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Biotechnology Research International

Birgit Spitzer-Sonnleitner, André Kempe, Maximilian Lackner
The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Kamal Uddin Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Kiransinh N Rajput, Kamlesh C Patel, Ujjval B Trivedi
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Rayane Natshe Gonçalves, Suellen Duarte Gozzini Barbosa, Raquel Elisa da Silva-López
Extracts of leaves, seeds, roots, and stem from a tropical legume, C. ensiformis, were prepared employing buffers and detergent in aqueous solution. Leaf extracts had the highest protein content and the most pronounced peptidase activity with optimal pH in the neutral to alkaline range. All extracts exhibited peaks of activity at various pH values, suggesting the presence of distinctive classes of proteases. N-α-Tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrolysis was maximal at 30°C to 60°C and peptidase activity from all extracts presented very good thermal stability after 24 h incubation at 70°C...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Sumarheni, Benoit Gallet, Pascal Fender
Penton-dodecahedron (Pt-Dd) derived from adenovirus type 3 is a symmetric complex of pentameric penton base plus fiber which can be produced in the baculovirus system at a high concentration. The size of Pt-Dd is smaller than the virus, but this virus-like particle (VLP) has the major proteins recognized by specific receptors on the surface of almost all types of cell. In this study, by direct observation with fluorescence microscopy on a fixed and living cell, the intracellular trafficking and localization of Pt-Dd labeled with fluorescence dyes in the cytoplasm of HeLa Tub-GFP showed a rapid internalization characteristic...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Mahmoud Aljurf, Hala Abalkhail, Amal Alseraihy, Said Y Mohamed, Mouhab Ayas, Fahad Alsharif, Hazza Alzahrani, Abdullah Al-Jefri, Ghuzayel Aldawsari, Ali Al-Ahmari, Asim F Belgaumi, Claudia Ulrike Walter, Hassan El-Solh, Walid Rasheed, Maher Albitar
Background. We studied DNA chimerism in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in patients treated with HSCT. Methods. Chimerism analysis was performed on CD3+ cells, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, and cfDNA using 16 small tandem repeat loci. The resulting labeled PCR-products were size-fractionated and quantified. Results. Analyzing samples from 191 patients treated with HSCT for nonneoplastic hematologic disorders demonstrated that the cfDNA chimerism is comparable to that seen in PMN cells. Analyzing leukemia patients (N = 126) showed that, of 84 patients with 100% donor DNA in PMN, 16 (19%) had evidence of clinical relapse and >10% recipient DNA in the plasma...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Kiransinh N Rajput, Kamlesh C Patel, Ujjval B Trivedi
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC production using new alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 was investigated by submerged fermentation. Statistical screening for components belonging to different categories, namely, soluble and raw starches as carbon sources, complex organic and inorganic nitrogen sources, minerals, a buffering agent, and a surfactant, has been carried out for CGTase production using Plackett-Burman factorial design. To screen out k (19), number of variables, k + 1 (20), number of experiments, were performed...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Walaa A Eraqi, Aymen S Yassin, Amal E Ali, Magdy A Amin
Biosurfactants are produced by bacteria or yeast utilizing different substrates as sugars, glycerol, or oils. They have important applications in the detergent, oil, and pharmaceutical industries. Glycerol is the product of biodiesel industry and the existing glycerol market cannot accommodate the excess amounts generated; consequently, new markets for refined glycerol need to be developed. The aim of present work is to optimize the production of microbial rhamnolipid using waste glycerol. We have developed a process for the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using glycerol as the sole carbon source by a local Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate that was obtained from an extensive screening program...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Nadège A Agbodjato, Pacôme A Noumavo, Adolphe Adjanohoun, Léonce Agbessi, Lamine Baba-Moussa
This study aimed to assess the effects of three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and chitosan either singly or in combination on maize seeds germination and growth and nutrient uptake. Maize seeds were treated with chitosan and bacterial solution. The germination and growth tests were carried out in square Petri dishes and plastic pots. The combination chitosan-A. lipoferum-P. fluorescens has increased the seeds vigor index up to 36.44% compared to the control. In comparison to the control, P. putida has significantly improved root weight (44...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Shraddha Tiwari, Raman Thakur, Jata Shankar
