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Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)

Safieh Ebrahimi, Seyed Isaac Hashemy
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the most common types of cancer therapy. The development of chemo/radio-resistance remains, however, a major obstacle. Altered redox balances are among of the main factors mediating therapy resistance. Therefore, redox regulatory strategies are urgently needed to overcome this problem. Recently, microRNAs have been found to act as major redox regulatory factors affecting chemo/radio-resistance. MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating therapeutic resistance through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, redox-sensitive signaling pathways, cancer stem cells, DNA repair mechanisms and autophagy...
January 15, 2019: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Dingxie Liu
PURPOSE: Recurrence is a major cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related death. As yet, the accurate identification of CRC patients at high risk of recurrence is still a major clinical challenge. Previously, we found that an estrogen receptor (ER) pathway gene signature may predict disease recurrence in CRC patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential application of additional pathway-specific gene signatures in the prediction of CRC recurrence. METHODS: The activities of 26 cancer-related pathways in CRC were semi-quantified using gene signature-based Bayesian binary regression analysis, and putative associations of the pathways with cancer recurrence risk were assessed using survival analysis...
January 15, 2019: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Anmada Nayak, Sarita Das, Deepika Nayak, Chinmayee Sethy, Satya Narayan, Chanakya Nath Kundu
PURPOSE: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in women world-wide. Although the anti-metabolite 5-FU is widely used for its treatment, its clinical utility is limited due to the frequent occurrence of drug resistance during metastasis. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), present in the heterogeneous population of CC cells, are thought to contribute to this resistance. Nectin-4, a CSC marker, is known to play an important role in the cellular aggressiveness associated with metastatic CC...
January 3, 2019: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Renata L Markman, Liana P Webber, Carlos H V Nascimento Filho, Leonardo A Reis, Pablo A Vargas, Marcio A Lopes, Virgilio Zanella, Manoela D Martins, Cristiane H Squarize, Rogerio M Castilho
PURPOSE: Emerging evidence indicates that bromodomains comprise a conserved class of epigenome readers involved in cancer development and inflammation. Bromodomains are associated with epigenetic modifications of gene transcription through interactions with lysine residues of histone tails. Particularly, the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family member BRD4 has been found to be involved in the control over oncogenes, including c-MYC, and in the maintenance of downstream inflammatory processes...
December 11, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Asim Pervaiz, Michael Zepp, Saqib Mahmood, Doaa Mohamed Ali, Martin R Berger, Hassan Adwan
PURPOSE: Bone metastasis is observed in up to 70% of breast cancer patients. The currently available treatment options are palliative in nature. Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has gained attention as therapeutic target in various malignancies. Here, we investigated the effects of targeting CCR5 by its antagonist maraviroc in metastatic breast cancer cells. METHODS: In response to maraviroc exposure, cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT proliferation assay, whereas the effects on colony formation and migration were assessed using colony formation, transwell chamber migration and scratch wound healing assays, respectively...
November 19, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xin Xu, Björn Schneider
BACKGROUND: Acute leukemias (AL) with a Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangement (MLLr) represent a group of leukemic entities conferring intermediate to adverse prognoses. Multiple chromatin-associated proteins have been shown to play essential roles during the genesis of MLLr AL. Some chromatin-associated proteins function as negative regulators of MLLr AL whereas others are required for leukemic initiation or maintenance - the latter group constituting potential therapeutic targets...
November 16, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Heidi Fettke, Edmond M Kwan, Arun A Azad
BACKGROUND: The field of liquid biopsies in oncology is rapidly expanding, with the application of cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) showing promise in this era of precision medicine. Compared with traditional clinical and radiographic tumour monitoring methods, the analysis of ctDNA provides a minimally-invasive and technically feasible approach to assess temporal and spatial molecular evolutions of the tumour landscape. The constantly advancing technological platforms available for ctDNA extraction and analysis allow greater analytical sensitivities than ever before...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Ekjot Kaur, Jayant S Goda, Atanu Ghorai, Sameer Salunkhe, Prakash Shetty, Aliasgar V Moiyadi, Epari Sridhar, Abhishek Mahajan, Rakesh Jalali, Shilpee Dutt
PURPOSE: Previously we have shown, using a primary glioblastoma (GBM) cell model, that a subpopulation of innately radiation resistant (RR) GBM cells survive radiotherapy and form multinucleated and giant cells (MNGCs) by homotypic fusions. We also showed that MNGCs may cause relapse. Here, we set out to explore whether molecular characteristics of RR cells captured from patient-derived primary GBM cultures bear clinical relevance. METHODS: Primary cultures were derived from 19 naive GBM tumor samples...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Mª Luisa Pecero, Javier Salvador-Bofill, Sonia Molina-Pinelo
BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic strategies that are used to combat breast cancer vary widely and largely depend on its clinicopathological features, including tumor subtype, size, stage, lymph node involvement, the presence of hormone receptors and/or HER2, as well as the degree of proliferative activity. Recent work has focused on improving our knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this complex disease. Most of the human genome is transcribed into RNAs that do not encode proteins...
