated in aggressive BCC subtypes, suggesting that epigenetics may play a role in BCC progression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EZH2-associated proteins and marks may be employed for the stratification of BCC histologic subtypes. METHODS: Sixty-two specimens (from 61 patients), representing more or less aggressive BCC histologic subtypes and matching non-malignant epidermal cells, were included in this study...
September 13, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Jelena Marjanovic Vicentic, Danijela Drakulic, Idoia Garcia, Vladanka Vukovic, Paula Aldaz, Nela Puskas, Igor Nikolic, Goran Tasic, Savo Raicevic, Laura Garros-Regulez, Nicolas Sampron, Michael J Atkinson, Natasa Anastasov, Ander Matheu, Milena Stevanovic
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal adult brain tumor. Despite current therapeutic strategies, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is 15 months. The development of this tumor depends on a sub-population of glioblastoma stem cells governing tumor propagation and therapy resistance. SOX3 plays a role in both normal neural development and carcinogenesis. However, little is known about its role in glioblastoma. Thus, the aim of this work was to elucidate the role of SOX3 in glioblastoma...
September 12, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Martina Mikulandra, Antonio Kobescak, Benjamin Verillaud, Pierre Busson, Tanja Matijevic Glavan
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers. Concurrent radio-chemotherapy is the standard of care for advanced tumors. However, there is a need for more efficient regimens with less side effects resulting from high doses. Therefore, we set out to explore the therapeutic potential of ternary combinations by bringing together irradiation, cis-platinum and a TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C), with the aim to reduce the dosage of each treatment. This approach is based on our previous work, which revealed a selective cytotoxic effect of TLR3 agonists against malignant cells when combined with other anti-neoplastic agents...
September 4, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Alessandro Del Gobbo, Nicola Fusco, Marco Barella, Giulia Ercoli, Amedeo Sciarra, Alessandro Palleschi, Fabio Pagni, Caterina Marchiò, Mauro Papotti, Stefano Ferrero
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (LNETs) encompass a heterogeneous group of lesions, including tumors with no or low metastatic potential, such as typical (TCs) and atypical (ACs) carcinoids, and highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinomas. To date, only a few biomarkers with prognostic impact have been identified in LNETs. Previous experimental studies have suggested that the cytokine CXCL12 might have a role in stratifying the outcome of lung cancer as well as LNET patients...
September 4, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Claudia Busonero, Stefano Leone, Fabrizio Bianchi, Filippo Acconcia
PURPOSE: Most breast cancers (BCs) express estrogen receptor α (ERα) and are treated with the endocrine therapy (ET) drugs 4OH-tamoxifen (Tam) and fulvestrant (ICI 182,780; ICI). Unfortunately, a high fraction of ET treated women relapses and becomes resistant to ET. Therefore, additional anti-BC drugs are needed. Recently, we proposed that the identification of novel anti-BC drugs can be achieved using modulation of the intracellular ERα content in BC cells as a pharmacological target...
September 4, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Eun-Hui Jeong, Tae-Gul Lee, Yun Jung Ko, Seo Yun Kim, Hye-Ryoun Kim, Hyunggee Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell lung cancer (SqCLC) is a distinct histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although the discovery of driver mutations and their targeted drugs has remarkably improved the treatment outcomes for lung adenocarcinoma, currently no such molecular target is clinically available for SqCLC. The CDKN2A locus at 9p21 encodes two alternatively spliced proteins, p16INK4a (p16) and p14ARF (p14), which function as cell cycle inhibitors. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project revealed that CDKN2A is inactivated in 72% of SqCLC cases...
September 3, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xuan Sun, Robert C G Martin, Qianqian Zheng, Russell Farmer, Harshul Pandit, Xuanyi Li, Kevin Jacob, Jian Suo, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: With a less than 5% overall survival rate, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker that is expressed in various epithelial carcinomas, including EAC. Accumulating evidence indicates that CSC subpopulations can initiate cancer development and, in addition, drive metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. It has also been reported that EpCAM up-regulation in EAC may lead to an aggressive behavior and, thus, an adverse clinical outcome...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xin Chen, Arnaud J Legrand, Siobhan Cunniffe, Samuel Hume, Mattia Poletto, Bruno Vaz, Kristijan Ramadan, Dengfu Yao, Grigory L Dianov
BACKGROUND: To deliver efficacious personalised cancer treatment, it is essential to characterise the cellular metabolism as well as the genetic stability of individual tumours. In this study, we describe a new axis between DNA repair and detoxification of aldehyde derivatives with important implications for patient prognosis and treatment. METHODS: Western blot and qPCR analyses were performed in relevant non-transformed and cancer cell lines from lung and liver tissue origin in combination with bioinformatics data mining of The Cancer Genome Atlas database from lung and hepatocellular cancer patients...
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Suhrid Banskota, Sadan Dahal, Eunju Kwon, Dong Young Kim, Jung-Ae Kim
In the original version of above mentioned article an error occurred in Fig. 2. Panel g and panel h are included in the figure legend, but have not been published in the figure.
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Kaumudi Bhawe, Deodutta Roy
BACKGROUND: Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), historically perceived as a protein regulating genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis, is now widely recognized as a multifunctional protein and as a key player in the transcriptional modulation of genes implicated in various cellular functions. Here, we present emerging data supporting novel roles of NRF1 in cancer development and progression through its interplay with the transcription factors E2F4 and MYC. To identify common human NRF1, E2F4 and MYC target genes, we analyzed the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) NRF1 ChIP-Seq data...
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Carsten Pelz, Sonja Häckel, Geo Semini, Sandra Schrötter, Willem Bintig, Sebastian Stricker, Gudrun Mrawietz, Andreas Klein, Lothar Lucka, Vadim Shmanai, Britta Eickholt, Annette Hildmann, Kerstin Danker
PURPOSE: Previous studies have identified alkyl-phospholipids as promising compounds for cancer therapy by targeting constituents of the cell membrane and different signaling pathways. We previously showed that the alkylphospholipid Inositol-C2-PAF inhibits the proliferation and migration of immortalized keratinocytes and the squamous carcinoma-derived cell line SCC-25. Here, we investigated the effect of this compound on growth and motility as well as its mode of action in mammary carcinoma-derived cell lines...
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Aleksandra M Dudek, Sita H Vermeulen, Dimitar Kolev, Anne J Grotenhuis, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Gerald W Verhaegh
PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of a bladder cancer susceptibility variant (rs710521) in a non-coding intergenic region between the TP63 and LEPREL1 genes on chromosome 3q28, suggesting a role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. In this study, we aimed to functionally characterize the 3q28 bladder cancer risk locus. METHODS: Fine-mapping was performed by focusing on the region surrounding rs710521, and variants were prioritized for further experiments using ENCODE regulatory data...
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
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