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Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382249/gas-sensing-properties-of-mwcnt-layers-electrochemically-decorated-with-au-and-pd-nanoparticles
#1
Elena Dilonardo, Michele Penza, Marco Alvisi, Riccardo Rossi, Gennaro Cassano, Cinzia Di Franco, Francesco Palmisano, Luisa Torsi, Nicola Cioffi
Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based chemiresistors were electrochemically decorated with Au and Pd nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in an improvement in the detection of gaseous pollutants as compared to sensors based on pristine MWCNTs. Electrophoresis was used to decorate MWCNTs with preformed Au or Pd NPs, thus preserving their nanometer-sized dimensions and allowing the metal content to be tuned by simply varying the deposition time. The sensing response of unmodified and metal-decorated MWCNTs was evaluated towards different gaseous pollutants (e...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382248/physics-chemistry-and-biology-of-functional-nanostructures-iii
#2
EDITORIAL
Anatolie S Sidorenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382247/analysis-and-modification-of-defective-surface-aggregates-on-pcdtbt-pcbm-solar-cell-blends-using-combined-kelvin-probe-conductive-and-bimodal-atomic-force-microscopy
#3
Hanaul Noh, Alfredo J Diaz, Santiago D Solares
Organic photovoltaic systems comprising donor polymers and acceptor fullerene derivatives are attractive for inexpensive energy harvesting. Extensive research on polymer solar cells has provided insight into the factors governing device-level efficiency and stability. However, the detailed investigation of nanoscale structures is still challenging. Here we demonstrate the analysis and modification of unidentified surface aggregates. The aggregates are characterized electrically by Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), whereby the correlation between local electrical potential and current confirms a defective charge transport...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382246/graphene-functionalised-by-laser-ablated-v2o5-for-a-highly-sensitive-nh3-sensor
#4
Margus Kodu, Artjom Berholts, Tauno Kahro, Mati Kook, Peeter Ritslaid, Helina Seemen, Tea Avarmaa, Harry Alles, Raivo Jaaniso
Graphene has been recognized as a promising gas sensing material. The response of graphene-based sensors can be radically improved by introducing defects in graphene using, for example, metal or metal oxide nanoparticles. We have functionalised CVD grown, single-layer graphene by applying pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of V2O5 which resulted in a thin V2O5 layer on graphene with average thickness of ≈0.6 nm. From Raman spectroscopy, it was concluded that the PLD process also induced defects in graphene. Compared to unmodified graphene, the obtained chemiresistive sensor showed considerable improvement of sensing ammonia at room temperature...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382245/liquid-permeation-and-chemical-stability-of-anodic-alumina-membranes
#5
Dmitrii I Petukhov, Dmitrii A Buldakov, Alexey A Tishkin, Alexey V Lukashin, Andrei A Eliseev
A study on the chemical stability of anodic alumina membranes and their performance in long-term water and organic solvent permeation experiments is reported. Anodic alumina possesses high stability for both protonic and aprotonic organic solvents. However, serious degradation of the membrane occurs in pure water, leading to a drastic decrease of permeance (over 20% of the initial value after the passing of 0.250 m(3)/m(2) of pure water). The drying of the membrane induces further permeance drop-off. The rate of membrane degradation strongly depends on the pH of the penetrant solution and increases in basic media...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382244/diffusion-and-surface-alloying-of-gradient-nanostructured-metals
#6
REVIEW
Zhenbo Wang, Ke Lu
Gradient nanostructures (GNSs) have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382243/anodization-based-process-for-the-fabrication-of-all-niobium-nitride-josephson-junction-structures
#7
Massimiliano Lucci, Ivano Ottaviani, Matteo Cirillo, Fabio De Matteis, Roberto Francini, Vittorio Merlo, Ivan Davoli
We studied the growth and oxidation of niobium nitride (NbN) films that we used to fabricate superconductive tunnel junctions. The thin films were deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The process parameters were optimized by monitoring the plasma with an optical spectroscopy technique. This technique allowed us to obtain NbN as well as good quality AlN films and both were used to obtain NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers. Lift-off lithography and selective anodization of the NbN films were used, respectively, to define the main trilayer geometry and/or to separate electrically, different areas of the trilayers...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382242/copper-atomic-scale-transistors
#8
