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Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

Maria Papageorgiou, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Rudolph Schutte
BACKGROUND: Despite several muscle mass measures being used in the current definitions of sarcopenia, their usefulness is uncertain because of limited data on their association with health outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of different muscle mass measures for predicting incident osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study included data from 149 166 participants (aged 60.3 ± 5.5 years) as part of the UK Biobank cohort...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Huang-Jen Chen, Ching-Chia Wang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu
BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an extremely electrophilic aldehyde. Increased urinary acrolein adducts have been found in type 2 diabetic patients and people with a smoking habit. The increased blood acrolein was shown in patients who received the cancer drug cyclophosphamide. Both diabetes and smoking are risk factors for skeletal muscle wasting or atrophy. Acrolein has been found to induce myotube atrophy in vitro. The in vitro and in vivo effects and mechanisms of acrolein on myogenesis and the in vivo effect of acrolein on muscle wasting still remain unclear...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
David P J van Dijk, Matthew Krill, Farshad Farshidfar, Ting Li, Sander S Rensen, Steven W M Olde Damink, Elijah Dixon, Francis R Sutherland, Chad G Ball, Vera C Mazurak, Vickie E Baracos, Oliver F Bathe
BACKGROUND: Most prognostic scoring systems for colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) account for factors related to tumour biology. Little is known about the effects of the host phenotype to the tumour. Our objective was to delineate the relationship of systemic inflammation and body composition features [i.e. low skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and low visceral adipose tissue (VAT)], two well-described host phenotypes in cancer. METHODS: Clinical data and pre-operative blood samples were collected from 99 patients who underwent resection of CRLM...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Roland Veltkamp, Stefan Uhlmann, Marilena Marinescu, Carsten Sticht, Daniel Finke, Norbert Gretz, Herrmann-Josef Gröne, Hugo A Katus, Johannes Backs, Lorenz H Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Stroke can lead to cardiac dysfunction in patients, but the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the injured brain and the heart are poorly understood. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of experimental murine stroke on cardiac function and molecular signalling in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were subjected to filament-induced left middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 or 60 min or sham surgery and underwent repetitive micro-echocardiography...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Robert H Schüchen, Martin Mücke, Milka Marinova, Dmitrij Kravchenko, Winfried Häuser, Lukas Radbruch, Rupert Conrad
Non-opioid analgesics are widely used for pain relief in palliative medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence-based recommendations addressing the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of non-opioids in this field. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on current evidence can provide a basis for sound recommendations in clinical practice. A database search for controlled trials on the use of non-opioids in adult palliative patients was performed in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE from inception to 18 February 2018...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Brianna Bourgeois, Bo Fan, Neil Johannsen, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Bennett K Ng, Markus J Sommer, John A Shepherd, Steven B Heymsfield
BACKGROUND: Measures of skeletal muscle function decline at a faster rate with ageing than do indices of skeletal muscle mass. These observations have been attributed to age-related changes in muscle quality, another functional determinant separate from skeletal muscle mass. This study tested the hypothesis that improved predictions of skeletal muscle strength can be accomplished by combining clinically available measures of skeletal muscle mass and quality. METHODS: The participants included 146 healthy adult (age ≥ 18 years, range 18-77 years; X ± SD 47 ± 17 years and body mass index 16...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Daryl P Fields, Brandon M Roberts, Alec K Simon, Andrew R Judge, David D Fuller, Gordon S Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is an insidious process characterized by muscle atrophy with associated motor deficits, including diaphragm weakness and respiratory insufficiency. Although neuropathology contributes to muscle wasting and motor deficits in many clinical disorders, neural involvement in cachexia-linked respiratory insufficiency has not been explored. METHODS: We first used whole-body plethysmography to assess ventilatory responses to hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflex activation in mice inoculated with the C26 colon adenocarcinoma cell line...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Matthew F Jacques, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Neil D Reeves, Georgina K Stebbings, Jonathon Smith, Christopher I Morse