Stress (biotic or abiotic) is an unfavourable condition for an organism including fungus. To overcome stress, organism expresses heat-shock proteins (Hsps) or chaperons to perform biological function. Hsps are involved in various routine biological processes such as transcription, translation and posttranslational modifications, protein folding, and aggregation and disaggregation of proteins. Thus, it is important to understand holistic role of Hsps in response to stress and other biological conditions in fungi...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Anita Saini, Neeraj K Aggarwal, Anuja Sharma, Anita Yadav
Second generation bioethanol production technology relies on lignocellulosic biomass composed of hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin components. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sources of fermentable sugars. But the structural characteristics of lignocelluloses pose hindrance to the conversion of these sugar polysaccharides into ethanol. The process of ethanol production, therefore, involves an expensive and energy intensive step of pretreatment, which reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and makes feedstock more susceptible to saccharification...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Hamed I Hamouda, Hussein N Nassar, Hekmat R Madian, Salem S Abu Amr, Nour Sh El-Gendy
Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
T P Nwogu, C C Azubuike, C J Ogugbue
This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Ivana A Cavello, Juan M Crespo, Sabrina S García, José M Zapiola, María F Luna, Sebastián F Cavalitto
Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Mohsen Helmy Selim, El-Zahraa Karm Eldin, Moataza Mahmoud Saad, El-Sayed Eliwa Mostafa, Yosrea Hassan Shetia, Amany Ahmed Hassabo Anise
The aim of the present study is to purify L-methioninase from Candida tropicalis 34.19-fold with 27.98% recovery after ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. The purified enzyme revealed a single band on SDS-PAGE gel with a molecular weight of 46 KDa. Its optimum temperature was 45 to 55 and thermal stability was 55°C for 15 min. The enzyme had optimum pH at 6.5 and stability at a pH range of 5.5 to 7.0 for 24 hr. The maximum activity was observed with substrate concentration of 30 µM and Km was 0...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Francis Kemausuor, Ahmad Addo, Lawrence Darkwah
This study analyses technical potential and ex ante socioeconomic impacts of biogas production using cassava waste from agroprocessing plants. An analysis was performed for two biodigesters in two cassava processing communities in Ghana. The results showed that the two communities generate an excess of 4,500 tonnes of cassava peels per year. Using approximately 5% of the peels generated and livestock manure as inoculum can generate approximately 75,000 m(3) of gas with an estimated 60% methane content from two separate plants of capacities 500 m(3) and 300 m(3) in the two communities...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Satish Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Bharat Bhushan, Manoj Pandit Brahmane
In recent years, metagenomics has emerged as a powerful tool for mining of hidden microbial treasure in a culture independent manner. In the last two decades, metagenomics has been applied extensively to exploit concealed potential of microbial communities from almost all sorts of habitats. A brief historic progress made over the period is discussed in terms of origin of metagenomics to its current state and also the discovery of novel biological functions of commercial importance from metagenomes of diverse habitats...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Prosper Raymond, Anthony Manoni Mshandete, Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi
The activity of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes of the edible and medicinal white rot fungi Coprinus cinereus (Schaeff.) Gray mushroom was observed during mycelia growth and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using sisal waste fractions amended with cow dung manure as supplement. Laccase had the highest titre value among the five detected enzymes. Its activity was higher during mycelia growth compared to fruiting phase, with 10% supplemented substrate formulation unmixed sisal leaf decortication residues [abbreviated SL : SB (100 : 0)] displaying the highest activity of 39...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Sheng Zhou, Jining Zhang, Guoyan Zou, Shohei Riya, Masaaki Hosomi
To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
Aishwarya Singh Chauhan, Arunesh Kumar, Nikhat J Siddiqi, B Sharma
Trichoderma spp. have been reported earlier for their excellent capacity of secreting extracellular α-galactosidase. This communication focuses on the optimization of culture conditions for optimal production of enzyme and its characterization. The evaluation of the effects of different enzyme assay parameters such as stability, pH, temperature, substrate concentrations, and incubation time on enzyme activity has been made. The most suitable buffer for enzyme assay was found to be citrate phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 6...
2015: Biotechnology Research International
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