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Journal of Biomedical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109330/vanishing-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-patient-with-lewy-pathology
#1
Natalia Liapounova, Kamran H Azar, J Max Findlay, Jian-Qiang Lu
Immune-mediated mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of both cerebral vasculitis and Parkinson's disease (PD, brainstem-predominant Lewy pathology), but the presentation of cerebral vasculitis with comorbid Lewy pathology has not yet been reported. Here we present a case of pathologically confirmed vasculitis in a 73-year-old male patient whose postmortem examination revealed Lewy pathology diagnostic of PD. This case study suggests a comorbidity of cerebral vasculitis and Lewy pathology, as well as potential pathogenic interactions between these two disorders with immune-mediated mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109328/semi-automated-carotid-lumen-segmentation-in-computed-tomography-angiography-images
#2
Hamid Reza Hemmati, Mahdi Alizadeh, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Shapour Shirani
Carotid artery stenosis causes narrowing of carotid lumens and may lead to brain infarction. The purpose of this study was to develop a semi-automated method of segmenting vessel walls, surrounding tissues, and more importantly, the carotid artery lumen by contrast computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and to define the severity of stenosis and present a three-dimensional model of the carotid for visual inspection. In vivo contrast CTA images of 14 patients (7 normal subjects and 7 patients undergoing endarterectomy) were analyzed using a multi-step segmentation algorithm...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109329/role-of-apolipoproteins-abca1-and-lcat-in-the-biogenesis-of-normal-and-aberrant-high-density-lipoproteins
#3
Vassilis I Zannis, Shi Su, Panagiotis Fotakis
In this review, we focus on the pathway of biogenesis of HDL, the essential role of apoA-I, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the formation of plasma HDL; the generation of aberrant forms of HDL containing mutant apoA-I forms and the role of apoA-IV and apoE in the formation of distinct HDL subpopulations. The biogenesis of HDL requires functional interactions of the ABCA1 with apoA-I (and to a lesser extent with apoE and apoA-IV) and subsequent interactions of the nascent HDL species thus formed with LCAT...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109332/hydrogen-enriched-water-eliminates-fine-particles-from-the-lungs-and-blood-by-enhancing-phagocytic-activity
#4
Jieun Choi, Eun Suk An, Young-Hwan Ban, Da Woom Seo, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, You Lin, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Particulate matters (PM) are one of the major body burdens leading to diseases. We investigated the capacities of a hydrogen-enriched water (HW) eliminating carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and carbon microparticles (CMP) from the lungs and blood, respectively. In CNP-elimination test, rats were orally administered with purified water (PW) or HW (10 or 30 mL/kg/day) for 10 weeks. At the time point of 4 weeks, the rats were challenged with intratracheal instillation of CNP (4 mg). CNP accumulated in the airways and alveoli, and induced inflammatory lesions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109331/mkl1-mediates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-inflammatory-transcription-by-bridging-the-crosstalk-between-brg1-and-wdr5
#5
Wenping Xu, Quanyi Zhao, Min Wu, Mingming Fang, Yong Xu
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that can potently stimulate the synthesis of a range of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. The underlying epigenetic mechanism, however, is underexplored. Here we report that the transcriptional modulator megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is associated with a histone H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Re-ChIP assay suggests that MKL1 interacts with and recruits WDR5, a component of the COMPASS complex responsible for H3K4 methylation, to the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages treated with TNF-α...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089475/melatonin-and-or-rowatinex-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-renal-injury-in-rats
#6
Tarek K Motawi, Samia A Ahmed, Manal A Hamed, Shohda A El-Maraghy, Wessam M Aziz
The study aimed to explore the prophylactic effect of melatonin, rowatinex; a naturally occurring renal drug, and its combination on diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/g body weight). Three days before diabetes induction, rats were daily treated with melatonin, rowatinex and their combination continuously for 8 weeks. Evaluation was done through measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum uric acid, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, creatinine clearance, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), caspase-3, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), DNA degradation by the comet assay and total protein contents...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089474/association-between-exposure-to-particulate-matter-during-pregnancy-and-birthweight-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis-of-birth-cohort-studies
#7
Yinwen Ji, Fei Song, Bo Xu, Yining Zhu, Chuncheng Lu, Yankai Xia
