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Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316139/changes-in-body-composition-and-metabolic-profile-during-interleukin-6-inhibition-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296247/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-a-pilot-study
#2
H Alexander Ebhardt, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Alain Schilb, Neil Johns, Carolyn A Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, Ruedi Aebersold, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294567/growth-hormone-secretagogues-prevent-dysregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-calcium-homeostasis-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#3
Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonietta Mele, Michela De Bellis, Sabata Pierno, Francesco Rana, Adriano Fonzino, Roberta Caloiero, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Arcangela Giustino, Maria Addolorata Mariggiò, Mauro Coluccia, Domenico Tricarico, Marcello Diego Lograno, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251839/urolithin-b-a-newly-identified-regulator-of-skeletal-muscle-mass
#4
Julie Rodriguez, Nicolas Pierre, Damien Naslain, Françoise Bontemps, Daneel Ferreira, Fabian Priem, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
BACKGROUND: The control of muscle size is an essential feature of health. Indeed, skeletal muscle atrophy leads to reduced strength, poor quality of life, and metabolic disturbances. Consequently, strategies aiming to attenuate muscle wasting and to promote muscle growth during various (pathological) physiological states like sarcopenia, immobilization, malnutrition, or cachexia are needed to address this extensive health issue. In this study, we tested the effects of urolithin B, an ellagitannin-derived metabolite, on skeletal muscle growth...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251827/muscle-wasting-in-young-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#5
Marjan Hajahmadi, Sara Shemshadi, Ehsan Khalilipur, Ahmad Amin, Sepideh Taghavi, Majid Maleki, Hadi Malek, Nasim Naderi
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting can be accelerated by chronic diseases such as heart failure and is one of the major causes of disability, morbidity, and mortality in this population. We aimed to investigate the incidence of muscle wasting and its associated factors in dilated cardiomyopathy patients younger than 55 years of age. METHODS: Between April 2014 and December 2015, all symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy who were referred to heart failure clinic were included in our study...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247593/c-reactive-protein-symptoms-and-activity-of-daily-living-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-receiving-palliative-care
#6
Koji Amano, Isseki Maeda, Tatsuya Morita, Mika Baba, Tomofumi Miura, Takashi Hama, Ichiro Mori, Nobuhisa Nakajima, Tomohiro Nishi, Hiroki Sakurai, Satofumi Shimoyama, Takuya Shinjo, Hiroto Shirayama, Takeshi Yamada, Shigeki Ono, Taketoshi Ozawa, Ryo Yamamoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Hideki Shishido, Hiroya Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: The association between C-reactive protein (CRP) level, symptoms, and activities of daily living (ADL) in advanced cancer patients is unclear. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort study consisted of 2426 advanced cancer patients referred to palliative care settings was conducted to examine the cross-sectional relationships between CRP level, symptoms, and ADL disabilities. Laboratory data, symptoms, ADL, and manual muscle testing (MMT) results were obtained at baseline...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244261/effect-of-beta-adrenergic-blockade-with-carvedilol-on-cachexia-in-severe-chronic-heart-failure-results-from-the-copernicus-trial
#7
Andrew L Clark, Andrew J S Coats, Henry Krum, Hugo A Katus, Paul Mohacsi, Damien Salekin, Melissa K Schultz, Milton Packer, Stefan D Anker
BACKGROUND: Cardiac cachexia frequently accompanies the progression of heart failure despite the use of effective therapies for left ventricular dysfunction. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of weight loss, but the effects of sympathetic antagonism on cachexia are not well defined. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated changes in body weight in 2289 patients with heart failure who had dyspnoea at rest or on minimal exertion and a left ventricular ejection fraction <25%...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198113/early-body-composition-but-not-body-mass-is-associated-with-future-accelerated-decline-in-muscle-quality
#8
Elisa Fabbri, Nancy Chiles Shaffer, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Michelle D Shardell, Marco Zoli, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: Muscle quality (MQ) or strength-to-mass ratio declines with aging, but the rate of MQ change with aging is highly heterogeneous across individuals. The identification of risk factors for accelerated MQ decline may offer clues to identity the underpinning physiological mechanisms and indicate targets for prevention and treatment. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we tested whether measures of body mass and body composition are associated with differential rates of changes in MQ with aging...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150387/assessment-of-maximal-handgrip-strength-how-many-attempts-are-needed