Fangqing Xie, Maryna N Kavalenka, Moritz Röger, Daniel Albrecht, Hendrik Hölscher, Jürgen Leuthold, Thomas Schimmel
We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and -170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382241/thin-snox-films-for-surface-plasmon-resonance-enhanced-ellipsometric-gas-sensing-spree
#9
Daniel Fischer, Andreas Hertwig, Uwe Beck, Volkmar Lohse, Detlef Negendank, Martin Kormunda, Norbert Esser
Background: Gas sensors are very important in several fields like gas monitoring, safety and environmental applications. In this approach, a new gas sensing concept is investigated which combines the powerful adsorption probability of metal oxide conductive sensors (MOS) with an optical ellipsometric readout. This concept shows promising results to solve the problems of cross sensitivity of the MOS concept. Results: Undoped tin oxide (SnOx) and iron doped tin oxide (Fe:SnOx) thin add-on films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on the top of the actual surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing gold layer...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382240/impact-of-air-exposure-and-annealing-on-the-chemical-and-electronic-properties-of-the-surface-of-sno2-nanolayers-deposited-by-rheotaxial-growth-and-vacuum-oxidation
#10
Monika Kwoka, Maciej Krzywiecki
In this paper the SnO2 nanolayers were deposited by rheotaxial growth and vacuum oxidation (RGVO) and analyzed for the susceptibility to ambient-air exposure and the subsequent recovery under vacuum conditions. Particularly the surface chemistry of the layers, stoichiometry and level of carbon contamination, was scrutinized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The layers were tested i) pristine, ii) after air exposure and iii) after UHV annealing to validate perspective recovery procedures of the sensing layers...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326241/modeling-of-the-growth-of-gaas-algaas-core-shell-nanowires
#11
Qian Zhang, Peter W Voorhees, Stephen H Davis
Heterostructured GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with have attracted much attention because of their significant advantages and great potential for creating high performance nanophotonics and nanoelectronics. The spontaneous formation of Al-rich stripes along certain crystallographic directions and quantum dots near the apexes of the shell are observed in AlGaAs shells. Controlling the formation of these core-shell heterostructures remains challenging. A two-dimensional model valid on the wire cross section, that accounts for capillarity in the faceted surface limit and deposition has been developed for the evolution of the shell morphology and concentration in Al x Ga1-x As alloys...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326240/formation-and-shape-control-of-hierarchical-cobalt-nanostructures-using-quaternary-ammonium-salts-in-aqueous-media
#12
Ruchi Deshmukh, Anurag Mehra, Rochish Thaokar
Aggregation and self-assembly are influenced by molecular interactions. With precise control of molecular interactions, in this study, a wide range of nanostructures ranging from zero-dimensional nanospheres to hierarchical nanoplates and spindles have been successfully synthesized at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. The nanostructures reported here are formed by aggregation of spherical seed particles (monomers) in presence of quaternary ammonium salts. Hydroxide ions and a magnetic moment of the monomers are essential to induce shape anisotropy in the nanostructures...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326239/nanostructured-carbon-materials-decorated-with-organophosphorus-moieties-synthesis-and-application
#13
Giacomo Biagiotti, Vittoria Langè, Cristina Ligi, Stefano Caporali, Maurizio Muniz-Miranda, Anna Flis, K Michał Pietrusiewicz, Giacomo Ghini, Alberto Brandi, Stefano Cicchi
A new synthetic approach for the production of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) decorated with organophosphorus moieties is presented. Three different triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) derivatives were used to decorate oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) and graphene platelets (GPs). The TPPOs chosen bear functional groups able to react with the CNMs by Tour reaction (an amino group), nitrene cycloaddition (an azido group) or CuAAC reaction (one terminal C-C triple bond). All the adducts were characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, XPS, elemental analysis and ICP-AES...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326238/fiber-optic-sensors-based-on-hybrid-phenyl-silica-xerogel-films-to-detect-n-hexane-determination-of-the-isosteric-enthalpy-of-adsorption
#14
Jesús C Echeverría, Ignacio Calleja, Paula Moriones, Julián J Garrido
