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Journal of Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109330/vanishing-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-patient-with-lewy-pathology
#1
Natalia Liapounova, Kamran H Azar, J Max Findlay, Jian-Qiang Lu
Immune-mediated mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of both cerebral vasculitis and Parkinson's disease (PD, brainstem-predominant Lewy pathology), but the presentation of cerebral vasculitis with comorbid Lewy pathology has not yet been reported. Here we present a case of pathologically confirmed vasculitis in a 73-year-old male patient whose postmortem examination revealed Lewy pathology diagnostic of PD. This case study suggests a comorbidity of cerebral vasculitis and Lewy pathology, as well as potential pathogenic interactions between these two disorders with immune-mediated mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109328/semi-automated-carotid-lumen-segmentation-in-computed-tomography-angiography-images
#2
Hamid Reza Hemmati, Mahdi Alizadeh, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Shapour Shirani
Carotid artery stenosis causes narrowing of carotid lumens and may lead to brain infarction. The purpose of this study was to develop a semi-automated method of segmenting vessel walls, surrounding tissues, and more importantly, the carotid artery lumen by contrast computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and to define the severity of stenosis and present a three-dimensional model of the carotid for visual inspection. In vivo contrast CTA images of 14 patients (7 normal subjects and 7 patients undergoing endarterectomy) were analyzed using a multi-step segmentation algorithm...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109329/role-of-apolipoproteins-abca1-and-lcat-in-the-biogenesis-of-normal-and-aberrant-high-density-lipoproteins
#3
Vassilis I Zannis, Shi Su, Panagiotis Fotakis
In this review, we focus on the pathway of biogenesis of HDL, the essential role of apoA-I, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the formation of plasma HDL; the generation of aberrant forms of HDL containing mutant apoA-I forms and the role of apoA-IV and apoE in the formation of distinct HDL subpopulations. The biogenesis of HDL requires functional interactions of the ABCA1 with apoA-I (and to a lesser extent with apoE and apoA-IV) and subsequent interactions of the nascent HDL species thus formed with LCAT...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336357/distinctive-roles-of-rac1-and-rab29-in-lrrk2-mediatedmembrane-trafficking-and-neurite-outgrowth
#4
Min Feng, Xin Hu, Na Li, Fan Hu, Fei Chang, Hong-Fei Xu, Yong-Jian Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) associated leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutants have shown pathogenic effects on variety of subcellular processes.Two small GTPases Rac1 and Rab29 have been indicated as possible downstream effectors participating in LRRK2 signaling but their detail mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we have used biochemical and cell biology approaches to address whether two GTPases interact with LRRK2 and hence function differently in LRRK2 mediated pathogenesis.Here we show thatRac1 and Rab29 specifically interact with LRRK2with higher affinity for Rab29and with different preference in functional domain binding...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336356/tcf7l1-promotes-transcription-of-kruppel-likefactor-4-during-xenopus-embryogenesis
#5
Qing Cao, Yan Shen, Wei Zheng, Hao Liu, Chen Liu
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc finger transcriptionfactor and plays crucial roles in Xenopus embryogenesis. However, its regulation during embryogenesis is stillunclear. Here, we report that Tcf7l1, a key downstream transducerof the Wnt signaling pathway, could promote Klf4 transcription and stimulate Klf4 promoter activity in early Xenopus embryos. Furthermore, cycloheximide treatmentshowed a direct effect on Klf4 transcriptionfacilitated by Tcf7l1. Moreover, the dominant negative form of Tcf7l1(dnTcf7l1), which lacks N-terminusof the β-catenin binding motif, could still activate Klf4 transcription, suggesting that thisregulation is Wnt/β-catenin independent...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336355/evaluation-of-cardiolipin-nanodisks-as-lipidreplacement-therapy-for-barth-syndrome
#6
Nikita Ikon, Fong-Fu Hsu, Jennifer Shearer, Trudy M Forte, Robert O Ryan
Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a mitochondrial disorder characterizedby cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle weakness. Disease results frommutations in the tafazzin (TAZ)gene, encoding a phospholipid transacylase. Defective tafazzin activityresults in an aberrant cardiolipin (CL) profile. The feasibility ofrestoring the intracellular CL profile was tested by in vivo administration of exogenous CL innanodisk (ND) delivery particles. Ninety mg/kg CL (as ND) was administeredto doxycycline-inducible taz shRNAknockdown (KD) mice once a week...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307875/accuracy-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimationequations-in-patients-with-hematopathy
#7
Han Sun, Xiaohua Pei, Jianqing Wu, Weihong Zhao
