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Pregnancy Hypertension

I N Tyurenkov, V N Perfilova, A V Smirnov, L B Reznikova, A V Poroyskaya, V E Verovsky
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is considered to be a severe complication of pregnancy. Theoretical investigation of its etiology and pathogenesis, development of strategies for its prevention and treatment are conditioned by the development of appropriate experimental models of this pathology. METHODS: The study involved Wistar rat lines weighing 220-240g. Experimental pre-eclampsia was modeled by replacing drinking water consumed by pregnant female rats with 1.8% NaCl solution throughout gestation...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Katherine M Johnson, Rebecca Zash, Miriam J Haviland, Michele R Hacker, Rebecca Luckett, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Roger Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Perinatal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to infection, obstetric emergencies, and preterm birth, but less is known about hypertension in pregnancy. Our objective was to characterize the prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy and the impact of hypertension on perinatal outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN: We performed surveillance of obstetric records at eight of the largest public hospitals in Botswana. Women were included in this analysis if they were HIV-uninfected and had singleton gestations and at least one prenatal blood pressure measurement...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Nathalie E Marchand, Ganmaa Davaasambuu, Thomas F McElrath, Enkhmaa Davaasambuu, Tsedmaa Baatar, Rebecca Troisi
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of preeclampsia in a contemporary population of Mongolian women living in urban and rural areas. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis based on established diagnostic criteria and assessed whether local diagnostic criteria were similar to those used in the US. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of urban and nomadic pregnant women recruited in Ulaanbaatar (n=136) and rural provinces (n=85). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preeclampsia defined as hypertension new to pregnancy after 20weeks and proteinuria (or protein creatinine ratio ⩾0...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Anna Hay, Salma Ayis, Diane Nzelu, Lauren James, Nikos A Kametas
OBJECTIVE: Firstly, to validate the Withings BP-800 automated device for use in pregnancy and, secondly, to assess the impact of maternal somatometric and demographic variables on the accuracy of the device. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Kings College Hospital, London, UK. POPULATION: Forty-seven women of any gestation. METHODS: Validation: The British Hypertension Society (BHS) Protocol (1993) was used for the validation of the Withings BP-800...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Vanessa S Giorgi, Steven S Witkin, Camila F Bannwart-Castro, Maria Salete Sartori, Mariana Romão-Veiga, Vera Therezinha M Borges, José Carlos Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Peraçoli
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a specific disorder of human pregnancy that is associated with hyperuricemia and higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme present in all human tissues, and is considered an indicator of cellular inflammation. In the present study we assess whether adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity is altered in women with preeclampsia (PE) and contributes to elevated levels of uric acid and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. STUDY DESIGN: The population studied consisted of 60 women with PE, 30 normotensive pregnant women (NT) and 20 non-pregnant women (NP)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Hilal Uslu Yuvaci, Nermin Akdemir, Mehmet Suhha Bostanci, Hayrullah Yazar, Serhan Cevrioglu, Selçuk Ozden, Orhan Unal, Merve Keskin Paker, Salim Neselioglu, Ozcan Erel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Brandie D Taylor, Roberta B Ness, Mark A Klebanoff, Roger Zoh, Debra Bass, David M Hougaard, Kristin Skogstrand, Catherine L Haggerty
INTRODUCTION: Circulating immune markers may be associated with preeclampsia but further investigations in early pregnancy and among preeclampsia subtypes are warranted. We examined immune markers in 208 preeclamptic women and 411 normotensive controls. METHODS: Our study was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A total of 242 women had first trimester serum samples and 392 had second trimester serum samples. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension >20weeks of gestation with proteinuria or pulmonary edema, oliguria, or convulsions...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Wolfgang Lederer, Cristina Alomar Dominguez, Marina Popovscaia, Günther Putz, Christian Humpel
OBJECTIVES: During pregnancy various interactions occur between structural alterations of the maternal brain and placental metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of tau and phospho-tau-181 protein vary during normal pregnancy and in women with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: We measured cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, tau and phospho-tau-181 protein levels in 90 pregnant women electively assigned for regional anaesthesia during pregnancy or for cesarean section using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Teelkien R van Veen, Ronney B Panerai, Sina Haeri, Paul P van den Berg, Gerda G Zeeman, Michael A Belfort
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Gregory K Davis, Lynne Roberts, George Mangos, Amanda Henry, Franziska Pettit, Anthony O'Sullivan, Caroline S E Homer, Maria Craig, Samuel B Harvey, Mark A Brown
BACKGROUND: Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Anita Virtanen, Tarja Toimela, Kati Tihtonen, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Outi Huttala, Tuula Heinonen, Jukka Uotila
OBJECTIVE: To explore in vitro angiogenic properties of maternal and umbilical cord blood sera from women with symptomatic pre-eclampsia in comparison with sera from women with normotensive pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal and umbilical blood serum samples were collected from eleven primiparous women with pre-eclampsia and ten healthy gestational-age-matched primiparous controls. The samples were tested for tubule formation in two different types of in vitro angiogenesis tests...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Takashi Mitsui, Hisashi Masuyama, Takeshi Eguchi, Shoko Tamada, Eriko Eto, Kei Hayata, Yuji Hiramatsu