BACKGROUND: Muscular dystrophy (MD) is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness, yet few comparisons to non-MD controls (CTRL) of muscle strength and size in this adult population exist. Physical activity (PA) is promoted to maintain health and muscle strength within MD; however, PA reporting in adults with MD is limited to recall data, and its impact on muscle strength is seldom explored. METHODS: This study included 76 participants: 16 non-MD (CTRL, mean age 35...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Francesca Riuzzi, Guglielmo Sorci, Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Laura Salvadori, Rosario Donato
Emerging evidence suggests that the signalling of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) is critical for skeletal muscle physiology controlling both the activity of muscle precursors during skeletal muscle development and the correct time of muscle regeneration after acute injury. On the other hand, the aberrant re-expression/activity of RAGE in adult skeletal muscle is a hallmark of muscle wasting that occurs in response to ageing, genetic disorders, inflammatory conditions, cancer, and metabolic alterations...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tateaki Naito, Shuichi Mitsunaga, Satoru Miura, Noriatsu Tatematsu, Toshimi Inano, Takako Mouri, Tetsuya Tsuji, Takashi Higashiguchi, Akio Inui, Taro Okayama, Teiko Yamaguchi, Ayumu Morikawa, Naoharu Mori, Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Strasser, Katsuhiro Omae, Keita Mori, Koichi Takayama
BACKGROUND: Combinations of exercise and nutritional interventions might improve the functional prognosis for cachectic cancer patients. However, high attrition and poor compliance with interventions limit their efficacy. We aimed to test the feasibility of the early induction of new multimodal interventions specific for elderly patients with advanced cancer Nutrition and Exercise Treatment for Advanced Cancer (NEXTAC) programme. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective single-arm study...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Lena Pinzur, Levent Akyuez, Lilia Levdansky, Michal Blumenfeld, Evgenia Volinsky, Zami Aberman, Petra Reinke, Racheli Ofir, Hans-Dieter Volk, Raphael Gorodetsky
BACKGROUND: Most current cell-based regenerative therapies are based on the indirect induction of the affected tissues repair. Xenogeneic cell-based treatment with expanded human placenta stromal cells, predominantly from fetal origin (PLX-RAD cells), were shown to mitigate significantly acute radiation syndrome (ARS) following high dose irradiation in mice, with expedited regain of weight loss and haematopoietic function. The current mechanistic study explores the indirect effect of the secretome of PLX-RAD cells in the rescue of the irradiated mice...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Peter E Penson, G B John Mancini, Peter P Toth, Seth S Martin, Gerald F Watts, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND: The 'placebo effect' and 'nocebo effect' are phenomena whereby beneficial (placebo) or adverse (nocebo) effects result from the expectation that an inert substance will relieve or cause a particular symptom. These terms are often inappropriately applied to effects experienced on drug therapy. Quantifying the magnitude of placebo and nocebo effects in clinical trials is problematic because it requires a 'no treatment' arm. To overcome the difficulties associated with measuring the nocebo effect, and the fact that its definition refers to inert compounds, rather than drugs, we introduce the concept of 'drucebo' (a combination of DRUg and plaCEBO or noCEBO) to relate to beneficial or adverse effects of a drug, which result from expectation and are not pharmacologically caused by the drug...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Maria Conte, Andrea Armani, Giuseppe Conte, Andrea Serra, Claudio Franceschi, Marcello Mele, Marco Sandri, Stefano Salvioli
BACKGROUND: Perilipin2 (Plin2) belongs to a family of five highly conserved proteins, known for their role in lipid storage. Recent data indicate that Plin2 has an important function in cell metabolism and is involved in several human pathologies, including liver steatosis and Type II diabetes. An association between Plin2 and lower muscle mass and strength has been found in elderly and inactive people, but its function in skeletal muscle is still unclear. Here, we addressed the role of Plin2 in adult muscle by gain and loss of function experiments...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nelson Inácio Pinto Neto, Ariene Soares de Pinho Murari, Lila Missae Oyama, José Pinhata Otoch, Paulo Sérgio Martins Alcântara, Flavio Tokeshi, Raquel Galvão Figuerêdo, Michele Joana Alves, Joanna Darck Carola Correia Lima, Emídio Marques de Matos-Neto, Marilia Seelaender, Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome, often irreversible, that affects patients with cancer influenced, in part, by the inflammatory condition. Peritumoural adipose tissue produces adipokines and angiogenic, apoptotic, and growth factors; given the possible crosstalk between the peritumoural adipose tissue and tumour, these may play an important role in cancer biology and carcinogenesis. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors produced by peritumoural adipose tissue in a cohort of 16 colorectal cancer patients with either weight-stable cancer (WSC; n = 7) or CC (n = 9)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Susan C Kandarian, Rachel L Nosacka, Andrea E Delitto, Andrew R Judge, Sarah M Judge, John D Ganey, Jesse D Moreira, Robert W Jackman