Renal dysfunction is a common side-effect of chemotherapeuticagents in patients with hematopathy. Although broadly used, glomerularfiltration rate (GFR) estimation equations were not fully validatedin this special population. Thus, this study was designed to furtherassess the accuracy of various GFR equations, including the newly2012 CKD-EPI equations. Referring to 99mTc-DTPA clearance method, three Scr-based (MDRD, Peking, and CKD-EPIScr), three Scys C-based (Steven 1, Steven 2, and CKD-EPIScys C), and three Scr-Scys C combination based (Ma,Steven 3, and CKD-EPIScr-Scys C) equationswere included...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277834/safety-and-toxicity-of-axitinib-and-sorafenib-monotherapy-for-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#8
Fei Qin, Hao Yu, Jianling Bai
We sought to investigate safety of axitinib or sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients receiving and compare toxicity of these two vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors. Databases of PubMed and Embase were searched. Studies enrolled were phase II and III prospective trials, as well as retrospective studies, in which patients diagnosed with RCC were treated with axitinib or sorafenib monotherapy at a starting dose of 5 mg and 400 mg twice daily, respectively. The overall incidence of high grade hypertension, fatigue, gastrointestinal toxicity and hand-foot syndrome, along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated using fixed or random effects model according to heterogeneity test results...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277833/human-parvovirus-b19-associated-hematopathy-in-hiv-disease-need-for-clinicopathological-revisit
#9
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Jessy Thomas Medugu, Amos Dangana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219853/effects-of-a-soybean-milk-product-on-feto-neonatal-development-in-rats
#10
Eun Suk An, Dongsun Park, Young-Hwan Ban, Choi Jieun, Da Woom Seo, Yoon Bok Lee, Mi Yae Shon, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Since estrogenic pollutants and phytoestrogens can cause the disorder of the reproductive system, the effects of a soybean milk product (Vegemil<sup>®</sup> containing 162 ppm isoflavones) on the feto-neonatal development, including male reproductive function, were investigated. Pregnant rats were fed the soybean milk (5% or 100% in drinking water) from gestational day (GD) 6 to parturition or to post-natal day (PND) 56. Specifically, the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group (drinking water), the GD5% group (5% soybean milk during only the GD period), the GD-PND5% group (5% soybean milk during the GD and PND periods), and the GD-PND100% group (100% soybean milk instead of water during the GD and PND periods)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219852/dietary-crocin-reverses-melanoma-metastasis
#11
Hamid A Bakshi, Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim, Smitha Sam, Farideh Javid
Crocus sativus and its bioactive constituent crocin are well known for anti-tumor potential in different models. However, the efficacy of crocin on in-vivo melanoma metastasis is not yet reported. In this study, melanoma metastatic model was developed by tail vein injection of B16F-10 cells in to C57BL/6 mice. Metastatic mice treated with two different doses of crocin (250 and 500 µg/kg of bodyweight) for 10 days and parameters such as lung metastasis inhibition, mean survival time, lung hydroxyproline, uronic acid and hexosamine levels were analyzed after 21 days of treatment...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109332/hydrogen-enriched-water-eliminates-fine-particles-from-the-lungs-and-blood-by-enhancing-phagocytic-activity
#12
Jieun Choi, Eun Suk An, Young-Hwan Ban, Da Woom Seo, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, You Lin, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Particulate matters (PM) are one of the major body burdens leading to diseases. We investigated the capacities of a hydrogen-enriched water (HW) eliminating carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and carbon microparticles (CMP) from the lungs and blood, respectively. In CNP-elimination test, rats were orally administered with purified water (PW) or HW (10 or 30 mL/kg/day) for 10 weeks. At the time point of 4 weeks, the rats were challenged with intratracheal instillation of CNP (4 mg). CNP accumulated in the airways and alveoli, and induced inflammatory lesions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109331/mkl1-mediates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-inflammatory-transcription-by-bridging-the-crosstalk-between-brg1-and-wdr5
#13
Wenping Xu, Quanyi Zhao, Min Wu, Mingming Fang, Yong Xu
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that can potently stimulate the synthesis of a range of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is underexplored. Here we report that the transcriptional modulator megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is associated with a histone H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Re-ChIP assay suggests that MKL1 interacts with and recruits WDR5, a component of the COMPASS complex responsible for H3K4 methylation, to the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages treated with TNF-α...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089475/melatonin-and-or-rowatinex-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-renal-injury-in-rats
#14
Tarek K Motawi, Samia A Ahmed, Manal A Hamed, Shohda A El-Maraghy, Wessam M Aziz