#9
Esmee M Reijnierse, Nynke de Jong, Marijke C Trappenburg, Gerard Jan Blauw, Gillian Butler-Browne, Helena Gapeyeva, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Jamie S McPhee, Marco V Narici, Sarianna Sipilä, Lauri Stenroth, Rob C van Lummel, Mirjam Pijnappels, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to obtain maximal HGS. METHODS: Three cohorts (939 individuals) differing in age and health status were included. HGS was assessed three times and explored as continuous and dichotomous variable...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150400/tissue-sodium-accumulation-and-peripheral-insulin-sensitivity-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#10
Serpil Muge Deger, Ping Wang, Rachel Fissell, Charles D Ellis, Cindy Booker, Feng Sha, Jennifer L Morse, Thomas G Stewart, John C Gore, Edward D Siew, Jens Titze, Talat Alp Ikizler
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that sodium (Na(+) ) is stored in the muscle and skin without commensurate water retention in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we hypothesized that excessive Na(+) accumulation would be associated with abnormalities in peripheral insulin action. METHODS: Eleven MHD patients and eight controls underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamp studies to measure glucose (GDR) and leucine disposal rates (LDR), as well as lower left leg (23) Na magnetic resonance imaging to measure Na(+) concentration in the muscle and skin tissue...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145079/bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-diagnosing-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-what-are-we-really-estimating
#11
EDITORIAL
Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Steven B Heymsfield
As reference methods are not available for identifying low skeletal muscle mass in clinical practice, the European Group on Sarcopenia in Older People the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and the International Consensus for Cancer Cachexia guidelines accept bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an option for sarcopenia and cachexia assessment. Using different BIA equations, several components that represent 'muscularity' can be assessed. Total skeletal muscle mass or appendicular skeletal muscle mass normalized in relation to height (skeletal muscle mass index or appendicular skeletal muscle index, respectively) is the most common term used in the consensus...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093897/presence-of-early-stage-cancer-does-not-impair-the-early-protein-metabolic-response-to-major-surgery
#12
Mariëlle P K J Engelen, V Suzanne Klimberg, Arianna Allasia, Nicolaas Ep Deutz
BACKGROUND: Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058815/small-rnaome-profiling-from-human-skeletal-muscle-novel-mirnas-and-their-targets-associated-with-cancer-cachexia
#13
Ashok Narasimhan, Sunita Ghosh, Cynthia Stretch, Russell Greiner, Oliver F Bathe, Vickie Baracos, Sambasivarao Damaraju
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene (mRNA) expression. Although the pathological role of miRs have been studied in muscle wasting conditions such as myotonic and muscular dystrophy, their roles in cancer cachexia (CC) are still emerging. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are (i) to profile human skeletal muscle expressed miRs; (ii) to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRs between cachectic and non-cachectic cancer patients; (iii) to identify mRNA targets for the DE miRs to gain mechanistic insights; and (iv) to investigate if miRs show potential prognostic and predictive value...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052593/panoramic-ultrasound-a-novel-and-valid-tool-for-monitoring-change-in-muscle-mass
#14
Jessica M Scott, David S Martin, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Timothy Matz, Timothy Caine, Meghan Downs, Kyle Hackney, Roxanne Buxton, Jeffrey W Ryder, Lori Ploutz-Snyder
BACKGROUND: The strong link between reduced muscle mass and morbidity and mortality highlights the urgent need for simple techniques that can monitor change in skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Our objective was to examine the validity of panoramic ultrasound to detect change in quadriceps and gastrocnemius size in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects randomized to 70 days of bed rest (BR) with or without exercise. METHODS: Panoramic ultrasound and MRI images of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were acquired on the right leg of 27 subjects (26 male, 1 female; age: 34...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052576/pre-operative-oral-nutritional-supplementation-with-dietary-advice-versus-dietary-advice-alone-in-weight-losing-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Sorrel T Burden, Debra J Gibson, Simon Lal, James Hill, Mark Pilling, Mattias Soop, Aswatha Ramesh, Chris Todd
