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Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

Jared W Skinner, Dana M Otzel, Andrew Bowser, Daniel Nargi, Sanjay Agarwal, Mark D Peterson, Baiming Zou, Stephen E Borst, Joshua F Yarrow
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength responses have been reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) administering testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to middle-aged and older men. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether TRT improves FFM and muscle strength in middle-aged and older men and whether the muscular responses vary by TRT administration route. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted from inception through 31 March 2017 to identify double-blind RCTs that compared intramuscular or transdermal TRT vs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Vicente Ruiz-García, Eduardo López-Briz, Rafael Carbonell-Sanchis, Sylvia Bort-Martí, José Luis Gonzálvez-Perales
In 1993, megestrol acetate (MA) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, or unexplained weight loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown, and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic, elderly, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is under investigation. This is an updated version of a Cochrane systematic review first published in 2005 and later updated in 2013 entitled 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Zong-Kang Zhang, Jie Li, Daogang Guan, Chao Liang, Zhenjian Zhuo, Jin Liu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Bao-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle atrophy induced by either aging (sarcopenia) or mechanical unloading is associated with serious health consequences. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated as important regulators in numerous physiological and pathological processes. METHODS: Microarray analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed lncRNAs in skeletal muscle between adult and aged mice. The most decreased lncRNA in aged skeletal muscle was identified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Roman Mayr, Michael Gierth, Florian Zeman, Marieke Reiffen, Philipp Seeger, Felix Wezel, Armin Pycha, Evi Comploj, Matteo Bonatti, Manuel Ritter, Bas W G van Rhijn, Maximilian Burger, Christian Bolenz, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Thomas Martini
OBJECTIVE: A multicentre study was conducted to investigate the impact of sarcopenia as an independent predictor of oncological outcome after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. METHODS: In total, 500 patients with available digital computed tomography scans of the abdomen obtained within 90 days before surgery were identified. The lumbar skeletal muscle index was measured using pre-operative computed tomography. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Mónica Patricia Cala, María Teresa Agulló-Ortuño, Elena Prieto-García, Carolina González-Riano, Lucía Parrilla-Rubio, Coral Barbas, Carmen Vanesa Díaz-García, Antonia García, Cristina Pernaut, Jorge Adeva, María Carmen Riesco, Francisco Javier Rupérez, Jose Antonio Lopez-Martin
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a metabolic syndrome that affects up to 50-80% of cancer patients. The pathophysiology is characterized by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism, including systemic inflammation and negative protein and energy balance. Despite its high clinical significance, defined diagnostic criteria and established therapeutic strategies are lacking. The 'omics' technologies provide a global view of biological systems. We hypothesize that blood-based metabolomics might identify findings in cachectic patients that could provide clues to gain knowledge on its pathophysiology, and eventually postulate new therapeutic strategies...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Yuhei Hamaguchi, Toshimi Kaido, Shinya Okumura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Siyuan Yao, Shintaro Yagi, Naoko Kamo, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: The significance of pre-operative body composition has recently attracted much attention in various diseases. However, cut-off values for these parameters remain undetermined, and these factors are not currently included in selection criteria for recipients of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: Using computed tomography of 657 donors for LDLT, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by using skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Martin Mücke, Megan Weier, Christopher Carter, Jan Copeland, Louisa Degenhardt, Henning Cuhls, Lukas Radbruch, Winfried Häuser, Rupert Conrad
We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and, and a selection of cancer journals were searched up until 15th of March 2017. Of the 108 screened studies, nine studies with a total of 1561 participants were included. Overall, the nine studies were at moderate risk of bias. The quality of evidence comparing cannabinoids with placebo was rated according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation as low or very low because of indirectness, imprecision, and potential reporting bias...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Moon Hyung Choi, Seung Bae Yoon, Kyungjin Lee, Meiying Song, In Seok Lee, Myung Ah Lee, Tae Ho Hong, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and post-operative accelerated muscle loss leading to cachexia are commonly observed in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to assess the influence of body compositions and post-operative muscle change on survival of patients with surgically treated pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We analysed data of patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery from 2008 to 2015. Skeletal muscle areas, muscle attenuation, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were measured from two sets of computed tomography images at L3 vertebral levels...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tatiane Gorski, Sebastian Mathes, Jan Krützfeldt
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fatty infiltration is generally associated with the accumulation of white adipocytes in skeletal muscle and unfavourable metabolic outcomes. It is, however, still unclear whether intramuscular adipocytes could also acquire a brown-like phenotype. Here, we detected intramuscular expression of brown adipocyte markers during fatty infiltration in an obesity-resistant mouse strain and extensively compared the potential of two different stem cell populations residing in skeletal muscle to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Olaf Verschuren, Ana R P Smorenburg, Yvette Luiking, Kristie Bell, Lee Barber, Mark D Peterson