The study aimed to explore the prophylactic effect of melatonin, rowatinex; a naturally occurring renal drug, and its combination on diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/g body weight). Three days before diabetes induction, rats were daily treated with melatonin, rowatinex and their combination continuously for 8 weeks. Evaluation was done through measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum uric acid, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, creatinine clearance, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), caspase-3, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), DNA degradation by the comet assay and total protein contents...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089474/association-between-exposure-to-particulate-matter-during-pregnancy-and-birthweight-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis-of-birth-cohort-studies
#15
Yinwen Ji, Fei Song, Bo Xu, Yining Zhu, Chuncheng Lu, Yankai Xia
Studies of the associations between maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and risk of adverse effects on fetal growth are inconsistent and inconclusive. This question can be well answered by carefully designed birth cohort studies; however, so far the evidence from such studies has not come to the same conclusion. We sought to evaluate the association between maternal exposures to PM and low birthweight (LBW) enrolling 14 studies from 11 centers, and to explore the influence of trimester and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089473/transforming-growth-factor-b-signaling-in-systemic-sclerosis
#16
Nolan B Ayers, Chenming Sun, Shi-You Chen
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex, multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Manifestation of the disease results from an interaction of three key pathologic features including irregularities of the antigen-specific immune system and the non-specific immune system, resulting in autoantibody production; vascular endothelial activation of small blood vessels; and tissue fibrosis as a result of fibroblast dysfunction. Given the heterogeneity of clinical presentation of the disease, a lack of universal models has impeded adequate testing of potential therapies for SSc...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089472/postprandial-hyperglycemia-and-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Toru Hiyoshi, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Zemin Yao
Postprandial glucose level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that exerts effects greater than glucose levels at fasting state, whereas increase in serum triglyceride level, under both fasting and postprandial conditions, contributes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Insulin resistance is a prevailing cause of abnormalities in postabsorptive excursion of blood glucose and postprandial lipid profile. Excess fat deposition renders a vicious cycle of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the postprandial state, and both of which are contributors to atherosclerotic change of vessels especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089471/ginger-extract-attenuates-ethanol-induced-pulmonary-histological-changes-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#18
Alireza Shirpoor, Farzaneh Hosseini Gharalari, Yousef Rasmi, Elaheh Heshmati
Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with changes in the function and structure of the lungs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on the lungs and whether ginger extract mitigated pulmonary abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into the control group, the ethanol group, and the ethanol plus ginger extract group. Six weeks of ethanol treatment increased the proliferation of lung cells, and induced fibrosis, inflammation and leukocyte infiltration...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089470/pitavastatin-attenuates-ages-induced-mitophagy-via-inhibition-of-ros-generation-in-the-mitochondria-of-cardiomyocytes
#19
Zhimin Zha, Junhong Wang, Shiling Li, Yan Guo
This study aimed to investigate whether pitavastatin protected against injury induced by advanced glycation end products products (AGEs) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and to examine the underlying mechanisms. Cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were incubated for 48 hours with AGEs (100mg/mL), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), antibody (1 mg/mL) and pitavastatin (600 ng/mL). The levels of p62 and beclin1 were determined by Western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (DYm) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured through the JC-1 and DCFH-DA...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963446/clinical-features-of-multiple-myeloma-patients-with-isolated-extramedullary-relapse
#20
Xiao-Yan Qu, Li-Juan Chen, Tian Tian, Li-Min Duan, Rui-Nan Lu, Hua Lu, Han-Xin Wu, Jian-Yong Li
This study sought to analyze the clinical features and prognosis of multiple myeloma with isolated extramedullary relapse and with the absence of systemic progression. The clinical features and outcome were retrospectively analyzed in six multiple myeloma patients. These patients had secretory multiple myeloma at diagnosis. When relapsed, the dissociation between medullary and extramedullary response was detected. The serum or urine monoclonal component was extremely low or absent. The plasma cells in bone marrow were<5%...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
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