We investigated the response of three fiber optic sensing elements prepared at pH 10 from phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTEOS) and tetraethylsilane (TEOS) mixtures with 30, 40, and 50% PhTEOS in the silicon precursor mixture. The sensing elements are referred to as Ph30, Ph40 and Ph50, respectively. The films were synthesized by the sol-gel method and affixed to the end of optical fibers by the dip-coating technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption at 77 K and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the xerogels...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326237/advances-in-the-fabrication-of-graphene-transistors-on-flexible-substrates
#15
Gabriele Fisichella, Stella Lo Verso, Silvestra Di Marco, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Emanuela Schilirò, Salvatore Di Franco, Raffaella Lo Nigro, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Amaia Zurutuza, Alba Centeno, Sebastiano Ravesi, Filippo Giannazzo
Graphene is an ideal candidate for next generation applications as a transparent electrode for electronics on plastic due to its flexibility and the conservation of electrical properties upon deformation. More importantly, its field-effect tunable carrier density, high mobility and saturation velocity make it an appealing choice as a channel material for field-effect transistors (FETs) for several potential applications. As an example, properly designed and scaled graphene FETs (Gr-FETs) can be used for flexible high frequency (RF) electronics or for high sensitivity chemical sensors...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326236/the-longstanding-challenge-of-the-nanocrystallization-of-1-3-5-trinitroperhydro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx
#16
REVIEW
Florent Pessina, Denis Spitzer
Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites - pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal - have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326235/study-of-the-surface-properties-of-zno-nanocolumns-used-for-thin-film-solar-cells
#17
Neda Neykova, Jiri Stuchlik, Karel Hruska, Ales Poruba, Zdenek Remes, Ognen Pop-Georgievski
Densely packed ZnO nanocolumns (NCs), perpendicularly oriented to the fused-silica substrates were directly grown under hydrothermal conditions at 90 °C, with a growth rate of around 0.2 μm/h. The morphology of the nanostructures was visualized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface properties of ZnO NCs and the binding state of present elements were investigated before and after different plasma treatments, typically used in plasma-enhanced CVD solar cell deposition processes, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326234/self-assembly-of-silicon-nanowires-studied-by-advanced-transmission-electron-microscopy
#18
Marta Agati, Guillaume Amiard, Vincent Le Borgne, Paola Castrucci, Richard Dolbec, Maurizio De Crescenzi, My Alì El Khakani, Simona Boninelli
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was successfully applied to the analysis of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) that were self-assembled during an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) process. The ICP-synthesized SiNWs were found to present a Si-SiO2 core-shell structure and length varying from ≈100 nm to 2-3 μm. The shorter SiNWs (maximum length ≈300 nm) were generally found to possess a nanoparticle at their tip. STEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy combined with electron tomography performed on these nanostructures revealed that they contain iron, clearly demonstrating that the short ICP-synthesized SiNWs grew via an iron-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism within the plasma reactor...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326233/fabrication-of-black-gold-coatings-by-glancing-angle-deposition-with-sputtering
#19
Alan Vitrey, Rafael Alvarez, Alberto Palmero, María Ujué González, José Miguel García-Martín
The fabrication of black-gold coatings using sputtering is reported here. Glancing angle deposition with a rotating substrate is needed to obtain vertical nanostructures. Enhanced light absorption is obtained in the samples prepared in the ballistic regime with high tilt angles. Under these conditions the diameter distribution of the nanostructures is centered at about 60 nm and the standard deviation is large enough to obtain black-metal behavior in the visible range.
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326232/role-of-oxygen-in-wetting-of-copper-nanoparticles-on-silicon-surfaces-at-elevated-temperature
#20
Tapas Ghosh, Biswarup Satpati
Copper nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon surfaces by a simple galvanic displacement reaction, and rapid thermal annealing has been performed under various atmospheric conditions. In spite of the general tendency of the agglomeration of nanoparticles to lower the surface energy at elevated temperatures, our plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the thermal oxidation of the copper nanoparticles and formation of cupric oxide (CuO) on silicon surfaces leads to wetting rather than agglomeration...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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