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Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

Fabrizio Pin, Rafael Barreto, Yukiko Kitase, Sumegha Mitra, Carlie E Erne, Leah J Novinger, Teresa A Zimmers, Marion E Couch, Lynda F Bonewald, Andrea Bonetto
BACKGROUND: Cachexia frequently occurs in women with advanced ovarian cancer (OC), along with enhanced inflammation. Despite being responsible for one third of all cancer deaths, cachexia is generally under-studied in OC due to a limited number of pre-clinical animal models. We aimed to address this gap by characterizing the cachectic phenotype in a mouse model of OC. METHODS: Nod SCID gamma mice (n = 6-10) were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 107 ES-2 human OC cells to mimic disseminated abdominal disease...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Marine Gueugneau, Donatienne d'Hose, Caroline Barbé, Marie de Barsy, Pascale Lause, Dominique Maiter, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne, Laurent Schaeffer, Yann-Gaël Gangloff, Christophe Chambon, Cécile Coudy-Gandilhon, Daniel Béchet, Jean-Paul Thissen
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GC) play a major role in muscle atrophy. As skeletal muscle is a secretory organ, characterization of the muscle secretome elicited by muscle atrophy should allow to better understand the cellular mechanisms and to identify circulating biomarkers of this condition. Our project aimed to identify the changes in the muscle secretome associated with GC-induced muscle atrophy and susceptible to translate into circulation. METHODS: We have identified the GC-induced changes in the secretome of C2 C12 muscle cells by proteomic analysis, and then, we have determined how these changes translate into the circulation of mice or human subjects exposed to high concentrations of GC...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Joshua K Kays, Safi Shahda, Melissa Stanley, Teresa M Bell, Bert H O'Neill, Marc D Kohli, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris, Teresa A Zimmers
BACKGROUND: By the traditional definition of unintended weight loss, cachexia develops in ~80% of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, we measure the longitudinal body composition changes in patients with advanced PDAC undergoing 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 53 patients with advanced PDAC on 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin as first line therapy at Indiana University Hospital from July 2010 to August 2015...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Robbert van der Pijl, Joshua Strom, Stefan Conijn, Johan Lindqvist, Siegfried Labeit, Henk Granzier, Coen Ottenheijm
BACKGROUND: Titin is an elastic sarcomeric filament that has been proposed to play a key role in mechanosensing and trophicity of muscle. However, evidence for this proposal is scarce due to the lack of appropriate experimental models to directly test the role of titin in mechanosensing. METHODS: We used unilateral diaphragm denervation (UDD) in mice, an in vivo model in which the denervated hemidiaphragm is passively stretched by the contralateral, innervated hemidiaphragm and hypertrophy rapidly occurs...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Riyo Komatsu, Tatsuma Okazaki, Satoru Ebihara, Makoto Kobayashi, Yoko Tsukita, Mayumi Nihei, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Kaijun Niu, Takae Ebihara, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Repetition of the onset of aspiration pneumonia in aged patients is common and causes chronic inflammation. The inflammation induces proinflammatory cytokine production and atrophy in the muscles. The proinflammatory cytokines induce muscle proteolysis by activating calpains and caspase-3, followed by further degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy is another pathway of muscle atrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between aspiration pneumonia and muscle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Aldo Scafoglieri, Jan Pieter Clarys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Justin C Brown, Bette J Caan, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Erin Weltzien, Jingjie Xiao, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Adrienne Castillo, Marilyn L Kwan, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND: Muscle abnormalities such as low muscle mass and low muscle radiodensity are well known risk factors for unfavourable cancer prognosis. However, little is known in regard to the degree and impact of longitudinal changes in muscle mass and radiodensity within the context of cancer. Here, we explore the relationship between muscle wasting and mortality in a large population-based study of patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 1924 patients with stage I-III CRC who underwent surgical resection in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health System were included...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Daniel R Moore, Ryan P Kelly, Michaela C Devries, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise, Adam P Johnston
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia is accelerated by physical inactivity. Low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) counters inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in older adults, but changes in muscle fibre morphology are unstudied. We aimed to determine the impact of LLRE during short-term inactivity (step-reduction) on muscle fibre size and capillarity as well as satellite cell (SC) content in older skeletal muscle. METHODS: Fourteen older (~71 years) male adults underwent 14 days of step reduction (<1500 steps/day) while performing six sessions of LLRE (~30% maximal strength) with one leg (SR + EX) while the contralateral leg served as an untrained control (SR)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nicole Ebner, Maciej Banach, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tuuli A Nissinen, Jaakko Hentilä, Fabio Penna, Anita Lampinen, Juulia H Lautaoja, Vasco Fachada, Tanja Holopainen, Olli Ritvos, Riikka Kivelä, Juha J Hulmi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. METHODS: The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Gregg Czerwieniec, Chancy Fessler, Po-Yin Anne Wong, Salena Killion, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, William J Evans