Studies of the associations between maternal exposure to particulate matter (PM) and risk of adverse effects on fetal growth are inconsistent and inconclusive. This question can be well answered by carefully designed birth cohort studies; however, so far the evidence from such studies has not come to the same conclusion. We sought to evaluate the association between maternal exposures to PM and low birthweight (LBW) enrolling 14 studies from 11 centers, and to explore the influence of trimester and exposure assessment methods on between-center heterogeneity in this association...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089473/transforming-growth-factor-b-signaling-in-systemic-sclerosis
#8
Nolan B Ayers, Chenming Sun, Shi-You Chen
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex, multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Manifestation of the disease results from an interaction of three key pathologic features including irregularities of the antigen-specific immune system and the non-specific immune system, resulting in autoantibody production; vascular endothelial activation of small blood vessels; and tissue fibrosis as a result of fibroblast dysfunction. Given the heterogeneity of clinical presentation of the disease, a lack of universal models has impeded adequate testing of potential therapies for SSc...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089472/postprandial-hyperglycemia-and-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Toru Hiyoshi, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Zemin Yao
Postprandial glucose level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that exerts effects greater than glucose levels at fasting state, whereas increase in serum triglyceride level, under both fasting and postprandial conditions, contributes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Insulin resistance is a prevailing cause of abnormalities in postabsorptive excursion of blood glucose and postprandial lipid profile. Excess fat deposition renders a vicious cycle of hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in the postprandial state, and both of which are contributors to atherosclerotic change of vessels especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089471/ginger-extract-attenuates-ethanol-induced-pulmonary-histological-changes-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#10
Alireza Shirpoor, Farzaneh Hosseini Gharalari, Yousef Rasmi, Elaheh Heshmati
Chronic ethanol consumption is associated with changes in the function and structure of the lungs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on the lungs and whether ginger extract mitigated pulmonary abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into the control group, the ethanol group, and the ethanol plus ginger extract group. Six weeks of ethanol treatment increased the proliferation of lung cells, and induced fibrosis, inflammation and leukocyte infiltration...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089470/pitavastatin-attenuates-ages-induced-mitophagy-via-inhibition-of-ros-generation-in-the-mitochondria-of-cardiomyocytes
#11
Zhimin Zha, Junhong Wang, Shiling Li, Yan Guo
This study aimed to investigate whether pitavastatin protected against injury induced by advanced glycation end products products (AGEs) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, and to examine the underlying mechanisms. Cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats were incubated for 48 hours with AGEs (100mg/mL), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), antibody (1 mg/mL) and pitavastatin (600 ng/mL). The levels of p62 and beclin1 were determined by Western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (DYm) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured through the JC-1 and DCFH-DA...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963446/clinical-features-of-multiple-myeloma-patients-with-isolated-extramedullary-relapse
#12
Xiao-Yan Qu, Li-Juan Chen, Tian Tian, Li-Min Duan, Rui-Nan Lu, Hua Lu, Han-Xin Wu, Jian-Yong Li
This study sought to analyze the clinical features and prognosis of multiple myeloma with isolated extramedullary relapse and with the absence of systemic progression. The clinical features and outcome were retrospectively analyzed in six multiple myeloma patients. These patients had secretory multiple myeloma at diagnosis. When relapsed, the dissociation between medullary and extramedullary response was detected. The serum or urine monoclonal component was extremely low or absent. The plasma cells in bone marrow were<5%...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963445/molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-multi-drug-resistance-in-non-typhoidal-salmonellae-from-chicken-and-clam-in-mangalore-india
#13
Yemisi Olukemi Adesiji, Santhosh Kogaluru Shivakumaraswamy, Vijaya Kumar Deekshit, Girisha Shivani Kallappa, Indrani Karunasagar
Salmonella enterica has been documented as one of the leading causes of salmonellosis throughout the world and is most commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated food products. Thus, this research was aimed at studying the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and detection of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp isolated from food of animal origin. Thirty-six Salmonella isolates comprising 8 from poultry and 28 from seafood (clams) were identified, serotyped and characterized for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 10 different antibiotics...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963444/biomechanical-characterization-of-a-novel-ring-connector-for-sutureless-aortic-anastomosis
#14
Huan Liu, Shi-Jiang Zhang, Yong-Feng Shao, Xiao-Hu Lu, Wei-Dong Gu, Bu-Qing Ni, Qun Gu, Jun-Jie Du