In individuals with cerebral palsy (CP), smaller muscle and atrophy are present at young age. Many people with CP also experience a decline in gross motor function as they age, which might be explained by the loss of muscle mass. The clinical observation of muscle wasting has prompted a comparison with sarcopenia in older adults, and the term accelerated musculoskeletal ageing is often used to describe the hallmark phenotype of CP through the lifespan. However, there has been very little research emphasis on the natural history of ageing with CP and even less with respect to the determinants or prevention of muscle loss with CP...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Malgorzata Halon-Golabek, Andzelika Borkowska, Jan J Kaczor, Wieslaw Ziolkowski, Damian J Flis, Narcyz Knap, Kajetan Kasperuk, Jedrzej Antosiewicz
BACKGROUND: Recently, skeletal muscle atrophy, impairment of iron metabolism, and insulin signalling have been reported in rats suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the interrelationship between these changes has not been studied. We hypothesize that an impaired Akt-FOXO3a signalling pathway triggers changes in the iron metabolism in the muscles of transgenic animals. METHODS: In the present study, we used transgenic rats bearing the G93A hmSOD1 gene and their non-transgenic littermates...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jia-Rong Jheng, Yuan-Siao Chen, Un Iong Ao, Ding-Cheng Chan, Jenq-Wen Huang, Kuang-Yu Hung, Der-Cheng Tarng, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUNDS: Sarcopenia is the age-related degeneration characterized with the decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. The imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation which jeopardizes immune, hormone regulation, and muscle-motor neuron connection is the main cause of sarcopenia. There is limited knowledge regarding molecular mechanism of sarcopenia. As the endoplasmic reticulum is the control centre of the protein syntheses and degradation, we hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) play an important in the development of sarcopenia...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Ting Zhou, Bangyan Wang, Huiquan Liu, Kaixiang Yang, Sudip Thapa, Haowen Zhang, Lu Li, Shiying Yu
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is highly prevalent in advanced cancer patients and leads to progressive functional impairments. The classification of cachexia stages is essential for diagnosing and treating cachexia. However, there is a lack of simple tools with good discrimination for classifying cachexia stages. Therefore, our study aimed to develop a clinically applicable cachexia staging score (CSS) and validate its discrimination of clinical outcomes for different cachexia stages...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Giovanna Distefano, Robert A Standley, Xiaolei Zhang, Elvis A Carnero, Fanchao Yi, Heather H Cornnell, Paul M Coen
BACKGROUND: The concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in ageing muscle is highly controversial. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that reduced muscle oxidative capacity and efficiency underlie the aetiology of mobility loss in older adults. Here, we hypothesized that studying well-phenotyped older cohorts across a wide range of physical activity would unveil a range of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and in turn allow us to more clearly examine the impact of age per se on mitochondrial energetics...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A Fielding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene McCloskey, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Andrea Laslop, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Sian Robinson, Yves Rolland, Ricardo Rueda, Bruno Vellas, John A Kanis
BACKGROUND: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean body mass. Thus, the objective measurement of sarcopenia is hampered by limitations intrinsic to assessment tools. The aim of this study was to review the methods to assess muscle mass and to reach consensus on the development of a reference standard. METHODS: Literature reviews were performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis working group on frailty and sarcopenia...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tatiana Bering, Kiara G D Diniz, Marta Paula P Coelho, Diego A Vieira, Maria Marta S Soares, Adriana M Kakehasi, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene M M Queiroz, Gifone A Rocha, Luciana D Silva
BACKGROUND: Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. METHODS: One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Louise E Daly, Éadaoin B Ní Bhuachalla, Derek G Power, Samantha J Cushen, Karl James, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition, weight loss, and muscle wasting are common in patients with foregut cancers (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile ducts) and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, little is known about the changes in body composition that occur in these patients during chemotherapy and its impacts clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of adult foregut cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2016 was conducted...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Erin E Talbert, Heather L Lewis, Matthew R Farren, Mitchell L Ramsey, Jeffery M Chakedis, Priyani Rajasekera, Ericka Haverick, Angela Sarna, Mark Bloomston, Timothy M Pawlik, Teresa A Zimmers, Gregory B Lesinski, Phil A Hart, Mary E Dillhoff, Carl R Schmidt, Denis C Guttridge
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated wasting, termed cancer cachexia, has a profound effect on the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients but remains difficult to recognize and diagnose. While increases in circulating levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with cancer cachexia, these associations were generally made in patients with advanced disease and thus may be associated with disease progression rather than directly with the cachexia syndrome. Thus, we sought to assess potential biomarkers of cancer-induced cachexia in patients with earlier stages of disease...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Haehling
This article highlights the updates from preclinical and clinical studies into the field of wasting disorders that were presented at the 10th Cachexia Conference held in Rome, Italy, in December 2017. This year's conference saw some interesting results of larger-scale studies and clinical trials and new therapeutic targets. Herein, we summarize the biological and clinical significance of different markers and new diagnostic tools and cut-offs for the detection of skeletal muscle wasting, including micro RNAs, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, mTOR signalling, news in body composition analysis including the D3-creatine dilution method, and new biomarkers...
February 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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