October 25, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Pouria Samadi, Sahar Saki, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Mona Pourjafar, Massoud Saidijam
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and it is responsible for more than 40,000 deaths in the United States and more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In previous decades, the development of improved screening, diagnosis and treatment methods has led to decreases in BC mortality rates. More recently, novel targeted therapeutic options, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that target specific cancer cell-related components, have been developed...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Rajesh C Rao, May P Chan, Chris A Andrews, Alon Kahana
BACKGROUND: Advanced basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) suffer from a scarcity of effective treatment options. Previously, we found that the targetable histone methyltransferase EZH2 was upregulated in aggressive BCC subtypes, suggesting that epigenetics may play a role in BCC progression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EZH2-associated proteins and marks may be employed for the stratification of BCC histologic subtypes. METHODS: Sixty-two specimens (from 61 patients), representing more or less aggressive BCC histologic subtypes and matching non-malignant epidermal cells, were included in this study...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Alessandro Del Gobbo, Nicola Fusco, Marco Barella, Giulia Ercoli, Amedeo Sciarra, Alessandro Palleschi, Fabio Pagni, Caterina Marchiò, Mauro Papotti, Stefano Ferrero
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (LNETs) encompass a heterogeneous group of lesions, including tumors with no or low metastatic potential, such as typical (TCs) and atypical (ACs) carcinoids, and highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinomas. To date, only a few biomarkers with prognostic impact have been identified in LNETs. Previous experimental studies have suggested that the cytokine CXCL12 might have a role in stratifying the outcome of lung cancer as well as LNET patients...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Claudia Busonero, Stefano Leone, Fabrizio Bianchi, Filippo Acconcia
PURPOSE: Most breast cancers (BCs) express estrogen receptor α (ERα) and are treated with the endocrine therapy (ET) drugs 4OH-tamoxifen (Tam) and fulvestrant (ICI 182,780; ICI). Unfortunately, a high fraction of ET treated women relapses and becomes resistant to ET. Therefore, additional anti-BC drugs are needed. Recently, we proposed that the identification of novel anti-BC drugs can be achieved using modulation of the intracellular ERα content in BC cells as a pharmacological target...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Eun-Hui Jeong, Tae-Gul Lee, Yun Jung Ko, Seo Yun Kim, Hye-Ryoun Kim, Hyunggee Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell lung cancer (SqCLC) is a distinct histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although the discovery of driver mutations and their targeted drugs has remarkably improved the treatment outcomes for lung adenocarcinoma, currently no such molecular target is clinically available for SqCLC. The CDKN2A locus at 9p21 encodes two alternatively spliced proteins, p16INK4a (p16) and p14ARF (p14), which function as cell cycle inhibitors. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project revealed that CDKN2A is inactivated in 72% of SqCLC cases...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xuan Sun, Robert C G Martin, Qianqian Zheng, Russell Farmer, Harshul Pandit, Xuanyi Li, Kevin Jacob, Jian Suo, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: With a less than 5% overall survival rate, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker that is expressed in various epithelial carcinomas, including EAC. Accumulating evidence indicates that CSC subpopulations can initiate cancer development and, in addition, drive metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. It has also been reported that EpCAM up-regulation in EAC may lead to an aggressive behavior and, thus, an adverse clinical outcome...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Lisett Contreras, Ruben I Calderon, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Hong-Yu Zhang, Yuan Quan, Umashankar Das, Jonathan R Dimmock, Rachid Skouta, Renato J Aguilera
PURPOSE: Previously, compounds containing a piperidone structure have been shown to be highly cytotoxic to cancer cells. Recently, we found that the piperidone compound P2 exhibits a potent anti-neoplastic activity against human breast cancer-derived cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate two piperidone compounds, P1 and P2, for their potential anti-neoplastic activity against human leukemia/lymphoma-derived cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction were evaluated using MTS, annexin V-FITC/PI and mitochondrial membrane potential polychromatic assays to confirm the mode of action of the piperidone compounds...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Prateek Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar
PURPOSE: Despite a growing body of evidence indicating a potential efficacy of the anti-diabetic metformin as anti-cancer agent, the exact mechanism underlying this efficacy has remained largely unknown. Here, we aimed at assessing putative mechanisms associated with the ability of metformin to reduce the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. METHODS: A battery of in vitro assays including MTT, colony formation, NBT and scratch wound healing assays were performed to assess the viability, proliferation, anti-oxidative potential and migration of breast cancer-derived MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells, respectively...
December 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Zhenyu Zhou, Yaorong Peng, Xiaoying Wu, Shiyu Meng, Wei Yu, Jinghua Zhao, Heyun Zhang, Jie Wang, Wenbin Li
PURPOSE: The presence of M2 macrophages within primary tumors has been correlated with a poor prognosis for many types of cancer. However, little is known about the role of M2 macrophages in gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS: The number of M2 macrophages in 78 GBC and 16 normal gallbladder tissue samples was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The THP-1 monocyte cell line was differentiated into M2 macrophages and co-cultured with GBC-derived cell lines. The effect of M2 macrophages on promoting GBC cell migration and invasion was analyzed using migration, invasion and scratch wound healing assays...
October 1, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Xin Chen, Arnaud J Legrand, Siobhan Cunniffe, Samuel Hume, Mattia Poletto, Bruno Vaz, Kristijan Ramadan, Dengfu Yao, Grigory L Dianov
BACKGROUND: To deliver efficacious personalised cancer treatment, it is essential to characterise the cellular metabolism as well as the genetic stability of individual tumours. In this study, we describe a new axis between DNA repair and detoxification of aldehyde derivatives with important implications for patient prognosis and treatment. METHODS: Western blot and qPCR analyses were performed in relevant non-transformed and cancer cell lines from lung and liver tissue origin in combination with bioinformatics data mining of The Cancer Genome Atlas database from lung and hepatocellular cancer patients...
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Suhrid Banskota, Sadan Dahal, Eunju Kwon, Dong Young Kim, Jung-Ae Kim
In the original version of above mentioned article an error occurred in Fig. 2. Panel g and panel h are included in the figure legend, but have not been published in the figure.
October 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
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