The surgical treatment for aortic diseases remains a challenge for any cardiac surgeon. The use of sutureless ring connector in aortic anastomosis can simplify the procedure and shorten anastomosis time. Therefore, we developed a novel device for sutureless aortic anastomosis. A series of experiments were carried out for tensile and leakproof-capacity assessments to verify the feasibility of the ring connector by using fresh swine aorta samples. in vivo test, the ring connector was implanted in 6 swine with follow-up of 6 months...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963443/fasudil-alleviates-lps-induced-lung-injury-by-restoring-aquaporin-5-expression-and-inhibiting-inflammation-in-lungs
#15
Jing-Jing Wang, Hui Kong, Jian Xu, Yan-Li Wang, Hong Wang, Wei-Ping Xie
Fasudil, a selective rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, has been reported to play a beneficial role in systemic?inflammation?in acute?lung injury, but its mechanism for ameliorating pulmonary edema and inflammation remains unclear. Using hematoxylin-and-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real time PCR and Western blotting, we found that fasudil attenuated LPS-induced lung injury, decreased lung edema, and suppressed inflammatory responses including leukocyte infiltration and IL-6 production...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963442/acrylamide-induces-hepg2-cell-proliferation-through-upregulation-of-mir-21-expression
#16
Yu-Yu Xu, Peng-Qi Wang, Chao-Qi Xu, Xiao-Yun Shan, Qing Feng
Acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, exists in carbohydrate-rich foods cooked at a high temperature. It has been reported that acrylamide can cause DNA damage and cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation induced by acrylamide and to explore the antagonistic effects of a natural polyphenol curcumin against acrylamide via miR-21. The results indicated that acrylamide (≤100 μmol/L) significantly increased HepG2 cell proliferation and miR-21 expression...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963441/pathological-significance-and-regulatory-mechanism-of-lymphotoxin-%C3%AE-receptor-overexpression-in-t-cells-of-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Cheng Yin, Xu-Bing Cai, Hui-Juan Wang, Bing-Jie Gu, Xiao-Fan Yang, Rong Zhang, Xiao-Hui Ji
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a typical autoimmune disease. Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling plays an important role in autoimmune inflammations. LTβR-Ig fusion protein, LTβR blocking agent, has been used to treat SLE, while its mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, to investigate the expression of LTβR in the T cells of SLE patients and its roles in the pathogenesis of SLE, we isolated the peripheral blood T cells of SLE patients and normal controls to detect expression of LTβR by flow cytometry and RNA assay...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866659/profiles-of-metabolic-gene-expression-in-the-white-adipose-tissue-liver-and-hypothalamus-in-leptin-knockout-lep-%C3%AE-i14-%C3%AE-i14-rats
#18
Lei-Jian Guan, Kai-Xuan Xu, Shu-Yang Xu, Ning-Ning Li, Xin-Ru Wang, Yan-Kai Xia, Di Wu
Leptin deficiency is principally linked to metabolic disorders. Leptin knockout (Lep(ΔI14/ΔI14)) Sprague Dawley rats created by CRISPR/Cas9 is a new model to study metabolic disorders. We used a whole rat genome oligonucleotide microarray to obtain tissue-specific gene expression profiles of the white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus in Lep(ΔI14/ΔI14) and wild-type (WT) rats. We found 1,651 differentially expressed (enriched) genes in white adipose tissue, 916 in the liver, and 306 in the hypothalamus in the Lep(ΔI14/ΔI14) rats compared to WT...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866658/proteomic-analysis-of-the-dorsal-spinal-cord-in-the-mouse-model-of-spared-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain
#19
Eun-Sung Park, Jung-Mo Ahn, Sang-Min Jeon, Hee-Jung Cho, Ki-Myung Chung, Je-Yoel Cho, Dong-Ho Youn
Peripheral nerve injury often causes neuropathic pain and is associated with changes in the expression of numerous proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To date, proteomic analysis method has been used to simultaneously analyze hundreds or thousands of proteins differentially expressed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats or dorsal root ganglion of rats with certain type of peripheral nerve injury. However, a proteomic study using a mouse model of neuropathic pain could be attempted because of abundant protein database and the availability of transgenic mice...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866657/a-novel-entry-point-for-pedicle-screw-placement-in-the-thoracic-spine
#20
Zhi-Feng Sun, Kai-Xiang Yang, Hong-Tao Chen, Tao Sui, Lei Yang, Da-Wei Ge, Jian Tang, Xiao-Jian Cao
This study was aimed to introduce a novel entry point for pedicle screw fixation in the thoracic spine and compare it with the traditional entry point. A novel entry point was found with the aim of improving accuracy, safety and stability of pedicle screw technique based on anatomical structures of the spine. A total of 76 pieces of normal thoracic CT images at the transverse plane and the thoracic pedicle anatomy of 6 cadaveric specimens were recruited. Transverse pedicle angle (TPA), screw length, screw placement accuracy rate and axial pullout strength of the two different entry point groups were compared...
September 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
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