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Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology

Chong-You Chen, Chang-Ming Wang, Hsiang-Hua Li, Hong-Hseng Chan, Wei-Ssu Liao
The creation of bioactive substrates requires an appropriate interface molecular environment control and adequate biological species recognition with minimum nonspecific attachment. Herein, a straightforward approach utilizing chemical lift-off lithography to create a diluted self-assembled monolayer matrix for anchoring diverse biological probes is introduced. The strategy encompasses convenient operation, well-tunable pattern feature and size, large-area fabrication, high resolution and fidelity control, and the ability to functionalize versatile bioarrays...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Stefan Fringes, Felix Holzner, Armin W Knoll
The behavior of nanoparticles under nanofluidic confinement depends strongly on their distance to the confining walls; however, a measurement in which the gap distance is varied is challenging. Here, we present a versatile setup for investigating the behavior of nanoparticles as a function of the gap distance, which is controlled to the nanometer. The setup is designed as an open system that operates with a small amount of dispersion of ≈20 μL, permits the use of coated and patterned samples and allows high-numerical-aperture microscopy access...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Liga Jasulaneca, Jelena Kosmaca, Raimonds Meija, Jana Andzane, Donats Erts
This review summarizes relevant research in the field of electrostatically actuated nanobeam-based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches. The main switch architectures and structural elements are briefly described and compared. Investigation methods that allow for exploring coupled electromechanical interactions as well as studies of mechanically or electrically induced effects are covered. An examination of the complex nanocontact behaviour during various stages of the switching cycle is provided. The choice of the switching element and the electrode is addressed from the materials perspective, detailing the benefits and drawbacks for each...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Ruiyuan Zhuang, Shanshan Yao, Maoxiang Jing, Xiangqian Shen, Jun Xiang, Tianbao Li, Kesong Xiao, Shibiao Qin
One-dimensional molybdenum dioxide-carbon nanofibers (MoO2-CNFs) were prepared using an electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using sol-gel precursors and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a processing aid. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MoO2-CNFs with an average diameter of 425-575 nm obtained after heat treatment were used as a matrix to prepare sulfur/MoO2-CNF cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Konstantin L Firestein, Denis V Leybo, Alexander E Steinman, Andrey M Kovalskii, Andrei T Matveev, Anton M Manakhov, Irina V Sukhorukova, Pavel V Slukin, Nadezda K Fursova, Sergey G Ignatov, Dmitri V Golberg, Dmitry V Shtansky
BN/Ag hybrid nanomaterials (HNMs) and their possible applications as novel active catalysts and antibacterial agents are investigated. BN/Ag nanoparticle (NP) hybrids were fabricated using two methods: (i) chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of BN NPs in the presence of Ag vapours, and (ii) ultraviolet (UV) decomposition of AgNO3in a suspension of BN NPs. The hybrid microstructures were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high-angular dark field scanning TEM imaging paired with energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Sara Freund, Antoine Hinaut, Nathalie Marinakis, Edwin C Constable, Ernst Meyer, Catherine E Housecroft, Thilo Glatzel
The properties of metal oxides, such as charge-transport mechanisms or optoelectronic characteristics, can be modified by functionalization with organic molecules. This kind of organic/inorganic surface is nowadays highly regarded, in particular, for the design of hybrid devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a key parameter for optimized interfaces is not only the choice of the compounds but also the properties of adsorption. Here, we investigated the deposition of an organic dye precursor molecule on a NiO(001) single crystal surface by means of non-contact atomic force microscopy at room temperature...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Emil Petrescu, Cristina Cirtoaje
The dynamic behavior of a nematic liquid crystal with added carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an electric field was analyzed. A theoretical model based on elastic continuum theory was developed and the relaxation times of nematic liquid crystals with CNTs were evaluated. Experiments made with single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in nematic 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) indicated a significant difference of the relaxation time when compared to pure liquid crystal. We also noticed that the relaxation time when the field is switched off depends on how long the field was applied...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Luisa Berger, Katarzyna Madajska, Iwona B Szymanska, Katja Höflich, Mikhail N Polyakov, Jakub Jurczyk, Carlos Guerra-Nuñez, Ivo Utke
Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a flexible direct-write method to obtain defined structures with a high lateral resolution. In order to use this technique in application fields such as plasmonics, suitable precursors which allow the deposition of desired materials have to be identified. Well known for its plasmonic properties, silver represents an interesting candidate for FEBID. For this purpose the carboxylate complex silver(I) pentafluoropropionate (AgO2CC2F5) was used for the first time in FEBID and resulted in deposits with high silver content of up to 76 atom %...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Arnau Coll, Sandra Bermejo, David Hernández, Luís Castañer
The fabrication of high optical quality inverse opals is challenging, requiring large size, three-dimensional ordered layers of high dielectric constant ratio. In this article, alumina/TiO2-air inverse opals with a 98.2% reflectivity peak at 798 nm having an area of 2 cm2and a thickness of 17 µm are achieved using a sacrificial self-assembled structure of large thickness, which was produced with minimum fabrication errors by means of an electrospray technique. Using alumina as the first supporting layer enables the deposition of TiO2at a higher temperature, therefore providing better optical quality...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Baeckkyoung Sung, Min-Ho Kim
Hierarchical orders are found throughout all levels of biosystems, from simple biopolymers, subcellular organelles, single cells, and macroscopic tissues to bulky organs. Especially, biological tissues and cells have long been known to exhibit liquid crystal (LC) orders or their structural analogues. Inspired by those native architectures, there has recently been increased interest in research for engineering nanobiomaterials by incorporating LC templates and scaffolds. In this review, we introduce and correlate diverse LC nanoarchitectures with their biological functionalities, in the context of tissue engineering applications...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Stefanie Krüger, Michael Schwarze, Otto Baumann, Christina Günter, Michael Bruns, Christian Kübel, Dorothée Vinga Szabó, Rafael Meinusch, Verónica de Zea Bermudez, Andreas Taubert
The synthesis, structure, and photocatalytic water splitting performance of two new titania (TiO2)/gold(Au)/ Bombyx mori silk hybrid materials are reported. All materials are monoliths with diameters of up to ca. 4.5 cm. The materials are macroscopically homogeneous and porous with surface areas between 170 and 210 m2/g. The diameter of the TiO2nanoparticles (NPs) - mainly anatase with a minor fraction of brookite - and the Au NPs are on the order of 5 and 7-18 nm, respectively. Addition of poly(ethylene oxide) to the reaction mixture enables pore size tuning, thus providing access to different materials with different photocatalytic activities...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Olga Speck, Mark Schlechtendahl, Florian Borm, Tim Kampowski, Thomas Speck
During evolution, plants evolved various reactions to wounding. Fast wound sealing and subsequent healing represent a selective advantage of particular importance for plants growing in arid habitats. An effective self-sealing function by internal deformation has been found in the succulent leaves of Delosperma cooperi. After a transversal incision, the entire leaf bends until the wound is closed. Our results indicate that the underlying sealing principle is a combination of hydraulic shrinking and swelling as the main driving forces and growth-induced mechanical pre-stresses in the tissues...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Doina Manaila Maximean, Viorel Cîrcu, Constantin Paul Ganea
A new bisimidazolium salt with dodecyl sulfate as counterion has been designed and prepared. This salt shows a SmA phase that is stable at room temperature. The new ionic liquid crystal (ILC) was characterized by1H NMR,13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. Its liquid crystalline properties were analyzed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The dielectric spectra of the ILC doped with different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) were recorded over a wide frequency and temperature range of 10-1to 107Hz and 293-338 K, respectively...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Doina Manaila Maximean, Octavian Danila, Pedro L Almeida, Constantin Paul Ganea
