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BMJ Open

Louise Mansfield, Tess Kay, Catherine Meads, Lily Grigsby-Duffy, Jack Lane, Alistair John, Norma Daykin, Paul Dolan, Stefano Testoni, Guy Julier, Annette Payne, Alan Tomlinson, Christina Victor
OBJECTIVE: To review and assess effectiveness of sport and dance participation on subjective well-being outcomes among healthy young people aged 15-24 years. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: We searched for studies published in any language between January 2006 and September 2016 on PsychINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, Eric, Web of Science (Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Social Science and Science Citation Index), Scopus, PILOTS, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and International Index to Performing Arts...
July 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Dien Anshari, Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Kamala Swayampakala, Jim Thrasher
OBJECTIVE: This study examined smokers' responses to pictorial health warnings (PHWs) with different types of imagery under natural exposure conditions. METHODS: Adult smokers from online panels in Canada (n=2357), Australia (n=1671) and Mexico (n=2537) were surveyed every 4 months from 2012 to 2013. Participants were shown PHWs on packs in their respective countries and asked about: (1) noticing PHWs; (2) negative affects towards PHWs; (3) believability of PHWs; (4) PHW-stimulated discussions; and (5) quit motivation due to PHWs...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Daniel T Smith, Paul A Tiffin
OBJECTIVES: Currently relative performance at medical school (educational performance measure (EPM) decile), additional educational achievements and the score on a situational judgement test (SJT) are used to rank applicants to the UK Foundation Years postgraduate medical training programme. We sought to evaluate whether these three measures were predictive of subsequent successful completion of the programme, and thus were valid selection criteria. METHODS: Data were obtained from the UK Medical Education Database (UKMED) on 14 131 UK applicants to the foundation programme starting in 2013 and 2014...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Lovro Štefan, Goran Sporiš, Tomislav Krističević, Damir Knjaz
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of the present study was to explore the associations between sleep quality and insufficient physical activity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Faculties in Croatia. PARTICIPANTS: 2100 university students (1049 men and 1051 women) aged 18-24 years were recruited. PRIMARY OUTCOME: To assess the domains of sleep quality (independent variables) and 'insufficient' physical activity (dependent variable), we used previously validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and International Physical Activity questionnaires...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Yuko Ono, Koichi Tanigawa, Takeyasu Kakamu, Kazuaki Shinohara, Ken Iseki
OBJECTIVE: Clinical procedural experience and confidence are both important when performing complex medical procedures. Since out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a complex intervention, we sought to clarify clinical ETI experience among prehospital rescuers as well as their confidence in performing ETI and confidence-associated factors. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2017. SETTING: Northern Japan, including eight prefectures...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Xiao-Kun Liu, Shui-Yuan Xiao, Liang Zhou, Mi Hu, Hui-Ming Liu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate a 4-week period of pain prevalence and the risk factors of experiencing pain among a rural Chinese population sample. To explore the psychosocial and health condition predictors of pain severity and the interactions of age and gender with these factors in real-life situations among the general adult population in China. METHODS: Data were collected from a random multistage sample of 2052 participants (response rate=95%) in the rural areas of Liuyang, China...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Mark Deady, David A Johnston, Nick Glozier, David Milne, Isabella Choi, Andrew Mackinnon, Arnstein Mykletun, Rafael A Calvo, Aimee Gayed, Richard Bryant, Helen Christensen, Samuel B Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Depression is the leading cause of life years lost due to disability. Appropriate prevention has the potential to reduce the incidence of new cases of depression, however, traditional prevention approaches face significant scalability issues. Prevention programmes delivered by via smartphone applications provide a potential solution. The workplace is an ideal setting to roll out this form of intervention, particularly among industries that are unlikely to access traditional health initiatives and whose workplace characteristics create accessibility and portability issues...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Simone Thomas, Jan Mehrholz
OBJECTIVE: To describe predictors for health-related quality of life, participation, physical activity and cognitive function in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness 1 year after discharge from rehabilitation. DESIGN: This is a cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 150 chronic critically ill individuals with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. SETTING: Postacute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
T K T Lo, Matthias Hoben, Peter G Norton, Gary F Teare, Carole A Estabrooks
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the effect of clinical educators as facilitators of research use and how it may be modified by organisational context in the settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: A representative sample of 91 residential long-term care (LTC) facilities across Western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: We used surveys to collect data from the frontline care aides and information about the organisational context of the care units...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Elizabeth L Dunbar, Emily B Wroe, Basimenye Nhlema, Chiyembekezo Kachimanga, Ravi Gupta, Celia Taylor, Annie Michaelis, Katie Cundale, Luckson Dullie, Arnold Jumbe, Lawrence Nazimera, Ryan McBain, Richard J Lilford, Samuel Ian Watson
INTRODUCTION: This protocol concerns the implementation and evaluation of an intervention designed to realign the existing cadre of community health workers (CHWs) in Neno district, Malawi to better support the care needs of the clients they serve. The proposed intervention is a 'Household Model' where CHWs will be reassigned to households, rather than to specific patients with HIV and/or tuberculosis (TB). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomised design, this study investigates whether high HIV retention rates can be replicated for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and the model's impact on TB and paediatric malnutrition case finding, as well as the uptake of family planning and antenatal care...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Maren Dreier, Kathrin Krueger, Ulla Walter
BACKGROUND: Primary colonoscopic screening is considered to be of great benefit but also has the potential to cause severe harm. Thus, eligible subjects should be supported in making an informed choice whether to participate. OBJECTIVES: To identify information on screening colonoscopy that colonoscopy-naïve subjects rate as particularly important for decision making. DESIGN: Survey of German statutory health insurance members using a written questionnaire in November 2015...