BACKGROUND: Muscle mass can be measured directly in vivo by isotope dilution, using Creatine-(methyl-d3 ) monohydrate (D3 -Cr) by mouth followed by measurement of the steady-state enrichment of D3 -creatinine (D3 -Crn) in urine. Isotope dilution methods require knowledge of the amount of tracer delivered to the pool of interest. In a subset of human subjects, a small amount of orally administered D3 -Cr 'spills' into urine after absorption and prior to transport into skeletal muscle cells...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Traver J Wright, E Lichar Dillon, William J Durham, Albert Chamberlain, Kathleen M Randolph, Christopher Danesi, Astrid M Horstman, Charles R Gilkison, Maurice Willis, Gwyn Richardson, Sandra S Hatch, Daniel C Jupiter, Susan McCammon, Randall J Urban, Melinda Sheffield-Moore
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia negatively impacts cancer-related treatment options, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality, yet no established therapies exist. We investigated the anabolic properties of testosterone to limit the loss of body mass in late stage cancer patients undergoing standard of care cancer treatment. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial was undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic role of adjunct testosterone to limit loss of body mass in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix or head and neck undergoing standard of care treatment including chemotherapy and chemoradiation...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Paulo V G Alabarse, Priscila S Lora, Jordana M S Silva, Rafaela C E Santo, Eduarda C Freitas, Mayara S de Oliveira, Andrelise S Almeida, Mônica Immig, Vivian O N Teixeira, Lidiane I Filippin, Ricardo M Xavier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic polyarticular synovitis and presents systemic changes that impact quality of life, such as impaired muscle function, seen in up to 66% of the patients. This can progress to severely debilitating state known as rheumatoid cachexia-without loss of fat mass and body weight-for which there is little consensus in terms of diagnosis or treatment. This study aims to evaluate whether the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) animal model also develops clinical and functional features characteristic of rheumatoid cachexia...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Maria Maldonado, David L Molfese, Humsini Viswanath, Kaylah Curtis, Ashley Jones, Teresa G Hayes, Marco Marcelli, Sanjay Mediwala, Philip Baldwin, Jose M Garcia, Ramiro Salas
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the brain mechanisms underlying cancer-associated weight loss (C-WL) in humans despite this condition negatively affecting their quality of life and survival. We tested the hypothesis that patients with C-WL have abnormal connectivity in homeostatic and hedonic brain pathways together with altered brain activity during food reward. METHODS: In 12 patients with cancer and 12 healthy controls, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC, resting brain activity observed through changes in blood flow in the brain which creates a blood oxygen level-dependent signal that can be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to compare three brain regions hypothesized to play a role in C-WL: the hypothalamus (homeostatic), the nucleus accumbens (hedonic), and the habenula (an important regulator of reward)...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Michał Tkaczyszyn, Marcin Drozd, Kinga Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Irena Flinta, Kamil Kobak, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa A Jankowska
BACKGROUND: Skeletal and respiratory muscle dysfunction constitutes an important pathophysiological feature of heart failure (HF). We assessed the relationships between respiratory muscle function, skeletal muscle mass, and physical fitness in men with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), and investigated the hypothesis of whether iron deficiency (ID) contributes to respiratory muscle dysfunction in these patients. METHODS: We examined 53 male outpatients with stable HFrEF without asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (age: 64 ± 10 years; New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I/II/III: 36/51/13%; ischaemic aetiology: 83%; all with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) and 10 middle-aged healthy men (control group)...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Willemke Nijholt, Harriët Jager-Wittenaar, Aldo Scafoglieri, Johannes S M Hobbelen, Cees van der Schans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yusuke Osawa, Stephanie A Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci
BACKGROUND: With aging, the ability to generate muscle force decreases, contributing to declines in physical functions such as walking. While most studies assess muscle force by peak torque, the rate of torque development (RTD) reflects a dynamic component of muscle performance that is important for physical function. Using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we assessed whether RTD adds significantly to peak torque in associations with lower extremity performance. If so, RTD may help identify weak older adults for screening and intervention...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jared W Skinner, Dana M Otzel, Andrew Bowser, Daniel Nargi, Sanjay Agarwal, Mark D Peterson, Baiming Zou, Stephen E Borst, Joshua F Yarrow
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength responses have been reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) administering testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to middle-aged and older men. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether TRT improves FFM and muscle strength in middle-aged and older men and whether the muscular responses vary by TRT administration route. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted from inception through 31 March 2017 to identify double-blind RCTs that compared intramuscular or transdermal TRT vs...
June 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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