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a metabolic wasting syndrome that is strongly associated with a poor prognosis. The initiating factors causing fat and muscle loss are largely unknown. Previously, we found that leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) secreted by C26 colon carcinoma cells was responsible for atrophy in treated myotubes. In the present study, we tested whether C26 tumour-derived LIF is required for cancer cachexia in mice by knockout of Lif in C26 cells. METHODS: A C26 Lif null tumour cell line was made using CRISPR-Cas9...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Maryam Ebadi, Connie W Wang, Jennifer C Lai, Srinivasan Dasarathy, Matthew R Kappus, Michael A Dunn, Elizabeth J Carey, Aldo J Montano-Loza
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass, associates with mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Skeletal muscle area in a single computed tomography image at the level of the third lumbar vertebrate (L3) is a valid representative of whole body muscle mass. Controversy remains regarding applicability of psoas muscle to identify patients at greater risk of mortality. We aimed to determine psoas muscle index (PMI) association with skeletal muscle index (SMI) and to evaluate the capacity of PMI to predict liver transplant waitlist mortality...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Alexandra Grimm, Heiko Meyer, Marcel D Nickel, Mathias Nittka, Esther Raithel, Oliver Chaudry, Andreas Friedberger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Kemmler, Klaus Engelke, Harald H Quick
BACKGROUND: Changes in muscle fat composition as for example observed in sarcopenia or muscular dystrophy affect physical performance and muscular function, like strength and power. The purpose of the present study is to measure the repeatability of Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing muscle volume and fat in the thigh. Furthermore, repeatability of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for assessing muscle fat is determined. METHODS: A prototype 6-point Dixon MRI method was used to measure muscle volume and muscle proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in the left thigh...
September 16, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jessica González-Sánchez, Agustín Sánchez-Temprano, Tania Cid-Díaz, Regina Pabst-Fernández, Carlos S Mosteiro, Rosalía Gallego, Ruben Nogueiras, Xesús Casabiell, Gillian S Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, José Luis Relova, Yolanda Pazos, Jesús P Camiña
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to test the therapeutic potential of obestatin, an autocrine anabolic factor regulating skeletal muscle repair, to ameliorate the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) phenotype. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we characterized the ageing-related preproghrelin/GPR39 expression patterns in tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of 4-, 8-, and 18-week-old mdx mice (n = 3/group) and established the effects of obestatin administration at this level in 8-week-old mdx mice (n = 5/group)...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Seong Hee Kang, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Soon Koo Baik, Seung Hwan Cha, Moon Young Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia has been reported as a prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of sarcopenia to the conventional prognostic factors [Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG)] in cirrhosis. METHODS: Overall, 452 patients with cirrhosis were stratified by MELD score (low < 15, high ≥ 15), CTP class, and HVPG [non-clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH), 6-9 mmHg; CSPH, 10-19 mmHg; extremely severe PH, ≥20 mmHg]...
October 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Kendra Huseman, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Holly Van Remmen, Tyrone A Washington, Michael P Wiggs, Nicholas P Greene
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia occurs in approximately 80% of cancer patients and is a key contributor to cancer-related death. The mechanisms controlling development of tumour-induced muscle wasting are not fully elucidated. Specifically, the progression and development of cancer cachexia are underexplored. Therefore, we examined skeletal muscle protein turnover throughout the development of cancer cachexia in tumour-bearing mice. METHODS: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was injected into the hind flank of C57BL6/J mice at 8 weeks age with tumour allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks and compared with PBS injected control...
October 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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