Electro-optical devices that work in a similar fashion as PDLCs (polymer-dispersed liquid crystals), produced from cellulose acetate (CA) electrospun fibers deposited onto indium tin oxide coated glass and a nematic liquid crystal (E7), were studied. CA and the CA/liquid crystal composite were characterized by multiple investigation techniques, such as polarized optical microscopy, dielectric spectroscopy and impedance measurements. Dielectric constant and electric energy loss were studied as a function of frequency and temperature...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Alexey D Bolshakov, Alexey M Mozharov, Georgiy A Sapunov, Igor V Shtrom, Nickolay V Sibirev, Vladimir V Fedorov, Evgeniy V Ubyivovk, Maria Tchernycheva, George E Cirlin, Ivan S Mukhin
In this paper we study growth of quasi-one-dimensional GaN nanowires (NWs) and nanotube (NT)-like nanostructures on Si(111) substrates covered with a thin AlN layer grown by means of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. In the first part of our study we investigate the influence of the growth parameters on the geometrical properties of the GaN NW arrays. First, we find that the annealing procedure carried out prior to deposition of the AlN buffer affects the elongation rate and the surface density of the wires...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Jiajun Wang, Xia Liu, Gesmi Milcovich, Tzu-Yu Chen, Edel Durack, Sarah Mallen, Yongming Ruan, Xuexiang Weng, Sarah P Hudson
A simple and straightforward synthetic approach for carbon nanodots (C-dots) is proposed. The strategy is based on a one-step hydrothermal chemical reduction with thiourea and urea, leading to high quantum yield C-dots. The obtained C-dots are well-dispersed with a uniform size and a graphite-like structure. A synergistic reduction mechanism was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The findings show that using both thiourea and urea during the one-pot synthesis enhances the luminescence of the generated C-dots...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Tino Wagner, Fabian Menges, Heike Riel, Bernd Gotsmann, Andreas Stemmer
As electronic devices are downsized, physical processes at the interface to electrodes may dominate and limit device performance. A crucial step towards device optimization is being able to separate such contact effects from intrinsic device properties. Likewise, an increased local temperature due to Joule heating at contacts and the formation of hot spots may put limits on device integration. Therefore, being able to observe profiles of both electronic and thermal device properties at the nanoscale is important...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Kristjan Kalam, Helina Seemen, Peeter Ritslaid, Mihkel Rähn, Aile Tamm, Kaupo Kukli, Aarne Kasikov, Joosep Link, Raivo Stern, Salvador Dueñas, Helena Castán, Héctor García
Thin solid films consisting of ZrO2and Fe2O3were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 400 °C. Metastable phases of ZrO2were stabilized by Fe2O3doping. The number of alternating ZrO2and Fe2O3deposition cycles were varied in order to achieve films with different cation ratios. The influence of annealing on the composition and structure of the thin films was investigated. Additionally, the influence of composition and structure on electrical and magnetic properties was studied. Several samples exhibited a measurable saturation magnetization and most of the samples exhibited a charge polarization...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Pavlo Kurioz, Marko Kralj, Bryce S Murray, Charles Rosenblatt, Samo Kralj
Using a Landau-de Gennes approach, we study the impact of confinement topology, geometry and external fields on the spatial positioning of nematic topological defects (TDs). In quasi two-dimensional systems we demonstrate that a confinement-enforced total topological charge of m > 1/2 decays into elementary TDs bearing a charge of m = 1/2. These assemble close to the bounding substrate to enable essentially bulk-like uniform nematic ordering in the central part of a system. This effect is reminiscent of the Faraday cavity phenomenon in electrostatics...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Sejeong Kim, Milos Toth, Igor Aharonovich
We propose and design photonic crystal cavities (PCCs) in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) for diverse photonic and quantum applications. Two dimensional (2D) hBN flakes contain quantum emitters which are ultra-bright and photostable at room temperature. To achieve optimal coupling of these emitters to optical resonators, fabrication of cavities from hBN is therefore required to maximize the overlap between cavity optical modes and the emitters. Here, we design 2D and 1D PCCs using anisotropic indices of hBN. The influence of underlying substrates and material absorption are investigated, and spontaneous emission rate enhancements are calculated...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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