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative weight loss has been consistently associated with increased post-operative morbidity. The study aims to determine if pre-operative oral nutritional supplements (ONSs) with dietary advice reduce post-operative complications. METHODS: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. People with colorectal cancer scheduled for surgery with pre-operative weight loss >1 kg/3-6 months were randomized by using stratified blocks (1:1 ratio) in six hospitals (1 November 2013-28 February 2015)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044437/body-mass-index-change-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-is-associated-with-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-1
#16
Merry-Lynn Noelle McDonald, Sungho Won, Manuel Mattheisen, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Erica Rutten, Megan Hardin, Wai-Ki Yip, Stephen I Rennard, David A Lomas, Emiel F M Wouters, Alvar Agusti, Richard Casaburi, Christoph P Lange, George O'Connor, Craig P Hersh, Edwin K Silverman
BACKGROUND: There have been a number of candidate gene association studies of cancer cachexia-related traits, but no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been published to date. Cachexia presents in patients with a number of complex traits, including both cancer and COPD. The objective of the current investigation was to search for a shared genetic aetiology for change in body mass index (ΔBMI) among cancer and COPD by using GWAS data in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS: A linear mixed effects model accounting for age, sex, and change in smoking status was used to calculate ΔBMI in participants over 40 years of age with three consecutive BMI time points (n = 4162)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897416/curcumin-an-effective-adjunct-in-patients-with-statin-associated-muscle-symptoms
#17
REVIEW
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nikou Saboni, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach
In spite of the unequivocal efficacy of statins in reducing primary and secondary cardiovascular events, the use of these drugs in a considerable number of patients is limited because of statin intolerance, mainly statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). SAMS encompass a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, including mild muscular aching and other types of myalgias, myopathy with the significant elevation of creatine kinase, and the rare but life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Among several pathophysiologic mechanisms of SAMS, mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be one of the main one...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897415/sarcopenia-among-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-weighing-the-evidence
#18
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Juan J Carrero, Glenn M Chertow, George A Kaysen, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on how best to define low muscle mass in patients with end-stage renal disease. Use of muscle mass normalized to height-squared has been suggested by geriatric societies but may underestimate sarcopenia, particularly in the setting of excess adiposity. We compared four definitions of low muscle mass in a prevalent hemodialysis cohort. METHODS: ACTIVE/ADIPOSE enrolled prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis from the San Francisco and Atlanta areas from June 2009 to August 2011...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897412/systemic-inflammation-body-composition-and-physical-performance-in-old-community-dwellers
#19
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Marco Pahor, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, changes in body composition, and declining physical function are hallmarks of the ageing process. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of the relationship among these age-related phenomena via multivariate modelling. METHODS: Thirty-five old adults (OAs) and 17 young adults (YAs) were enrolled. The volume of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the thigh was quantified by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897410/androgen-deprivation-causes-selective-deficits-in-the-biomechanical-leg-muscle-function-of-men-during-walking-a-prospective-case-control-study
#20
Ada S Cheung, Hans Gray, Anthony G Schache, Rudolf Hoermann, Daryl Lim Joon, Jeffrey D Zajac, Marcus G Pandy, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Although muscle mass declines with testosterone deficiency in men, previous studies of muscle function have not demonstrated consistent deficits, likely due to relatively insensitive methodology. Our objective was to determine the effects of testosterone deprivation on the biomechanical function of individual lower-limb muscles. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month prospective, observational case-control study of 34 men newly commencing androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) for prostate cancer and 29 age-matched prostate cancer controls...
February 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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