OBJECTIVES: Newborns born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) are thought to be at high risk for lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and hypertension, in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal study of 78 pregnant women with PIH and their newborns, who visited Okayama University Hospital from 2009 to 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We investigated the change in growth of offspring born to mothers with PIH and compared it with the standard growth curve in Japanese to examine whether there was rapid catch-up growth during the first 3years of life...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Rachel D Williamson, Cathal McCarthy, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
OBJECTIVES: To determine if magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell death in an in vitro model of the human placenta. STUDY DESIGN: BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were treated with increasing concentrations of LPS (10-1000ng/ml) and MgSO4 ranging from 1 mM to 100 mM for 24 or 48h. For co-treatments, cells were pre-treated with 1mM MgSO4 for 1h and 200ng/ml LPS was then added for the remaining 48h. To assess viability an MTT assay was carried out along with nuclear staining to assess pyknotic nuclei...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Carolien Nienke Heleen Abheiden, Alexandra Vera Ruth van Reuler, Wessel Willem Fuijkschot, Johanna Inge Petra de Vries, Abel Thijs, Marjon Alina de Boer
OBJECTIVE: Aspirin reduces the risk of recurrent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HD) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This study examined the non-adherence rates of aspirin in women with high-risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: All consecutive women between 24 and 36weeks gestation with an indication for aspirin use during pregnancy were invited for this study. A survey was used which included two validated questionnaires, the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) and the Beliefs and Behaviour Questionnaire (BBQ)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
D Ayansina, C Black, S J Hall, A Marks, C Millar, G J Prescott, K Wilde, S Bhattacharya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long term effects of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on renal function. DESIGN: Cohort study where exposure was gestational hypertension or preeclampsia in the first pregnancy. Normotensive women formed the comparison group. SETTING: Aberdeen, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All women with date of birth on or before 30th June 1969 and at least their first singleton delivery recorded in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
R C Johnston, M L Stephenson, S Paraghamian, A Fong, K Hom, A Cruz, J McNulty
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with shortened latency in expectantly managed women diagnosed with preeclampsia without severe features between 23 0/7 and 35 6/7weeks' gestation. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at a large community-based hospital between 2009 and 2014, evaluating all mothers between 23 0/7 and 35 6/7weeks' gestation with a diagnosis of preeclampsia without severe features. We collected maternal demographics, symptoms, vital signs and laboratory values within six hours of admission...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Neil A Nadkarni, Augustine Rajakumar, Nikita Mokhashi, Suzanne D Burke, Sarosh Rana, Saira Salahuddin, Quynh Dang, Ravi Thadhani, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Thomas P Stossel, S Ananth Karumanchi
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific inflammatory disorder, is characterized by high levels of anti-angiogenic protein, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), in the maternal circulation. sFlt1 producing molecular machinery is present in syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles that are released by the placenta into maternal plasma during normal pregnancy, a process greatly accelerated in preeclampsia. We hypothesized that syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles exposes cytoplasmic actin to plasma resulting in depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN), an abundant plasma protein that scavenges circulating actin and other pro-inflammatory mediators...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Carlos Galaviz-Hernandez, Eliakym Arámbula-Meraz, Diana Medina-Bastidas, Martha Sosa-Macías, Blanca P Lazalde-Ramos, Margarita Ortega-Chávez, Lorena Hernandez-García
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the maternal, paternal or the combined maternal/paternal contribution of SNP rs5370 of the EDN1 gene is associated with preeclampsia and drove its expression in placenta. STUDY DESIGN: This case-control study included 61 preeclamptic patients and their partners and 49 healthy pregnant women and their partners. The population was sub-divided into three groups: women-only, men-only and combined (women/men). The analysis included genotyping of rs5370 in mothers and fathers and evaluating the expression profile of the EDN1 gene in placenta...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Ira M Bernstein, Sarah A Hale, Gary J Badger, Carole A McBride
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to evaluate cardiovascular function; including blood pressure, cardiac output, pulse wave velocity and vascular compliance in nonpregnant nulliparous women compared to women with a history of preterm preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a case control study. Blood pressure was measured using the Finapres Pro. Baseline cardiac output was determined by echocardiography. Pulse wave velocity was estimated using simultaneous electrocardiographic tracings and ultrasound determined arterial flow waveforms and calculated as estimated distance divided by the time interval between EKG r-wave peak and ultrasound derived peak popliteal artery flow...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
Zsuzsanna K Zsengellér, Augustine Rajakumar, Jon T Hunter, Saira Salahuddin, Sarosh Rana, Isaac E Stillman, S Ananth Karumanchi
Preeclampsia is a common medical complication of pregnancy that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality to the mother and the baby. Extensive human epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, a potent anti-angiogenic factor leads to the maternal hypertension, proteinuria and other systemic complications of preeclampsia. To evaluate the mechanisms of the aberrant placental sFlt1 expression, we studied the role of mitochondrial dysfunction as one possible etiological factor...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
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