July 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Eimer G O'Malley, Shona Cawley, Ciara M E Reynolds, Rachel A K Kennedy, Anne Molloy, Michael J Turner
OBJECTIVES: Using detailed dietary and supplement questionnaires in early pregnancy, we compared the dietary intakes of micronutrients and macronutrients at the first prenatal visit of women who reported continuing to smoke during pregnancy with the intakes of women who were non-smokers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted between June 2014 and March 2016. SETTING: Stand-alone tertiary maternity hospital in an urban setting with approximately 8000 deliveries per year...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Muhammed Olanrewaju Afolabi, Stuart Rennie, Denise Dion Hallfors, Tracy Kline, Susannah Zeitz, Frederick S Odongo, Nyaguara O Amek, Winnie K Luseno
OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate a questionnaire originally developed in a research setting for assessment of comprehension of consent information in a different cultural and linguistic research setting. DESIGN: The adaptation process involved development and customisation of a questionnaire for each of the three study groups, modelled closely on the previously validated questionnaire. The three adapted draft questionnaires were further reviewed by two bioethicists and the developer of the original questionnaire for face and content validity...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Kathryn R Hesketh, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Esther M F van Sluijs
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between time spent in care, the childcare energy-balance environment, and preschool-aged children's body mass index z-score (z-BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and sum of skinfold thickness (SST). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 3-4 years were recruited from 30 childcare centres in Cambridgeshire (UK) in 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Objectively measured height and weight was used to calculate z-BMI; waist circumference and height were used to generate WHR; subscapular and tricep skinfolds were used to calculate SST...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Cheng-Han Chen, Sheng-Hsiang Ma, Sung-Yuan Hu, Chia-Ming Chang, Jen-Huai Chiang, Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh, David Hung-Tsang Yen, Chorng-Kuang How, Ming-Shun Hsieh
OBJECTIVE: The Diabetes Shared Care Program (DSCP) is an integrated care model in Taiwan that has been proven to improve the care quality of patients with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DSCP in decreasing the hospital mortality of infectious diseases. METHODS: From 1 662 929 patients with type 2 diabetes newly diagnosed between 1999 and 2013, we retrieved a total of 919 patients who participated in the DSCP with the first hospitalisation for an infectious disease as the study cohort and 9190 propensity score-matched patients with type 2 diabetes who did not participate as the comparison...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hiroki Matsui, Kazuhiko Kotani, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Kumamoto earthquakes struck Kumamoto prefecture, in the southwest part of Japan in April 2016. Physical and mental disorders presenting to hospital increased after the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes. Impaired access to primary care due to the earthquakes may have contributed to this increase. However, it is not known whether the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes affected access to primary care. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes on short-term health conditions by analysing ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs), using administrative data from Kumamoto prefecture...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Samy A Azer, Sarah Azer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing number of publications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), no bibliometric analysis has been conducted to evaluate the significance of highly cited articles. Our objectives were to identify the top-cited articles in IBD, assessing their characteristics and determining the quality of evidence provided by these articles. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: IBD and related terms were used in searching the Web of Science to identify English language articles...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Alison M Hutchinson, Cate Nagle, Bridie Kent, Debra Bick, Rebecca Lindberg
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence to indicate that both primary and subsequent caesarean sections are associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity. Efforts to reduce the number of clinically unnecessary caesarean sections are urgently required. Our objective is to systematically review published evidence on the effectiveness of maternity service organisational interventions, such as models of maternity care, that aim to reduce caesarean section rates. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Databases will be searched, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Maternity and Infant Care, EMBASE and SCOPUS...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Emily Bongard, Alike W van der Velden, Johanna Cook, Ben Saville, Philippe Beutels, Rune Munck Aabenhus, Curt Brugman, Slawomir Chlabicz, Samuel Coenen, Annelies Colliers, Melanie Davies, Muireann De Paor, An De Sutter, Nick A Francis, Dominik Glinz, Maciek Godycki-Ćwirko, Herman Goossens, Jane Holmes, Margareta Ieven, Menno de Jong, Morten Lindbaek, Paul Little, Frederico Martinón-Torres, Ana Moragas, József Pauer, Markéta Pfeiferová, Ruta Radzeviciene-Jurgute, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Antoni Torres, Pia Touboul, Dionyssios Varthalis, Theo Verheij, Christopher C Butler
INTRODUCTION: Effective management of seasonal and pandemic influenza is a high priority internationally. Guidelines in many countries recommend antiviral treatment for older people and individuals with comorbidity at increased risk of complications. However, antivirals are not often prescribed in primary care in Europe, partly because its clinical and cost effectiveness has been insufficiently demonstrated by non-industry funded and pragmatic studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Antivirals for influenza-Like Illness? An rCt of Clinical and Cost effectiveness in primary CarE is a European multinational, multicentre, open-labelled, non-industry funded, pragmatic, adaptive-platform, randomised controlled trial...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
He Liu, Ying Li, Siqi Zhao, Mingli Jiao, Yan Lu, Jinghua Liu, Kexin Jiang, Huiying Fang, Peihang Sun, Peng Li, Yameng Wang, Haonan Jia, Yuming Wu, Limin Liu, Yanming Zhao, Qunhong Wu
OBJECTIVES: Medical school education plays an important role in promoting patient safety. In this study, we assess medical students' perceptions of patient safety culture, identify their educational needs and provide evidence on the most important content relating to patient safety for the medical school curriculum. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four medical universities in Heilongjiang province. Medical students in the first through five years completed an anonymous questionnaire-the Attitudes toward Patient Safety Questionnaire III...
July 12, 2018: BMJ Open
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